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Late Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge ; Greenwood Professor of Hellenistic 
Greek and Indo-European Philology, Manchester University 



Regius Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, 
Glasgow University 


I9I4—1929 ai) 

Printed im 1929 

Printep 1n Great Brirain FoR HoppER AND STouGHToN, LimiTED, 
ΒΥ RicHarp Cay & Sons, LimiTepD, BuNGAyY, SUFFOLK. 



Upwarops of twenty years ago Professor J. H. Moulton asked me to join with him 
in an effort to illustrate the Vocabulary of the Greek Testament from recently discovered 
non-literary texts. First came a series of joint articles in the Hxfosztor during 1908 to 
1911 dealing with certain representative words. In 1914 we found it possible to publish 
the First Part of the Vocabulary: Part II followed in the next year. Our collaboration 
was then cut short by Dr. Moulton’s tragic death, though I have done my utmost to 
utilize any notes or references that he left behind him. The grasp and range of Dr. 
Moulten’s Greek scholarship are too well known to require acknowledgment here, but 
I may be allowed to record my own deep sense of personal loss in the removal at the 
height of his powers of one who was always the truest of friends and the most loyal of 

It may be well, perhaps, to emphasize that it was in no way our aim to provide a 
complete Lexicon to the Greek New Testament, but rather to show the nature of the new 
light cast upon its language by the rich stores of contemporary papyri discovered in 
recent years. (See further the General Introduction to the present volume.) Apart from 
the papyri, considerable use has been made of the Greek inscriptions, and evidence from 
other non-literary sources has been freely cited, wherever it seemed likely to be useful. 
Very often words have been included for which our non-literary sources provide no 
illustration, in order to show from literary evidence, if forthcoming, or from its very 
absence, the relation of such words to the popular Greek. 

The use of Professor J. H. Thayer’s monumental edition of Grimm’s Lexicon (Edin- 
burgh, 1886), has been assumed throughout. Professor Souter’s Pocket Lexicon to the 
Greek New Testament (Oxford, 1916), a marvellous mzltum in parvo, and the excellent 
Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament by Professor G. Abbott-Smith (Edinburgh, 
1922) have been of the utmost value. In the later Parts of the Vocabulary frequent 
reference has also been made to W. Bauer’s revised and enlarged edition of E. 
Preuschen’s Griechisch-Deutsches Weorterbuch zu den Schriften des Neuen Testaments 
(Giessen, 1928), and to F. Preisigke’s comprehensive Worterbuch der griechischen 
Papyrusurkunden, 1.--111. i. (Berlin, 1925-1929). Other books of reference will be found 
detailed in Abbreviations I. General. 

For the ready assistance of many friends, too numerous to mention, in the carrying 
through of this book, I am deeply grateful; but a special word of thanks is due to 
Professor W. G. Waddell, now of the Egyptian University, Cairo, who has read all 
the proofs with the most meticulous care, and has in addition furnished important 

It remains only to acknowledge the generosity and enterprise of Messrs. Hodder & 
Stoughton in undertaking the publication of the work, and to express my sense of the 
singular skill and accuracy with which the compositors and readers of the firm of 
Messrs. R. Clay & Sons, Bungay, have carried through an extremely intricate piece 
of printing. 


The University, Glasgow. 

July, 1929. 


Few archeological discoveries in recent years have awakened more widespread 
interest than the countless papyrus documents recovered from the sands of Egypt, and 
as it is from them that our principal non-literary illustrations of the Vocabulary of the 
Greek Testament have been drawn, it may be well to describe briefly by way of Intro- 
duction what these papyri are, and what is the nature of their value for the New 
Testament student. 

Papyrus as Writing Material.—In itself, the word papyrus is the name of a reed-plant 
(Cyperus papyrus, L.) which at one time grew in great profusion in the river Nile, and 
gave its name to the writing material or “ paper” of antiquity formed from it. The pith 
(βύβλος) of the stem of the papyrus plant was cut into long thin strips, which were laid 
down on a flat table and soaked with Nile water. A second layer was then placed cross- 
wise on the top of the first, and the two layers were pressed together to form a single 
web or sheet. After being dried in the sun, and scraped with a shell or bone to remove 
any roughness, a material not unlike our own brown paper was produced. 

The size of the papyrus sheets varied considerably, but for non-literary documents a 
common size was from nine to eleven inches in height, and from five to five and a half 
inches in breadth. When more space than that afforded by a single sheet was required, 
a number of sheets were joined together to forma roll, which could easily be extended 
or shortened as desired. Thus, to take the case of the New Testament autographs, which 
were almost certainly written on separate papyrus rolls, a short Epistle, like the Second 
Epistle to the Thessalonians, would be a roll of about fifteen inches in length with the 
contents arranged in some five columns, while St. Paul’s longest Epistle, the Epistle to 
the Romans, would run to about eleven feet and a half. The:shortest of the Gospels, 
St. Mark’s, would occupy about nineteen feet; the longest, St. Luke’s, about thirty-one 
or thirty-two feet. And the Apocalypse of St. John has been estimated at fifteen feet. 
Taking the other books on the same scale, Sir F. G. Kenyon, to whom the foregoing 
figures are also due, has calculated that if the whole New Testament was written out in 
order on a single roll, the roll would extend to more than two hundred feet in length, 
obviously an utterly unworkable size.2_ This alone makes it clear that not until the 
papyrus stage in their history was past, and use was made of both sides of parchment or 
vellum leaves, was it possible to include all the books of the New Testament in a single 

The side of the papyrus on which the fibres ran horizontally, or the recto, as it came 
to be technically known, was from its greater smoothness, generally preferred for 
writing, while the back, or the verso, was reserved for the address, at any rate in the case 
of letters. But when space failed, the verso could also be utilized, as shown in a long 

1 See further Pliny, V.H/. xiii. 11-13, and cf. F.G. Kenyon, Zhe Palaeography of Greek Papyrt 
(Oxford, 1899), p. 14 ff. 
2 Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament, 2nd edit. (London, 1912), p. 35 ff. 
Vil ὁ 


magical papyrus in the British Museum, in which nineteen columns are written on the 
vecto, and the remaining thirteen on the verso.t 

In any case we have abundant evidence of the use of the verso, when fresh papyrus was 
not available, as when a man writes a letter on the back of a business document, explain- 
ing that he had been unable at the moment to find a “clean sheet” (χαρτίον καθαρόν), or 
as when the back of the official notification of the death of a certain Panechotes is used 
for a school-exercise or composition, embodying such maxims as “do nothing mean or 
ignoble or inglorious or cowardly,” written in a beginner’s hand and much corrected.* 

In other cases, before the verso has been so used, the original contents of the recto 
have been effaced or washed out, a practice which adds point to a familiar verse. In 
Col 24, we read that our Lord “blotted out the bond written in ordinances that was 
against us, which was contrary to us,” and the verb used for “ blotted out” (ἐξαλείψας) 
is the technical term for “ washing out” the writing from a papyrus sheet. So complete 
was the forgiveness which Christ by His work secured, that it completely cancelled the 
old bond, that had hitherto been valid against us, for it bore our signature (χειρόγραφον). 
He made the bond as though it had never been (cf. Exod 32°, Rev 3?). 

As regards other writing materials, a reed pen (γραφικὸς κάλαμος ; cf. 3 Macc 459) was 
prepared, much as we now prepare a quill, while the ink (τὸ μέλαν : cf. 2 John??) was 
made from a mixture of charcoal, gum and water. The marvellous way in which the 
ink has preserved its colour invariably attracts attention, and shows that anything in 
the nature of adulteration must have been unknown. A  first-century letter, chiefly about 
writing materials, refers to “the ink pot” (τὸ βρόχιον τοῦ pédavos).* 

The character of the handwriting naturally varies with the nature of the document 
and the education of the scribe. But the task of decipherment can rarely be said to be 
easy, partly owing to the frequent use of contractions and partly to the numerous /acunae 
or gaps caused by the brittle nature of the material. The restoration of the letters or 
words which have thus dropped out demands the exercise of the utmost patience and 
skill. And those who have had an opportunity of inspecting some of the originals can 
only marvel that intelligible transcriptions have been made from them at all. 

When, then, we speak of papyri, we are to think simply of rolls or sheets of paper of 
this character, which had been put to all the many and various purposes to which paper 
as a writing material is put amongst ourselves, while the addition of “Greek” dis- 
tinguishes the papyri written in that language from the Aramaic or Latin or Coptic 
papyri which have been similarly recovered. We need only add that the earliest dated 
Greek papyrus we possess belongs to the year B.C. 311-310,’ and that from that time an 
almost continuous chain of documents carries us far down into Byzantine times. 

Papyrus Discoveries—With the exception of some calcined rolls from Herculaneum, 
which were brought to light as far back as 1752 and the following years, papyri have 
been found only in Egypt, the marvellously dry climate of that country being especially 
favourable to their preservation. A certain number, more particularly those of a literary 
character, have been recovered from their original owners’ tombs. The Persae of 
Timotheos, for example, the oldest Greek literary manuscript in existence, dating, as it 
does, from the fourth century B.c., was found near Memphis in the coffin of a Greek 
soldier, by whose side it had been deposited in a leathern bag. And an Homeric roll, 

1 P Lond 121 (iii/A.p.) (= 1. p. 83 ff.). For the abbreviations used in the citation of papyrus 
passages, see Abbreviations II. Papyri. 

= P Gen I. 52° (iv/a.p.): cf. Archiv iii. p. 399. 3 P Oxy I. 79 (a.D. 181-192). 

* P Oxy II. 326 (¢. A.D. 45). 5 P Eleph 1 (= Selections, No. 1). 


now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, used to be exhibited along with a lock of the hair 
of the lady with whom it had been buried. Other rolls have been found in earthen jars 
in the ruins of temples or houses, thus strangely recalling the prophecy of Jeremiah : 
“Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel: Take these deeds, this deed of the 
purchase, both that which is sealed, and this deed which is open, and put them in an 
earthen vessel ; that they may continue many days” (chap. 32 RV). 

But the great mass of papyri come from the rubbish heaps, rising sometimes to a 
height of twenty to thirty feet, on the outskirts of old Egyptian towns and villages. 
Possibly out of a feeling of reverence for the written word, the inhabitants did not as a 
rule burn their old papers, but threw them out on these heaps. There they were quickly 
covered over with the fine desert sand, and, so long as they were above the damp level of 
the Nile, have remained practically uninjured down to the present day. For the most 
part they consist of single sheets, or fragments of sheets, sometimes no larger than a 
postage stamp, but occasionally whole baskets of official documents are found, which had 
been cleared out ex masse from public archives or record offices. And everyone will 
recognize the absorbing interest attaching to these scraps of paper, discarded as useless 
by their first writers and owners, on which no eye has looked for many hundreds of 
years, but which now, as original documents, recreate and revivify the past for us in 
a way which nothing else could do. 

The earliest finds in Egypt of which we have knowledge took place in 1778, when 
some Arabs, digging for their own purposes in the Faytm district, accidentally came 
upon some fifty rolls in an earthen pot; but, unable to find purchasers, they destroyed 
them on account, it is said, of the aromatic smell they gave forth in burning. Only 
one roll was saved which, passing into the hands of Cardinal Stefano Borgia, came 
to be known as the Charta Borgiana. The contents are of little general interest, being 
merely an account of the forced labours of the peasants on the Nile embankment at 
Arsinoé in the year A.D. 191-2, but the papyrus will always have the significance of 
being the first Greek papyrus to be published in Europe.? 

In the year 1820 further finds, dating from the second century B.c., were made in the 
neighbourhood of Memphis and Thebes, but it was not until 1889-90 that a beginning was 
made in systematic exploration, when at Gurob Professor Flinders Petrie extracted a large 
number of papyri from Ptolemaic mummy-cases, and brought them home to England. 

To the same period of exploration belong such important literary finds as the lost 
work of Aristotle on Zhe Constitution of Athens, copied on the back of a farm-bailiff’s 
accounts, which are dated in the eleventh year of Vespasian, that is A.D. 78-9; the 
Mimiambi or Mimes of Herodas, which reproduce with photographic exactness the 
ordinary, and often sordid, details of the everyday life of the third century B.c.; and 
about thirteen hundred lines of the Odes of Bacchylides, a contemporary of Pindar, and 
a nephew of the Simonides for the recovery of whose works Wordsworth longed in a 
well-known poem : 

O ye, who patiently explore 

The wreck of Herculanean lore, 
What rapture! could ye seize 
Some Theban fragment, or unroll 
One precious, tender-hearted, scroll 
Of pure Simonides. 

1 It was published under the title Charta Papyracea Graece scripta Musei Borgiant Velttris, ed- 
N. Schow, Romae, 1778. 


But significant though these discoveries were, their interest was largely eclipsed by 
the results of the digging carried on by Dr. Grenfell and Dr. Hunt at Oxyrhynchus, the 
ancient Behneseh, in the winter of 1896-97 and the following years. The two English 
explorers had been attracted to the spot by the expectation that early fragments of 
Christian literature might be found there, in view of the important place which 
Oxyrhynchus occupied in Egyptian Christianity in the fourth and fifth centuries. And 
their prescience was rewarded, for, amongst the papyri recovered on the second day, was 
a crumpled leaf written on both sides in uncial characters, amongst which Dr. Hunt 
detected the somewhat rare Greek word for “mote” (κάρφος). This suggested to him 
the “mote” of our Lord’s Sayings in the Sermon on the Mount (Matt γ5: 5) ; and, on 
further examination, he found that he had in his hand a leaf out of a very early 
collection of Sayings attributed to Jesus, some of which corresponded closely with the 
canonical Sayings of the Gospels, while others were new.! We are not at present 
concerned with the many questions which were thus raised,? but the importance of the 
discovery was undeniable, especially when it was followed next day by the finding of 
another uncial fragment containing the greater part of the first chapter of St. Matthew’s 
Gospel, written not later than the third century, and therefore a century older than the 
oldest manuscript of the New Testament previously known.’ Both leaves, Dr. Grenfell 
suggests, may not improbably have formed “the remains of a library belonging to some 
Christian who perished in the persecution during Diocletian’s reign, and whose books 
were then thrown away.” 

Along with these, and other almost equally sensational finds, Oxyrhynchus yielded an 
enormous mass of documents of the most miscellaneous character dating from the Roman 
Conquest of Egypt to the tenth century after Christ, when papyrus was superseded by 
paper as a writing material. 

Other noteworthy collections come to us from the British Museum, Berlin, Florence, 
and various other sources, and the general result is that there are now available about 
ten thousand published documents, and that these are being constantly added to.° 
Whether the still unedited papyri have any great surprises in store for us it is vain even 
to conjecture. But even if they have not, they will serve a useful purpose in illustrating 
and confirming the lexical and other results that have already been reached, and in 
increasing still further our stock of first-hand documentary evidence regarding the most 
important period in the world’s history. 

Classification of Papyri—The papyri are generally classified under the two main heads, 
literary and non-literary, with the biblical and theological texts occupying a position 
about mid-way between the two. It is with the non-literary texts that we are concerned 
just now, and a glance at the citations on one or two pages of the following Vocabulary 
is sufficient to show the miscellaneous character of these texts, comprising as they do 
all manner of official documents, such as Imperial rescripts, accounts of judicial proceed- 
ings, tax and census papers, contracts of marriage and divorce, notices of birth and death, 

EO xylene 

2 Reference may be made to Z%e Sayings of Jesus from Oxyrhynchus, edited with Introduction, 
Critical Apparatus, and Commentary by Hugh G. Evelyn White (Cambr. Univ. Press, 1920). 

ΞΡ ΘΧυ 2: 

4 Egypt Exploration Fund: Archaeological Report, 1896-97, p. 6. See further an article by the 
present writer on ‘‘ The Greek Papyri and the New Testament” in Zhe History of Christianity in 
the Light of Modern Knowledge (Blackie and Son, 1929), p. 300 ff. 

5 A list of the principal papyrus collections will be found under Abbreviations II. 


and so forth, along with a number of private letters touching upon all sides of family 
and everyday life. 

And as the contents of these documents humains are wide as life itself, so they supply 
materials for the most varied fields of human learning. Their value to the historian and 
the jurist is apparent on the surface, while with their aid the geographer can reconstruct 
the map of ancient Egypt with a precision previously impossible. To the palaeographer 
again, who has hitherto been sadly hampered by /acunae in the development of ordinary 
script, they offer an uninterrupted series of examples, many of them exactly dated by year 
and month and day, from the third century before Christ to the eighth century after 
Christ. And to the philologist they show the true place of the Kowy, the Common Greek 
of the period, as distinguished from the dialects of the classical period, in the development 
of the Greek language. Examples of the Κοινή on its literary side had not, indeed, been 
previously wanting, but now, for the first time, it was possible to see it in undress, as it 
was spoken and written by the ordinary men and women of the day. 

“New Testament Greek.’—It is with this aspect of the papyri that we are primarily 
concerned. Alike in Vocabulary and Grammar the language of the New Testament 
exhibits striking dissimilarities from Classical Greek; and in consequence it has 
been regarded as standing by itself as “ New Testament Greek.” In general it had been 
hastily classed as “Judaic” or ‘“‘ Hebraic” Greek; its writers being Jews (with the 
probable exception of St. Luke), and therefore using a language other than their own, 
a language filled with reminiscences of the translation-Greek of the Septuagint on 
which they had been nurtured.!. But true as this may be, it does not go far to explain 
the real character of the Greek which meets us in the New Testament writings. Fora 
convincing explanation we have in the first instance to thank the German scholar, Adolf 
Deissmann, now Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the University of Berlin. 
While still a pastor at Marburg, Dr. (then Mr.) Deissmann happened one day to be 
turning over in the University Library at Heidelberg a new section of a volume 
containing transcripts from the collection of Greek Papyri at Berlin. And, as he read, 
he was suddenly struck by the likeness of the language of these papyri to the language 
of the Greek New Testament. Further study deepened in his mind the extent of this 
likeness, and he realized that he held in his hand the real key to the old problem. 

So far from the Greek of the New Testament being a language by itself, or even, as 
one German scholar called it, “a language of the Holy Ghost,” ? its main feature was that 
it was the ordinary vernacular Greek of the period, not the language of contemporary 
literature, which was often influenced by an attempt to imitate the great authors of 
classical times, but the language of everyday life, as it was spoken and written by the 
ordinary men and women of the day, or, as it is often described, the Κοινή or Common 
Greek, of the great Graeco-Roman world. 

That, then, is Deissmann’s general conclusion, which quickly found an enthusiastic 

1 Cf. W. F. Howard’s Appendix ‘‘Semitisms in the New Testament” in Grammar of New 
Testament Greek by J. H. Moulton and W. F. Howard (Edinburgh, 1929), Vol. II, p. 411 ff. 

2 R. Rothe, Zur Dogmatik (Gotha, 1863), p. 238: ‘‘ We can indeed with good right speak of 
a language of the Holy Ghost. For in the Bible it is manifest to our eyes how the Divine Spirit 
at work in revelation always takes the language of the particular people chosen to be the 
recipient, and makes of it a characteristic religious variety by transforming existing linguistic 
elements and existing conceptions into a shape peculiarly appropriate to that Spirit. This process 
is shown most clearly by the Greek of the New Testament” (quoted by Deissmann, Zhe Philology 
of the Greek Bible (London, 1908), p. 42 f.). 


and brilliant advocate in this country in the person of Dr. J. H. Moulton. And though 
the zeal of the first discoverers of the new light may have sometimes led them to go rather 
far in ignoring the Semitisms, on the one hand, and the literary culture of the New 
Testament writers, on the other, their main conclusion has found general acceptance, and 
we have come to realize with a definiteness unknown before that the book intended for the 
people was written in the people’s own tongue. Themselves sprung from the common 
people, the disciples of One Whom the common people heard gladly, its writers, in their 
turn, wrote in the common tongue to be “ understanded of the people.” 

Anticipations of this View.—It is somewhat strange that this discovery was so long 
deferred. Publications of papyri go back as far as 1826, but there is nothing to show that 
this particular way of utilizing their documents ever occurred to the first editors. At the 
same time it is interesting to notice certain anticipations from other sources of what such 
discoveries might mean, or, as it has been called, of Deissmannism before Deissmann. 

In the Prolegomena to his translation of Winer’s well-known Grammar of New 
Testament Greek, published in 1859, Professor Masson, at one time Professor in the 
University of Athens, writes: “The diction of the New Testament is the plain and 
unaffected Hellenic of the Apostolic Age, as employed by Greek-speaking Christians 
when discoursing on religious subjects. . . . Perfectly natural and unaffected, it is free 
from all tinge of vulgarity on the one hand, and from every trace of studied finery on the 
other. Apart from the Hebraisms—the number of which have, for the most part, been 
grossly exaggerated—the New Testament may be considered as exhibiting the only 
genuine facszmzle of the colloquial diction employed by wzsophdsticated Grecian gentlemen 
of the first century, who spoke without pedantry—as ἐδεῶται (‘ private persons’), and not 
as σοφισταί (‘adepts’)” (p. vii. f.).2 

A second statement to much the same effect will be found in the article “Greek 
Language (Biblical), contributed by Mr. (afterwards Principal Sir James) Donaldson to the 
third edition of Kitto’s Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature, edited by Dr. W. Lindsay Alexander 
(Edinburgh, 1876). In Vol. ii. p. 170, the writer states: “Νοῦν it seems to us that the 
language used by the Septuagint and N(ew) T(estament) writers was the language used in 
common conversation, learned by them, not through books, but most likely in childhood from 
household talk, or, if not, through subsequent oral instruction. If this be the case, then the 
Septuagint is the first translation which was made for the great masses of the people in their 
own language, and the N(ew) T(estament) writers are the first to appeal to men through the 
common vulgar language intelligible to all who spoke Greek. The common Greek thus 
used is indeed considerably modified by the circumstances of the writers, but these modifi- 
cations no more turn the Greek into a peculiar dialect than do Americanisms or Scotticisms 
turn the English of Americans and Scotsmen into peculiar dialects of English.” ? 

1 Cf. J. Rendel Harris, Zxp 7, xxv. p. 54f., and notes by the present writer in 26. xxxi, 
Ῥ- 421, and xxxil. p. 231 f. 

Of a much more general character, but interesting from its early date, is Dr. John Lightfoot’s 
comment on the Preface to the Lord’s Prayer in Mt 6%, in his Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae, 
first published as far back as 1658: “Τὴ interpreting very many phrases and histories of the 
New Testament, it is not so much worth, what we think of them from notions of our own, feigned 
upon I know not what grounds, as in what sense these things were understood by the hearers and 
lookers on, according to the usual custom and vulgar dialect of the nation.” 

* I owe the reference to a note by W. L. Lorimer in xf 7, xxxii. p. 330, where attention 
is also drawn to the position taken up by Salmasius in his Funus linguae Hellenisticae and his De 
fflellenistica Commentarius, both published in 1643. 


Still more interesting is the prophecy ascribed to Professor (afterwards Bishop) J. B. 
Lightfoot in the year 1863. Lecturing to his class at Cambridge, Dr. Lightfoot is 
reported to have said: “You are not to suppose that the word [some New Testament 
word which had its only classical authority in Herodotus] had fallen out of use in the 
interval, only that it had not been used in the books which remain to us: probably it had 
been part of the common speech all along. I will go further, and say that if we could 
only recover letters that ordinary people wrote to each other without any thought of being 
literary, we should have the greatest possible help for the understanding of the language 
of the N(ew) T(estament) generally.” 1 

The significance of this quotation is unmistakable, and it is followed, twenty-one years 
later, by what is, so far as I know, the first definite mention in this country of the papyri 
in connexion with New Testament study. It occurs in Dean Farrar’s well-known volume, 
The Messages of the Books (London, Macmillan, 1884), where, in a footnote to his chapter 
on the ‘Form of the New Testament Epistles,” the writer remarks: “It is an interesting 
subject of inquiry to what extent there was at this period an ordinary form of correspondence 
which (as among ourselves) was to some extent fixed. In the papyrus rolls of the 
British Museum (edited for the trustees by J. Forshall [in 1839] ) there are forms and 
phrases which constantly remind us of St. Paul” (p. 151). 

The hint, thus thrown out, was unfortunately not followed up at the time, but if the 
full significance of the papyri for the study of the New Testament was long in being 
recognized, no one can complain of lack of attention to the subject at the present day. It 
is leading to the re-writing of our Lexicons and Grammars of the New Testament, and no 
modern Commentary on any of its books fails to avail itself of the help afforded by these 
new treasures from Egypt. 

Gains from the Study of the Papyri—Abundant proof of this will be forthcoming in 
the pages which follow. Meanwhile, it may be helpful to those who have made no 
special study of the subject if I attempt to indicate some of the ways in which the new 
evidence can be applied to the elucidation of the words of the New Testament. 

Orthography and Accidence—We may begin with Orthography and Accidence. In 
these particulars the New Testament writings have not yet been subjected to the same 
searching comparison with the new evidence which Helbing and Thackeray have applied 
to the Old Testament ; but enough has already been done by Blass, Schmiedel, Moulton, 
and Deissmann, following on the notable work of Westcott and Hort, to show that we 
are in a better position to-day for recovering the zpszssima verba of the New Testament 
autographs than many modern textual critics are ready to admit. There was a constant 
tendency on the part of the later copyists to improve on the “vulgarisms”’ or “ collo- 
quialisms” of the original, and it cannot but help us to determine what is due to this 
refining process when we have such abundant evidence in our hands as to how the 
common people of the time actually wrote and spelt. 

The form γένημα, for example, which Westcott and Hort prefer for the five occurrences 
of this word in the New Testament (Mt 262°, Mk 145, Lk 12!8 (marg.), 2218, 2 Cor 9!), as 
against the γέννημα of the Textus Receptus (except in Lk 1218), is now fully established on 
the evidence both of the Ptolemaic papyri, and of those belonging to the first four centuries 
after Christ. The aspirated ogupis, again, for σπυρίς (Mt 1537, 161, Mk 8°, Ac 9?) is 
amply, though not universally, attested in the vernacular documents; while the synco- 
pated form ταμεῖον (for ταμιεῖον) as in Mt 65, 2426, Lk 12°", is the prevailing form in the 
papyri from i/A.D. onwards, though the fuller form occurs in various passages from 

1 Quoted by Moulton Prolegomena®, p. 242 


Ptolemaic times. The very indifference, indeed, of the writers of our documents to 
symmetrical forms or to unified spelling may in itself be taken as a warning against 
the almost feverish haste with which a “redactor,”’ or later author, is sometimes 
brought in to explain similar phenomena in the different parts of a New Testament 

Morphology.—In the same way, when we pass to Morphology, it is again to discover 
that many verbal forms, with which our best New Testament texts have made us familiar, 
can here be amply attested. One of the commonest of these is the attaching of 1st aorist 
forms to the 2nd aorist,as when in Mt τοῦθ we read ἐλθάτω for ἐλθέτω, and in Mk 38 
ἦλθαν for ἦλθον. The practice, already present in the Attic εἶπον, meets us repeatedly 
in the papyri, as well as in late Hellenistic writers generally. Similarly, yéyovay for 
γεγόνασι, which Westcott and Hort read in Rom 16’, in accordance with BWA, receives 
frequent corroboration, as in an almost contemporary papyrus letter from the Faytim.? 
An interesting form, which may cause trouble, if it is not watched, is the substitution of 
ἐάν for av after ὅς, ὅπου, etc., which the same editors have faithfully reproduced from 
the leading manuscripts in such passages as Mt 1283 ὃς ἐὰν εἴπῃ and Mk 14° ὅπου ἐὰν 
κηρυχθῆ. Professor J. H. Moulton has carefully examined the evidence of the papyri on 
this point, and has found that in the first and second centuries of the Christian era ἐάν 
greatly predominated, but that, as a form of ἄν, it had almost died out in ordinary usage 
before the great uncials were written. The fact, therefore, that their scribes preserved 
ἐάν may be taken as showing that they “faithfully reproduce originals written under 
conditions long since obsolete.” 2 

Syntax.—This last example may fittingly introduce us to the field of Syntax, and 
to Moulton and Howard’s invaluable Grammar, where at every turn the evidence of the 
newly-discovered vernacular documents is called in to decide corresponding usages in the 
New Testament writings. One or two examples will show how rich and suggestive that 
evidence is. 

Take, for instance, the prepositions, and an impartial survey can hardly fail to lead 
us to the conclusion that the laxer usage which is everywhere observable in later Greek 
hardly justifies many of the over-niceties of interpretation in which New Testament 
expositors have been apt to indulge. The free interchange of eis and ἐν is a case in 
point. This may be carried back to the fact that both words are originally forms of the 
same root; but what we are especially concerned with is that they are largely inter- 
changed in ordinary usage, as when in a letter of A.D. 22 the writer tells us that when 
he came to Alexandria (ἐπὶ τῷ γεγονέναι ἐν ᾿Αλεξανδρίᾳ), he learnt so and so from certain 
fishermen at Alexandria (eis ’AXe£avdpu[av] ).2 When, then, in commenting on Jn 118 ὁ ὧν 
εἰς Tov κόλπον τοῦ πατρός, Bishop Westcott speaks of the phrase as implying “the 
combination (as it were) of rest and motion, of a continuous relation, with a realisation 
of it,” is he not pressing the phraseology farther than contemporary evidence warrants, 
however doctrinally true the deduction may be? Nor can those who advocate the render- 
ing “immersing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy 
Spirit” for the baptismal formula in Mt 28! do so on the ground that the more 
familiar rendering is philologically inaccurate. Without entering on the question as 
to the exact shade of meaning underlying βαπτίζοντες, it is clear that εἰς τὸ ὄνομα may 
be understood as practically equivalent to ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι, the new light thus joining 

1 BGU If. 597)9 (A-p: 75). 2 Prolegomena, p. 421. 
3 P Oxy II. 2945 (a.p. 22) (= Selections, p. 34). 


hands with, and lending support to, the almost unanimous tradition of the Western 

A corresponding caution must be observed in connexion with the construction of 
iva. Classical Greek has taught us to expect that ἵνα construed with the subjunctive 
denotes purpose, but in Hellenistic Greek this has been extended to include a consecutive 
usage, and sometimes, as in modern Greek, a simple statement of fact. When, therefore, 
in Jn 173 the Fourth Evangelist writes—airn δέ ἐστιν ἡ αἰώνιος ζωὴ ἵνα γινώσκωσι σὲ 
τὸν μόνον ἀληθινὸν θεὸν καὶ ὃν ἀπέστειλας ᾿Ιησοῦν Χριστόν it is of course possible that 
by the latter clause he means us to understand our Lord as pointing to the knowledge 
of God as the aim and end of eternal life. But it is equally permissible, and more in 
accord with contemporary usage, to interpret the words as defining the contents of the 
life eternal: this life is a life consisting in, and maintained by, the knowledge of God, 
and of Him whom God had sent. 

It would be easy to go on multiplying examples in this direction, but enough has 
been said to show that the syntax of the New Testament is not modelled on strictly 
classical lines, and that this must be kept steadily in view in the work of interpretation. 

Vocabulary.—It is, however, in the matter of Vocabulary that the new gains make 
themselves most fully felt, and prove most clearly that we are dealing with a book written 
in the common speech of its day. 

This is seen, for example, in the large reduction in the number of so-called “ Biblical” 
words, that is, words which have hitherto been regarded as the special property of the 
Biblical writers, no evidence of their use having hitherto been procurable from profane 

Thayer, at the end of his edition of Grimm’s Lexicon, gives a long list of these ‘‘ Biblical” 
words, the very length of which tends to confirm that feeling of the isolated or peculiar 
character of the New Testament writings, to which reference has already been made. 
The list is unnecessarily long even from Thayer’s point of view, as it includes not a few 
words for which he himself supplies references from non-Christian sources, which, though 
sometimes later in point of time than the New Testament itself, nevertheless show 
unmistakably that the words belong to the ordinary stock then in use. And now the 
new evidence comes in to extend these references in so many directions that Deissmann is 
able to reduce the number of words peculiar to the New Testament to something like 
fifty, or about one per cent. of the whole vocabulary. 

Our new sources do not merely reduce the number of words hitherto regarded as 
peculiar to the New Testament writings; they also confirm the meanings traditionally 
assigned to others, sometimes on somewhat slender grounds. 

A familiar instance is the Pauline word Noyeta. According to Grimm-Thayer, the 
word is “not found in profane authors,” but for its meaning in 1 Cor 16'*, the only places 
where it occurs in the New Testament, the translation ‘a collection” is suggested. Such 
a translation is in harmony with the context, and is now conclusively established by the 
fact that from the second century B.c. the word is found in the papyri in this sense. It is 
sufficient to refer to a curious letter from Tebtunis, in which a tax-gatherer, after naively 
describing his unprincipled efforts to defeat a rival in the collection of a certain tax, adds, 
“T bid you urge on Nicon regarding the collection (περὶ τῆς Noye<i>as).”” 8 

1 See the discussion between Bishop Chase and Dean Armitage Robinson in / 7S vi. p. 481 ff., 
vii. p. 186ff., and viii. p. 161ff., and on the phrase generally, cf. Heitmiiller, 2m Mamen Jesu, 
Gottingen, 1903. 

2 See Light from the Ancient East, p. 78. ΦΕΡΕ [58> [(Β:0: τττὴ: 


Or, to take a wholly different example, when in a letter of A.D. 41, ἃ man counsels a 
friend in money-difficulties to plead with one of his creditors μὴ ἵνα ἀναστατώσῃς ἡμᾶς, 
“do not unsettle us,” that is “do not drive us out from hearth and home,” he little thought 
that he would supply future students of the New Testament with an apt parallel for the 
metaphorical use of the same verb in Gal 515, where St. Paul expresses the hope that οἱ 
ἀναστατοῦντες, “those who are unsettling”? his Galatian converts, “would even mutilate 
themselves.” So too the naughty boy’s admission from Oxyrhynchus that his mother 
complains “that he is upsetting me” (ὅτε ἀναστατοῖ με)" throws light upon the description 
of the brethren at Thessalonica by their Jewish opponents, “These that have turned 
the world upside down (οἱ τὴν οἰκουμένην ἀναστατώσαντες) have come hither also” 
(Ac 178).8 

Similar aid is given in the choice of meaning where more than one rendering is possible. 
In Mt 657, for example, both the Authorized and Revised Versions agree in rendering 
ἡλικία by “stature,” “And which of you by being anxious can add one cubit unto his 
stature ?”’ but the margin of the Revised Version has “age” ; and if we are to follow the 
almost unanimous testimony of the papyri, this latter sense should be adopted throughout 
the New Testament occurrences of the word, except in Lk 19%, where the context makes it 
impossible. Thus in the important verse, Lk 2° καὶ ᾿Ιησοῦς προέκοπτεν τῇ copia καὶ 
ἡλικίᾳ, the meaning is not that Jesus “advanced in wisdom and stature,” that is “in 
height and comeliness” (as Grimm-Thayer), but “in wisdom and age,” a description to 
which an excellent parallel is now afforded by an inscription of ii/B.c., in which a certain 
Aristagoras is praised δϑ---ἡλικίᾳ προκόπτων Kal προαγόμενος εἰς TO OeoceBetv.4 

Again, in not a few instances, our new documents supply us with the true meaning of 
words only imperfectly understood before. 

In commenting on 1 Pet 17 ἵνα τὸ δοκίμιον ὑμῶν τῆς πίστεως πολυτιμότερον χρυσίου τοῦ 
ἀπολλυμένου διὰ πυρὸς δὲ δοκιμαζομένου εὑρεθῇ εἰς ἔπαινον καὶ δόξαν καὶ τιμὴν ἐν ἀποκαλύψει 
᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ Dr. Hort (Comm. ad 1.) saw that the meaning required was “the approved 
part or element of the faith,” that is, the pure faith that remained when the dross had been 
purged away by fiery trial; but unable to find any warrant for this sense of δοκίμιον, he 
was driven to suspect that the true reading was δόκεμον, for which he had the support of 
a few cursives. There was no need, however, for any such conjecture. Ever since 
Deissmann ὃ first drew attention to the importance of the evidence of the papyri in this 
connexion, examples have been rapidly accumulating to show that δοκίμιος, as well as 
δόκιμος, means “ proved,” “ genuine,” in such a phrase as χρυσὸς δοκίμιος, “tested gold,” 
and we need no longer have any hesitation in so translating the word both in the Petrine 
passage and in Jas 1°, 

Or, to take another example, where the appearance of a hitherto unestablished usage 
has again done away with the need of textual emendation. In Ac 162 ἥτις ἐστὶν πρώτη 
τῆς μερίδος Μακεδονίας πόλις, the reading μερίδος was objected to by Dr. Hort, on the 
ground that μερίς never denotes simply a region or province, and he proposed accordingly 
to read Ilvepidos in its stead, “a chief city of Pierian Macedonia.”® But while it is true 
that μερίς in the sense of a geographical division does not occur in classical writers, it 
is regularly so used in documents of the Apostolic age, so that the rendering “district ” 
in the Revised Version, however arrived at, need no longer raise any qualms. 

1 BGU IV. 1079 (= Selections, No. 15). 2 P Oxy I. 119 (= Selections, No. 42). 

3 It may be noted that the phrase dppov αὐτόν, ‘“Away with him,” applied to the boy in the 
above document, supplies a striking linguistic parallel to Jn 19% ἄρον, Gpov, σταύρωσον αὐτόν. 

4 Syi 325, (= ὃ γοϑβ)18, 5 See BS p. 250 ff. 8 Notes on Select Readings,? p. 96 f. 


It is, however, by imparting a fresh life and reality to many of our most ordinary New 
Testament terms that the new authorities render their most signal service. We know 
how our very familiarity with Scriptural language is apt to blind us to its full significance. 
But when we find words and phrases, which we have hitherto associated only with a 
religious meaning, in common, everyday use, and employed in circumstances where their 
meaning can raise no question, we make a fresh start with them, and get a clearer insight 
into their deeper application. 

Take, for instance, the common designation of Christians as “ brethren” or ‘‘ brothers ”’ 
(ἀδελφοί). The practice no doubt was taken over from Judaism (Ac 2”, a/.) and from 
the example of our Lord Himself (cf. Mt 12%, 235); but we can at least see how the 
adoption of such a term was rendered easier by its application to the members of a funeral 
society, whose duty it was to take part in the embalming of dead bodies, or again to the 
“fellows” of a religious corporation in the Serapeum of Memphis. 

So with the title “ presbyter” (πρεσβύτερος). Without entering on the question of the 
presbyter’s place and authority in the early Christian Church, it is obvious that the use of 
the word in civil life to denote a local or village officer must have prepared the way in 
Gentile circles for its acceptance in its new connotation. Thus in the year B.C. 117 a 
tax-farmer petitions the village-scribe and “the elders of the cultivators,” that he may be 
assured of official “protection.”? Or, again, in A.D. 114 a woman lodges a complaint of 
assault and robbery against another woman whose husband as “elder” was responsible 
for the peace and order of the village.? Or once more, in a document of A.D. 159-60, 
mention is made of the priests of the Socnopaeus temple as being divided into five tribes 
under the rule of five “elder-priests "—clearly a title not of age but of dignity.* It is in 
this same document, we may note in passing, that the charge is laid against a fellow-priest 
“of letting his hair grow too long and of wearing woollen garments ”—the former item 
recalling the fact that in the Early Church short hair was considered the mark of a 
Christian teacher, as compared with the unshorn locks of the heathen philosopher. 

Keeping still to words with an ecclesiastical ring about them, the term “ liturgy” has 
an interesting history. In classical times it was used of public services rendered 
gratuitously to the State, but later it came to be applied to all kinds of work or service, 
including those of a religious character, such as the “liturgy ” of the Twin Sisters Thaues 
and Thaus, who held some position as attendants in the temple of Serapis at Memphis, 
with a corresponding right to certain allowances of oil and bread, which were apparently 
frequently in arrears.> Similarly the corresponding verb is used in a contract of the year 
A.D. 8-9 with an artiste who undertakes to give her “services” (λειτουργεῖν) On certain 
specified occasions, including the festivals of Isis and Hera, at a salary of forty drachmae 
a year, along with a further wage or present (ὀψώνιον) of thirteen drachmae two obols.® 

Other more general uses of the word occur in connexion with the maintenance of the 
banks of the Nile, or with the release of persons from some public service ‘‘ because it is 
not at present their turn to serve (διὰ τὸ μὴ ἐκπεσίεῖ]ν αὐτοῖς τὸ νῦν λειτουργῆσαι). * 
Very interesting too is a doctor’s claim for exemption, on the ground that he was a doctor 
by profession, and had ‘‘treated medically ” (ἐθεράπευσα : cf. Ac 28° and Ramsay, Luke, 

ΠΡ omen (50: ττθ); Βα banat (Bic. 056)) (butisee GZ 1. ps 310). 

2 P Tebt I. 40 (= Selections, No. 10). 

3 BGU I. 22 (= Selections, No. 20). 4 BGU I. τό (= Sefctions, No. 33)- 

5 The story of the Twins has been graphically reconstructed by Sir F. ἃ. Kenyon in 
P Lond I. p. 2 ff. 

SP Oxys Ve Now 7921: 7 P Hib I. 78" (B.c. 244-3). 


p. 16f.) the very persons who were now attempting to lay this new “liturgy” upon him 
(οἵτινές με εἰς λειτο[υ]ρ[ γαν Sedwxacr).+ 

I admit, of course, that none of these instances adds materially to our knowledge of 
the word’s connotation, but they give it fresh point, and enable us to understand how 
well-adapted it was to describe the “liturgy” or “ministry” of Christian fellowship (cf. 
2 Cor 913, Phil 2"), and all the more so, because the word has now come to be almost 
wholly limited to a particular form of public worship. 

Its occurrence in the current phraseology of the time adds again a fresh reality to the 
Greek word (ἀρραβών), which is usually translated “earnest” in our English Versions. 
We have all been taught that by the “earnest” of the Spirit in such passages as 2 Cor 1°, 
5°, Eph 14, we are to understand a part given in advance of what will be bestowed fully 
afterwards. But how increasingly clear this becomes when a woman who is selling a 
cow receives a thousand drachmae as an “earnest”? (4ppa8ava) on the total purchase- 
money,? or when certain dancing girls at a village entertainment receive so many 
drachmae “ by way of earnest” (ὑπὲρ ἀραβῶνος) on their promised salary 1 ὃ 

Much help can also be derived from the legal documents, which are so common 
amongst the papyri. Thus in his pioneer 4zb/e Studzes (p. 104 ff.), Deissmann has shown 
that the Greek adjective (βέβαιος) usually translated “sure” or “steadfast” in our English 
Versions, along with its cognate verb (βεβαιόω) and substantive (βεβαίωσις), is the regular 
technical term in the papyri to denote legally guaranteed security. This sense occurs, of 
course, in classical Greek, but its constant reappearance in the papyri gives fresh point to 
the New Testament usage. Two examples will make this clear. In an application for a 
lease belonging to the year A.D. 78, and therefore practically contemporary with the New 
Testament writings, provision is made for the publication of the lease for the legal period 
of ten days “in order that if no one makes a higher bid (ἐπίθεμα), the lease may remain 
guaranteed (βεβαία) to us for the period of five years without change,’ 4 and, similarly, in 
a somewhat later document (A.D. 266), connected with the registration of a deed, it is laid 
down, “I will further guarantee the property always against all claims with every 
guarantee” (ἔτει te καὶ παρέξομαί cor βέβαια διὰ παντὸς ἀπὸ πάντων πάσῃ βεβαιώσει).ὅ 
Read, then, the verb with this technical sense in view, and what added assurance it gives 
to the promise of 1 Cor 1°": ‘Thus you lack no spiritual endowment during these days 
of waiting till our Lord Jesus Christ is revealed; and to the very end he will guarantee 
(βεβαιώσει) that you are vindicated on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ” (Moffatt), just as 
another legal term (ὑπόστασις), which was used to denote the collection of papers bearing 
upon the possession of a piece of property, or as we would now say, the title-deeds, 
imparts a new certainty to the familiar definition—“ Faith is the title-deed (ὑπόστασις) of 
things hoped for” (Heb 11?). 

In what are probably the earliest of his letters that have come down to us, the two 
Epistles to the Thessalonians, St. Paul finds it necessary to rebuke his converts for 
walking “in a disorderly manner” (2 Thess 3"). The word (ἀτάκτως), with its cognates, 
is confined to these Epistles in the New Testament, and what exactly is meant by it is by 
no means clear at first sight. Is St. Paul referring to actual sin or moral disorder, or to 
something less heinous? The papyri have supplied the answer in a striking manner. 
Among them is a contract of A.D. 66 in which a father arranges to apprentice his son with 

a weaver for one year. All the conditions of the contract as regards food and clothing 

1 P Oxy I. 408 (ii/iii a.p.). δ ΒΒ 8. (ΕἸ 053) (ΞΞ ΣΡ 55: 

P Grenf II. 671” (Α.Ὁ. 237) (= Selections, No. 45). 
4 P Amh 11: 85%” PEPIOxyelXent2002% 



are carefully laid down. Then follows the passage which specially interests us. If there 
are any days during this period on which the boy “fails to attend” or “ plays truant” 
(ὅσας δ᾽ ἐὰν ἐν τούτῳ ἀτακτήσῃ ἡμέρας), the father has to produce him for an equivalent 
number of days after the period is over. And the verb which is used to denote playing 
truant is the same verb which St. Paul uses in connexion with the Thessalonians.! This 
then was their fault. They were idling, playing truant. The Parousza of the Lord 
seemed to them to be so close at hand that it was unnecessary for them to interest 
themselves in anything else. Why go to their daily work in the morning, when before 
night Christ might have come, they thought, forgetting that the best way to prepare for 
that coming was to show themselves active and diligent in the discharge of their daily 
work and duty. 

The reference to the Parouwsta may suggest a last example. Pavousia, as applied to 
the Return of the Lord, is simply the anglicizing of a Greek word (παρουσία) which 
literally means “ presence.” But in late Greek the word had come to be applied in a quasi- 
technical sense to the “visit” of a king or great man. Thus in a papyrus of iii/B.c. we 
read of a district that was mulcted to provide a “crown” for one of the Ptolemaic kings on 
the occasion of his “visit”; and ina letter of about the same date a certain Apenneus 
writes that he has made preparations for the “‘ visit” of a magistrate Chrysippus (ἐπὶ τὴν 
παρουσίαν tod Χρυσίππου) by laying in a number of birds for his consumption, including 
geese and young pigeons.” 

It would seem, therefore, that as distinguished from other words associated with 
Christ’s Coming, such as His “ manifestation” (ἐπιφάνεια) of the Divine power and His 
“revelation ” (ἀποκαλυψις) of the Divine plan, the “ parousia”’ leads us rather to think of 
His “royal visit” to His people, whether we think of the First Coming at the Incarnation, 
or of the Final Coming as Judge. 

The Literary Character of the New Testament.—These examples are sufficient to show 
that it is often from the most unlikely quarters that light is shed upon our New Testament 
vocabulary, and that a scrap of papyrus may be the means of settling some long-standing 
crux interpretum. 1 would not, however, be understood to say that the later Greek which 
we associate with the papyri has no rules of its own, or that, in the hands of the New 
Testament writers, it is not often employed with marked literary grace and power. The 
writers, of course, differ largely in this connexion, in keeping with their individual 
education and culture. At one end of the scale, we have the rude Greek of St. Mark’s 
Gospel, or of the Apocalypse: at the other, the polished periods of the author of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews. But even in the case of the least literary writings of the New Testament 
we must beware of so emphasizing their popular character as to lose sight of the dignity 
and beauty imparted to them in virtue of the subject-matter with which they deal and the 
spiritual genius of their authors. “In the Gospels,” as Professor Wellhausen has pointed 
out, “spoken Greek, and even Greek as spoken amongst the lower classes, has made its 
entry into literature.”* And Professor Jiilicher has borne similar testimony with reference 
to the Pauline Epistles. ‘These Epistles,” he writes, ‘in spite of the fact that they are 
always intended as writings of the moment addressed to a narrow circle of readers, yet 
approach much more nearly to the position of independent literary works than the average 
letters of great men in modern times. . . . Without knowing or intending it, Paul 
became by his letters the creator of a Christian literature.” And more than that, Paul, as 

1 P Oxy II. No. 275 (= Selections, No. 20). 
2 P Petr II. 39 (e)!8 (as read by Wilcken Os¢r. i. p. 275); P Grenf II. 14 (4)?. 
Linleitung in die dret ersten Evangelien (Berlin, 1905), p. 9. 



the same authority admits, ‘must be ranked as a great master of language, . . . and it is 
because his innermost self breathes through every word that most of his Epistles bear so 
unique a charm.”?! It is utterly unnecessary to labour the point. Such passages as the 
triumphant Hymn of Hope in Rom 8 and the glorious Hymn of Love in 1 Cor 13 are 
moved by a heart-felt eloquence which makes them, regarded as literature, as notable as 
anything ever penned. And if we are told that the Pauline letters “differ from the 
messages of the homely Papyrus leaves from Egypt not as letters, but only as the 
letters of Paw/,”* we can accept the statement (though ihardly in the sense the writer 
intended it), because it is just “ Paul,” and what Paul stands for, that does make all the 

τ An Introduction to the New Testament, translated by Janet Penrose Ward (London, 1904), 

pp- 48f., 51. 
2 Deissmann, BS, p. 44. 


Abbott Fourfold 
GCOSPeliewenar arcana = The Fourfold Gospel, Section II. 
The Beginning, by E. A. Abbott. 
Cambridge, 1914. 
re Joh. Gr....... = Johannine Grammar, by the same. 

London, 1906. 
Joh. Voc...... = Johannine Vocabulary, by the same. 
London, 1905. 
= Songs of Modern Greece, by G. F. 
Abbott. Cambridge, 1900. 
= Aegyptus. Rivista Ttaliana 
Egittologia e di Papirologia. 
Ed. <A.  Calderini. Milan, 
1920- . 

The American Journal of Philology. 
Baltimore, 1880- 

The American Journal of Theology. 
Chicago, 1897- 

Subsidia ad cognoscendum Grae- 
corum sermonem vulgarem e Pen- 
tateucht versione Alexandrina 
repetita (being Diss. philolog. 
Halenses, xii. 2), by TH. Anz. 
Halle, 1894. 

Archiv fiir Papyrusforschung. Ed. 
τ. Wilcken. Leipzig, 1901- - 

Artsteae ad Philocratem Epistula. 
Ed. P. Wendland. Leipzig, 

= Artemidort Daldiant Onirocriticon 

τὸ V. Ed. R. Hercher. 
Leipzig, 1864. 
LERGTET oe sa pec = Bulletin de Correspondance Hellén- 
7gue. Parisand Athens, 1877-- 
Berger Strafkiausein = Die Strafklausein in den Papy- 
rusurkunden, von A. Berger. 
Leipzig, 1911. 
Bevichtigungen........ = Berichtigungsliste der Griechischen 
Papyrusurkunden aus Agypten, 
herausgegeben von F. Preisigke. 
Berlin und Leipzig, 1922. 


Abbott Songs 



ΓΙ ον 

ARCHED Sesisaccnceiwestees 

BAVISLCA Stennis rr hancexe = 

Artemidorus or Artem. 

Birt Buchrolle......... = Die Buchrolle in der Kunst, 
von ‘Theodor Birt. Leipzig, 

BlassyGrteccsssescsscees = Grammar of New Testament Greek, 
by F. Blass. Eng. tr. by H. 

St. John Thackeray. Second edit. 
London, 1905. 



Blass Philology ...... = Philology of the Gospels, by Fried- 
rich Blass. London, 1898. 
Blass-Debrunner...... = Friedrich Blass Grammatik des 
neutestamentlichen  Griechisch. 

Fiinfte Aufl. von. A. Debrunner. 
Gottingen, 1921. 
Boisacq Dict. Etym.. = Dictionnaire Etymologique de la 

Langue Grecgue, par Emile 
Boisacq. Heidelberg and Paris, 

Boll Offénbarung..... = Aus der Offenbarung Johannis: 

Llellenistische Studien zum Weit- 
bild der Apokalypse, von Franz 
Boll. Leipzig, 1914. 

Bonhoffer Z7zk/et. ... = Epiktet und das Neue Testament 

(being Religionsgeschichtliche 
Versuche und Vorarbetten, 

herausgegeben von R. Winsch 
und L. Deubner, X), von Adolf 
Bonhoffer. Giessen, 011. 
BrugmannGrundriss? = Grundriss der  vergleichenden 
Grammatih der indogermanischen 
Sprachen, von Karl Brugmann. 
Zweite Bearbeitung. Strassburg, 


Brugmann-Thumb.... = Griechische Grammatik, von Karl 
Brugmann. Vierte vermehrte 
Aufl., von Albert Thumb. 
Munich, 1913. 

JESS, Gépesnccesticcadgeadnaoogs See under Deissmann. 

Burkitt Syrzac Forms = The Syriac Forms of New Testa- 
ment Proper Names, by F. C. 
Burkitt. London, [1912]. 
ΠΧ coc sOO A IOSOLECME = Byzantinische Zeitschrift. Ed. Κα. 
Krumbacher. Leipzig, 1892-- 
= The Style and Literary Method of 
Luke. 1. The Diction of Luke 
and Acts. 11. The Treatment 
of Sources in the Gospel (being 
Harvard Theological Studies, 
VI.), by Henry J. Cadbury. 
Harvard University Press, 1919, 

Cadbury Dectzon 

Conybeare and Stock 
LXX Selections.... = Selections from the Septuagint, by 
F. C. Conybeare and St. George 

Stock. Boston, [1905]. 
C On ssenecsercetasmcnsiccms = The Classical Quarterly. London, 


Cluienescacmenatisesces = The Classical Review. London, 
(OLE Fem rere COCR CERECULO See under Ramsay. 
Cronert or Cronert 
ME Pe τ ρυτρρσς οτρρχα κοί = Passow’s Worterbuch der priech- 

ischen Sprache, vollig neu bear- 
beitet von W. Croénert. 3 parts. 
Gottingen, 1912-14. 
Cronert Mem. Herc. = Memoria Graeca Herculanensis, by 
W. Cronert. Leipzig, 1903. 
Deissmann BS ........ = Bible Studies, by G. Adolf Deiss- 
mann. Engl. ed. by A. Grieve. 
Edinburgh, 1got. 

Festgabe... = Festgabe fiir Adolf Deissmann zum 
60. Geburtstag 7. November 1926. 
Tiibingen, 1927. 

= Die neutestamentliche Formel “in 
Christo Jesu,” von G, Adolf 
Deissmann. Marburg, 1892. 

AS tn Christo 

τ = Light from the Ancient East, by 
Adolf Deissmann. English trans- 
lation by Lionel R. M. Strachan. 
London, 1910 and 1927. 

= The Philology of the Greek Bible: 
tts Present and Future, by Adolf 
Deissmann. English translation 
by Lionel R. M. Strachan. 
London, 1908. 

>, Philology... 

x, Sprachliche 
Erforschung.. = Die sprachliche Exrforschung der 
griechischen Bibel (being Vortrage 
der theologischen Konferenz 514 

Giessen. XII. Folge), von G. 
Adolf —Deissmann. Giessen, 

»,  Urgeschichte = Die Urgeschichte des Christentums 
im Lichte der Sprachforschung, 
von Adolf Deissmann.  Tiibin- 
gen, 1910. 

= Abraxas: Studien zur Religions- 
geschichte des Spatern Altertums, 
von Albrecht Dieterich. Leip- 
zig, 1891. 

Mithrasliturgie = Eine Mithrasiiturgie erlautert von 

Dieterich Advaxas ... 


Albrecht Dieterich. 2te Aufl. 
Leipzig and Berlin, 1910. 
Dieterich Untersuch = Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der 
Griechischen Sprache, von der 
Hellenistischen Zeit bis zum 
10. /ahrh. n. Chr., von Karl 
Dieterich. Leipzig, 1898. 

Diog. Oenoand......... = Diogents Oenoandensis fragmenta 
Ed. 1. William. Leipzig, 1907. 

DOGUMERIS Hen cccvecsssene See under Milligan. 
Durham, Ὁ. B. 
Menandler .....0..2+. = The Vocabulary of Menander, con- 
sedered in its relation tothe Koine. 
Princetown, 1913. 
LOB hee opr τε οδο = Encyclopaedia Biblica. London, 

LBL OI TD peor IX = Egypt Exploration Fund. 

IG Ties macencspoysO0ce100 = The Expositors Greek Testa- 
ment, edited by W. Robertson 

Nicoll. 5 vols. London, 1897- 

ἜΣ Τα πο See under Usener. 

Erman und Krebs ... = Aus den Papyrus der Koniglichen 
Museen [2u Berlin), von A. 

Erman und F. Krebs. 

Exler Zpistolography = The Form of the Ancient Greek 
Letter. A Study in Greek Epis- 
tolography. By Francis Xavier 
J. Exler. Catholic University 
of America, Washington D.C. 



TIES κοοδξοσοουϑοσυσσοῦςος = The Expositor. London, 1875- . 
Cited by series, volume, and 

IESG ITE coms on 030 = The Expository Times. Edin- 
burgh, 1889- - : 

Ferguson, W. D. 

Legal Termis....+.. = The Legal Terms Common to the 

Macedonian Inscriptions and the 
New Testament (being Historical 
and Linguistic Studies in Liter- 
ature related to the New Testa- 
ment. 2nd Series, Vol. IL., 
Part 3), by W. D. Ferguson. 
Chicago, 1913. 

HieldUWValessrennencesens = Notes on the Translation of the 
New Testament (being Otium 
Norvicense 111.), by F. Field. 
Cambridge, 1899. 

Foucart Assoczations 

Religreuses ......... = Des Associations Religieuses chez 
les Grecs, Par P. Foucart. 
Paris, 1873. 

Gerhard Zréstrett .... = Ein griako-agyptischer LErbstrett 
aus dem zwetten Jahrhundert 
vor Chr. (being Stfzungsberichte 
der Heidelberger Akademie der 
Wissenschaften, 8. Abhandlung), 
von ἃ. A. Gerhard. Heidel- 
berg, 1911. 

ΘΗΝ Ὁ" = Grenfell and Hunt. See further 
under Abbreviations II. Papyri. 

Ghedini Letéere......... = Letlere Christiane dat Papirt Grece 
del 777 δ IV Secolo, Ed. G. 
Ghedini. Milan, 1923. 

Giles Manual.......... = A Short Manual of Comparative 
Philology for Classical Students, 
by P. Giles, M.A. Second edit. 
London, 1901. 

Glaser De ratione.... = De ratione, quae intercedit inter 
sermonem Polybit et eum, qui 

in titulis saecult 721, 17, I ap- 

paret, by Otto Glaser. Giessen, 
Gradenwitz Zinfiihr- 
URE rracaerecestocetnen = Einfiihrung in die Papyruskunde, 
von Ὁ. Gradenwitz. Heft i. 

Leipzig, 1900. 


Grimm or Grimm- 
AMEN 2 τοστς τοσοῦτον = A Greek-English Lexicon of the 
New Testament, being Grimm’s 
Wilke’s Clavis Nout Testamentt, 
tr. and enlarged by J. H. Thayer. 
Second edit. Edinburgh, 1890. 
[Thayer’s additions are usually 
cited under his name.] 
Hatch Zssays.......... = Essays in Biblical Greek, by E. 
Hatch. Oxford, 1889. 
Hatzidakis Aiv/....... = Einlettung in die Neugriechische 
Grammatzk, von ἃ. N. Hatzi- 
dakis. Leipzig, 1892. 
= Der litterarische Charakter der 
neutestamentlichen Schriften, 
von C. F. Georg Heinrici. 
Leipzig, 1908. 
Helbing G7............ = Grammatik der Septuaginta : Laut- 
und Wortlehre, von R. Hel- 
bing. G6ttingen, 1907. 

Heinrici Zit. Char. 

Herwerden or Her- 
werden Lex......... = Lexicon Graecum Suppletorium et 
Dialecticum*, by H. van Her- 

werden. 2 vols. Leiden, rgto. 
Hesychius.............. = Hesychit Alexandrinit Lexicon, 

ed. M. Schmidt. Jena, 1867. 
[SUE tinocosporconeneonss = The Medical Language of St. Luke, 

by W. K. Hobart. Dublin and 
London, 1882. 

Hohlwein L’Zeypte 

ROMAINE. 100.020 0-++ = L’£gypte Romaine, Recueil des 

Termes Techniques relatifs aux 
Institutions Politiques et Admin- 
tstratives de [Egypte Romaine, 
suiwt dun choix de Textes 
Papyrologigues, par Ν. Hohl- 
wein. Brussels, 1912. 

ἘΠΕ" = A Concordance to the Septuagint, 
by Ε΄ Elatch and H. A. Redpath. 
Oxford, 1897. 

YE ANUS SE eS = Handbuch zum Neuen Testament, 
ed. H. Lietzmann. Tiibingen, 
1906- . 

AO Creer a conc seasescesy = International Critical Commentary. 
Edinburgh. Various dates. 

Jannaris G7.,.......... = An Historical Greek Grammar, by 
A. N. Jannaris. London, 1897. 

NEL en anceavs teentwese ΝΣ = The Journal of Biblical Literature. 
Middletown, 1881-- 

ΠΕΡ τ ολο -τννν τς 5:5 = The Journal of Egyptian Arche- 
ology. London, 1914-- 

1 EBS orepcctonceposee on = The Journal of Hellenic Studies. 

London, 1880— 

Jouguet Vie municipale= La Vie Municipale dans l Egypte 
Romaine (being Bibliotheque des 
Ecoles Frangaises @ Athenes et 
de Rome, 104), par P. Jouguet. 

Paris, 1911. 

J 2 Siarocosascccocesqaccen = The Journal of Theological Studies, 
London, 1900- 

Kaelker Quaest ...... = Quaestiones ae Elocutione Polybiana 

(being Letpzzger Studien 111. 

ii.), by F. Kaelker. Leipzig, 

Kennedy Sources...... = Sources of New Testament Greek, 
by Hl. A. A. Kennedy. Edin- 
burgh, 1895. 

Krebs χε τούτοις = Die Prapositionen bei Polybius 

(being Beztrage zur Historischen 
Syntax der Griechischen Sprache, 
1), von F. 

Krebs. Wiirzburg, 
Kiihner’, or Kiihner- 
Blass, Kiihner-Gerth = Ausfithrliche Grammatik der 
Griechischen Sprache, von R. 
Kiihner, besorgt von F. Blass 
(Formenlehre) und B. Gerth 
(Satzlehre). Hanover and Leip- 
zig, 1890-1904. 
Reuhyangteesesseses.<-- es = De Praepositionum Graecarum in 
Chartis Aegyptits Usu Quaes- 
tiones Selectae, by G. Kuhring. 

Bonn, 1906. 
TEA ee meeeeie eee ἐς ΠΤ ΝΣ See under Deissmann. 
Lafoscade De efis- 
CULE Spas acetic = De epistulis (alitsque titulis) im- 

peratorum magistratuumque Ro- 
manorum guas ab aetate Augustz 
usque ad Constantinum Graece 
scriptas lapides papyrive serva- 
verunt, par Léon Lafoscade. 
Paris, 1902. 

Laqueur Quaestzones = Quaestiones Epigraphicae et Papyro- 
logicae Selectae, by R. Laqueur. 
Strassburg, 1904. 

Lewy Fremdworter.. = Die Semitischen Fremdwirter im 
Griechischen, von H. Lewy, 
Berlin, 1895. 

Lietzmann Gr. Pap. = Griechische Papyri (in Kleine Texte 
Suir theologische Vorlesungen und 
Ubungen, 14). Ed. H. Lietz- 
mann. Bonn, 1905. English 
edition, Cambridge, 1905. 

Linde Zie ............ = De Epicuri Vocabulis ab optima 
Altthide alienis (being Breslauer 
Philologische Abhandlungen, ix. 

3), by P. Linde. Breslau, 
NEGDSe2-airaan esses. cance = Paralipomena Grammaticae Graecae, 
by C. A. Lobeck. Leipzig, 
- AES horeeneakcnc = Phrynicht Ecloga. Ed. C. A. Lo- 
beck. Leipzig, 1820. 
LS®* and LS® ......... =A Greek-English Lexicon, com- 

piled by H. G. Liddell and 

R. Scott. Eighth edition. Ox- 
ford, 1901. Ninth edition. 
Oxford, 1925-- 

Luckhard Privathaus = Das Privathaus im ptolemdischen 
und romischen Agyplen, by F. 
Luckhard. Giessen, 1914. 
Lumbroso Raccolta... = Raccolta di scritti in ὁποῖα di 
Giacomo Lumbroso (1844-1925). 
Milan, 1925. 
925 d 


Marien nancaaanNetane te = De Romanorum turis publict 
sacrigue vocabults sollemnibus in 
Graecum sermonem conversis, by 
D. Magie. Leipzig, 1905. 
Maidhof Begriffsbe- 

SUEMIMUNE.cecverecrere = Zur Begrif{sbestimmung der Koine, 
besonders auf Grund des Atti- 
zisten Moiris (being Bettrage zur 
Historischen Syntax der Griechi- 

schen Sprache, 20), von A. 
Maidhof. Wiirzburg, 1912. 
Martin Epistratéges = Les LEpistratéges, Contribution a 

VEtude des Institutions de 
PEgypte Gréco-Romaine, par 
Victor Martin. Geneva, 1911. 
ΜΙ ΟΎΞΕΥ ΟἿ. το sete. = Grammatik der Griechischen Papyri 
aus der Plolemaderzeit, Laut- 
und Wortlehre, von E. Mayser. 
Leipzig, 1906. 

.. =/b. 11. Satslehre. Analytescher 

ἊΝ ἢ το 

Teil i., von E. Mayser. Berlin 
u. Leipzig, 1926. 

Meecham Lefters...... = Light from Ancient Letters. By 
Henry G. Meecham. London, 

Meisterhans Gy....... = Grammatik der attischen Inschrif- 
zen, von K. Meisterhans. Dritte 

Auflage von E, Schwyzer. Ber- 

lin, 1900. 
Meél, Chatelain........ = Mélanges offerts ἃ M. Emile Chate- 
fain. Paris, 1910. 
πα ECOL Cen nesac ene = Mélanges... offerts a Jules Nicole. 
Geneva, 1905. 
= Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta, 
Ill. Ed. Th. Kock. Leipzig, 
Selections = Selections from Menander, edited 

Menander Fragm. ... 


by W. G. Waddell, M.A. 
Oxford, 1927. 
Menandred...........6. = Menandrea ex papyris et mem- 
brants vetustissimis. Ted. A. 
Korte. Leipzig, 1912. 
WEAN EZ τοῦτος = Griechtsche Grammatik®, von Gustav 
Meyer. Leipzig, 1896. 

Meyer Heerwesen.... = Das Heerwesen der Plolemder und 
Romer in Agypten, von Paul M. 
Meyer. Leipzig, 1900. 

Jur, Pap. ..... = Juristische Papyri. Erklirung von 
Orkunden zur Einftihrung in 
die Juristiche Papyruskunde. 
von Paul M. Meyer. Berlin, 

πα = Modern Greek. 

Milligan Documents = The New Testament Documents: 

Their Origin and Larly History, 


by George Milligan. London, 
1913. [Out of print.] 
Ὥς eters and 
There...... = Here and There among the Papyri, 
by the same. London, 1923. 

[Out of print.] 
» Selections ... = Selections from the Greek Papyri, 

by the same. New edit. Cam- 
bridge, 1927. 
Thess. «νννννν = St. Pauls Epistles to the Thessa- 
lonians, by the same. London, 
Mitteis or Wilcken 
Papyruskunde..... = Grundztige und Chrestomathie der 
Papyruskunde 1. i. ed. U. 
Wilcken, and II. i. ed. L. Mitteis 
Leipzig and Berlin, 1912. See 
also Abbreviations II. Papyri 
σι. Chrest. ; 
Modica /ntroduzione = Introduzione allo Studio della 
Papirologia Gturidica, by M. 

Modica. Milan, [1913]. 

IMIGEXIS Ceresracenenecte= = Moeridis Alticistae Lexicon Atti- 
cum. Ed. J. Pierson. Leiden, 

Moulton Proleg....... = A Grammar of New Testament 

Greek. Vol. I. Prolegomena’, by 
James Hope Moulton. Edin- 
burgh, 1908, 
(Ex Wrongs = A Grammar of New Testament 
Greek. Vol. 11. Accidence and 
Word-Formation with an Ap- 
pendix on Semitisms in the New 
Testament, by James Hope 
Moulton and Wilbert Francis 
Howard. Edinburgh, 1929. 
=) Egyptian 
Rubbish-heaps = From Egyptian Rubbish-heaps, by 
James Hope Moulton. London, 
»  LHinlettung.. = Einlettung in die Sprache des Neuen 
Testaments. (Translated with 
additions from the third edition 

of Prolegomena.) Heidelberg, 

MiusoniuS:..secessecenseh = C. Musonii Rufi Religuiae. Ed. 
O. Hense. Leipzig, 1905. 

Nachmanson .........- = Laute und Formen der Magnet- 
tschen Inschriften, von E. Nach- 
manson. Uppsala, 1903. 

INTE) 1 ooo so npancpecces = Der Wortschatz des Apostels Paulus, 
von Th. Nageli. Gottingen, 1905. 

Norden Agnostos 

LEAD robescesconcencce = Agnostos Theos, von Eduard Nor- 

den. Leipzig und Berlin, 1913. 

Oertel Liturgie ...... = Die Liturgie. Studien zur Ptole- 

maischen und Karserlichen Ver- 
waltung Acyptens, von F. Oertel. 
Leipzig, 1917. 

OltosPrzestercee. ese = Priester und Tempel im Hellenist- 
ischen Agypten, von Walter Otto, 

2 vols. Leipzig and Berlin, 

1905, 1908. 
Pelagia-Legenden..... = Legenden der heiligen Pelagia. Ed. 

H. Usener. Bonn, 1879. 
Plaumann Ptolemais. = Ptolemais in Oberagyplten. Ein 

Beitrag zur Geschichte des Hellen- 
ismus in Agypten, von Gerhard 
Plaumann. Leipzig, 1910. 


Poland Vereinswesen = Geschichte des Griechischen Vereins- 
qwesens, von Franz Poland. Leip- 
zig, 1909. ᾿ 

Preisigke Fachworter = Fachworter des offentlichen Ver- 
waltungsdienstes Acyplens tn den 
griechischen Papyrusurkunden 
der ptolematsch-romischen Zeit, 
von Friedrich Preisigke. Οδι- 
tingen, 1015. 

Namenbuch = Namenbuch enthaltend alle griech- 
ischen, lateintschen, dgyptischen, 
hebratschen, arabischen und sons- 
tigen semilischen und nichtsemzt- 
tschen Menschennamen, sowett 
ste in griechischen Urkunden 
(Papyri, Ostraka, Inschriften, 
Mumienschildern usw.) Agyptens 
sich vorfinden, von Friedrich 
Preisigke. Heidelberg, 1922. 

Worterbuch = Worterbuch der griechischen Papy- 
rusurkunden, von Friedrich Prei- 
sigke (und E. Kiessling). Vols. 
I. 11. IIT. i. Berlin, 1925-29. 



Preuschen-Bauer /Vé7- 
LEKOUCH seen ccs ec υτν = Griechisch-Deutsches Worterbuch 
zu den Schriften des Neuen 
Testaments (being an entirely 
new edition of E. Preuschen’s 
Handworterbuch 2u den Schriften 
des Neuen Testaments), von W. 

Bauer. Giessen, 1928. 
ΖΞ τὸς οτϑδοοβοδοσσοσροοτζσσς See under Moulton. 
salts Gore essence cies = Grammatik der Byzantinischen 

Chroniken (being Forschungen 
zur griechischen und lateinischen 
Grammatik, 2), von Stamatios 
B. Psaltes. Gottingen, 1913. 
Radermacher Gry. and 

Ογ.5..ὁἀνννννννχνννννν = Meutestamentliche Grammatik (be- 
ing Handbuch zum Neuen 
Testament I. i.), von L. Rader- 

macher. Tiibingen, 1911 and 

Ramsay Citzes......... — The Citzes of St. Paul, by W. M. 
Ramsay. London, 1907. 

» CRE......... = The Church in the Roman Empire 
before 4.D. 170, by the same. 
Fifth edition. London, 1897. 

Bot LLCLLOT Stace = The Letters to the Seven Churches of 
Asia, by thesame. London, 1904. 

» LURE .......... = Luké the Physician, by the same. 
London, 1908. 

fh. Pee en 5... τὸν, =S. Paul the Traveller and the 
Roman Citizen, by the same. 

Third edition. London, 1897. 
Fee cent ΖΟΣῈ 
covery...... = The Bearing of Recent Discovery 
on the Trustworthiness of the 
New Testament, by the same. 
London, 1915. 
> Stud. in the 
E. Rom. Prov. = Studies in the History and Art of 

the Eastern Provinces of the 
Roman Empire (being Aberdeen 
University Studies, 20), edited by 
the same. Aberdeen, 1906. 

»  Teaching..... = The Teaching of Paul in Terms 
of the Present Day, by the same. 
London, [1913]. 

= Contribution ἃ PEtude des Prépo- 
sitions dans la Langue du 
Nouveau Testament, par Paul 
F. Regard. Paris, 1919. 

REGr ..... React = Revue des Etudes Grecques. Paris, 

ReinhOldiccsccereessces = De Graecitate Patrum Apfostolic- 
orum Librorumque Apocry- 
phorum Novi Testamenti Quaes- 
tiones Grammaticae (being Diss. 
Phil. Hal. xiv.\.), by H. Rein- 
hold. Halle, 18908. 

Regard Préposttions 

Reitzenstein Potman- 

ONES snwedanacuetnecacn ee = FPoimandres: Studien zur Griech- 
isch-Aoyptischen und FPriihchrist- 
lichen Literatur, von R. Reitzen- 
stein. Leipzig, 1904. 

"ἢ fTellen, 
Mysterienrelig. = Die Hellenistischen Mysterienrelt- 
gtonen, thre Grundgedanken und 
Wirkungen, by the same. Leip- 
zig, 1910. 
Revillout A7éanges.. = Mélanges sur la métrologte, Péco- 
nomie politique, et Chistotre de 
Vancienne Egyple, by Eugene 
Revillout. Paris, 1895. 
Robertson (7.5 ....... = A Grammar of the Greek New 
Testament in the Light of His- 
torical Research, by A. T. 
Robertson. New York, [1914]. 
FROSSDEL pa aseeseean= svete = De Praepositionum Graecarum in 
Chartis Aegyptiis Ptolemaecorum 
Aetatis Usu, by C. Rossberg. 
Jena, 1909. 
Rostovtzeff A Large 
I OSCE Soc cOn00R0OICA =A Large Estate in Egypt in the 
Third Century B.C. A Study 
ἦγε Economic History (being 
University of Wisconsin Studies 
zm the Social Sciences and His- 
tory, 6), by Michael Rostov- 
tzeff. Madison, 1922. 
= Kecherches sur les caractéres du grec 
dans le Nouveau Testamentad apres 
les inscriptions de Priene, par 
J. Roufhac. Paris, 1911. 

Rouffhiac Recherches 

Rutherford WP....... = The New Phrynichus, by W. G. 
Rutherford. London, 1881. 
See Wi ecosacoconasecdocsde = Studi della Scuola Papirologica, R. 

Accademia Scientifico-Letteraria 
tx Milano. Milano, 1915- 

Schlageter ..... σρϑροῦτι = Der Wortschatz der ausserhalb 
Attikas gefundenen aattischen 
Lnschriften, von J. Schlageter. 
Strassburg, 1012. 


Schmid Aéfecismus... = Der Alticismus in seinen Haupt- 
vertretern von Dionysius von 
Halikarnass bis auf den Zweiten 
Philostratus, by W. Schmid. 
4 vols. and Register. Stuttgart, 

Schmidt Jos............ = De Flavit Josephi Elocutione Ob- 
servationes Crtticae, by W. 
Schmidt. Leipzig, 1893. 
Schubart Buch,........ = Das Buch bei den Griechen und 
Rimern, von W.  Schubart. 
Berlin, 1907. 
»  Linftihrung = Einfiihrung in die Papyrus- 

kunde, von W. Schubart. Ber- 
lin, 1918. 

Schulze G7. Zaz,...... = Graeca Latina, scripsit Gulielmus 
Schulze. Gottingen. 

Schiirer Geschichte ... = Geschichte des Jiidischen Volkes im 

Zeitalter Iesu Christi, von ¥E. 
Schiirer. 3t¢u. qgte Aufl. Leip- 
zig, Ι001. 
np ες = The above Hestory of the Jewish 
People in the Time of Jesus 
Christ, translated from the 
second German edition. Edin- 
burgh, 1890-1. 
Schweizer Perg. ...... = Grammatik der Pergamenischen 
Inschriften, von FE, Schweizer. 
Berlin, 1898. 
Searles Lexicographi- 
cal Study ..........+. =A Lexicographical Study of the 
Greek Inscriptions (being Chicago 
Studies in Classical Philology. 
II.). By Helen M. Searles. 
Chicago, 1898. 
ΘΗ don cccnpteassuacenenes = The Epistle to the Romans, by W. 
Sanday and A. (Ὁ. Headlam. 
Fifth Edition. Edinburgh, 1902. 
Sharp 2f7c?........... = Epictetus and the New Testament, by 
Douglas S. Sharp. London, 1914. 
Slaten Qualitative 
ANCOTES eepcenocencceee = Qualitative Nouns in the Pauling 
Epistles and Their Translation 
in the Revised Version (being 
Historicaland Linguistic Studies 
in Literature related to the New 
Testament. Second Series, Vol. 
IV., Part 1), by Arthur Wakefield 
Slaten. Chicago, 1918. 
Sophocles Zex ........ = Greek Lexicon of the Roman and 
Byzantine Periods, by E. A. 
Sophocles. New York, 1887. 
ΘΟΠΕΟ ΧΦ nscuecrene = A Pocket Lexicon to the Greek New 
Testament, by A. Souter. Ox- 
ford, 1916. 
Stud. della Scuola Pap... See s.v. SAM. 

Sudhoff Aratliches ... = Arstliches aus griechischen Papy- 
rus-Urkunden (being Studien 
sur Geschichte der Medizin, 5/6), 
von Karl Sudhoff. Leipzig, 1909. 
Suidas Lex..........00. = Suzdae Lexicon. Ed. I. Bekker. 

Berlin, 1854. 

Teles ed. Hense ...... = Teletis Religuiae ed. O. Hense. 
Editio secunda. Tiibingen, 1909. 
Thackeray A77zsv...... = The Letter of Artsteas translated 

into English, by H. St. J. 

Thackeray. London, 1917. 
ΠΝ = A Grammar of the Old Testament 

in Greek i., by H. St. John 

Thackeray. Cambridge, 1909. 
poh ay erneaesesetercterese = See under Grimm. 

Thieme πο τος ἘΝ = Die lnschriften von Magnesia am 
Maander und das Neue Testa- 
ment, von G. Thieme. Gottingen, 

Thumb D7a/ .......... = Handbuch der Griechischen Dia- 
lekte, von Albert Thumb. 
Heidelberg, 1909. 

»  Handbook.... = Handbook of the Modern Greek 
Vernacular, by Albert Thumb. 
Translated from the second Ger- 
man edition by S. Angus. — Edin- 
burgh, 1912. 

an Ftellen......... = Die Griechische Sprache im Zeit- 
alter des Hellenismus, von A. 
Thumb. Strassburg, 1901. 

> Speretus asper = Untersuchungen iiber den Spiritus 
asper im Griechischen, von A. 
Thumb. Strassburg, 1889. 

PlrenchySy72iessceesnces = Synonyms of the New Testament, 
by Richard Chenevix Trench. 

᾿ς: Gr. 

New edit. London, 1go1. 

UWseneve a icrcseseecees = LEpicurea, ed. H. Usener. Leipzig, 

Vettius Valens......... = Vettii Valentis  Anthologiarum 
Libri. Ed. W. Kroll. Berlin, 

Witerecki δύσιν τ τ τοτι τς = Sermo Graecus quo S.P.Q.R. 

magistratusque populé Romant 
usgue ad Tzb. Caesarts aetatem 
in scriptis publicis ust sunt, 

by Paul Viereck. Gottingen, 
Wolkerw47tvecessee es = Syntax der griechischen Papyri. I. 

Der Artikel, 
Miinster, 1903. 

von F. Volker. 

Wackernagel Anvede- 

Sormen... = Uber einige antike Anredeformen 
(Einladung zur akadem. Preis- 
verkiindigung), von J. Wacker- 
nagel. Gottingen, 1912. 

55 Hellen- 

¢stica...... = Hellenistica (Einladung zurakadem. 
Preisverkiindigung), von J. Wack- 
ernagel. Gottingen, 1907. 

Wendland Literatur- 
VOM cee eee = Die Urchristlichen Literaturformen 
(being Handbuch Neuen 
Testament, I. 3), von Paul 
Wendland. Tiibingen, 1912. 


Wenger Sted/vertre- 
OHO conehoosncaneueeee = Die Stellvertretung im Rechte der 
Papyri, von L, Wenger. Leip- 
zig, 1906, 


= The New Testament in the Original 
Greek, by B. F. Westcott and 
F, J. A. Hort. Vol. i. Zext. 
Vol. ii. Zntroduction. Revised 
editions. London, 1898 and 
White Sayzngs......... = The Sayings of Jesus from Oxy- 
rhynchus. Ed. Hugh G. Evelyn 
White. Cambridge, 1920. 
Winer-Moulton G7... = A Treatise on the Grammar of 
: New Testament Greek, Trans- 
lated from G. B. Winer’s 7th 
edition, with large additions, by 
W. F. Moulton, 3rd edition. 
Edinburgh, 1882. 
Winer-Schmiedel Gr. = Grammatik des neutestamentlichen 
Sprachidioms, von G. B. Winer. 
8te Aufl. von P. W. Schmiedel. 
Gottingen, 1894- 
ZERWIRIOM cesses <2 = Introduction to the New Testament, 
by Theodore Zahn. English tr. 
Edinburgh, 1909. 
Ziemann Z/fzst...... = De epistularum Graecarum for- 
mults sollemnibus quaestiones 
selectae (being Dess. philolog. 
Halenses xviii. 4), by F. Ziemann. 
Halle, 1911. 

ZNTW .. 000. seve, = Zeitschrift fiir die Neutestamentliche 
Wissenschaft. Giessen, 1900-. 
LOrell ck cacuswonscsecee = Novi Testamenti Lexicon Graecum 

(being Cursus Scripturae Sacrae 
I. vii.), auctore Francisco Zorell, 
S.J. Paris, 1911. 


BG Ιου κεν ςς. = Agyplische Urkunden aus den 
koniglichen Museen zu Berlin: 
Griechische Urkunden 1.--- 7, 
Berlin, 1895-1926. 

Chrest. I. and 11...... = Grundsiige und Chrestomathie der 
Papyruskunde. 1. ii. ed. U. 
Wilcken, and II. ii. ed. L. Mitteis. 
Leipzig and Berlin, 1912. 

Ghedini Letere ....... = Lettere Christiane dat 
Greci del 717. ὁ LV. Secolo. 
G. Ghedini. Milan, 1923. 

Gnomon or Gnomon = BGU V. 1. 

Olsson Papyrusbriefe = Papyrusbriefe aus der friihesten 


Romerzeit. Ed. Bror Olsson. 
Uppsala, 1925. 
1D EN το, οὐ ςθστροσσυσλου = Papyrus plolémaigues du Musée 

@’ Alexandrie, ed. G. Botti in 
Bulletin de la Société Archéol, 

d’Alexandrie, p. 65 ff. Alex- 
andria, 1899. 
ἘΞΑΊΠΠ τ: = The Amherst βαῤνγὲ 1.11. Edd. 

B. P. Grenfell and A. 8. Hunt. 
London, 1900-1. 
ἘΕΒΑ τ πΠῚ = Griechische Papyrt (= Veroffent- 

lichungen aus den badischen 
Papyrus-Sammilungen ii. and 
iv.). Ed. Friedrich Bilabel. 
Heidelberg, 1923 and 1924. 
Εν ἀτονς = λὲς Papyrus Bouriant, par Paul 
Collart. Paris, 1926. 
Bi@airoyPxreiser...c<--- = Griechische Urkunden des Agypt- 
tschen Museums zu Kairo. Ed. 
F. Preisigke. Strassburg, 1911. 
Pi€airo Zen\s...... 0s = Catalogue Général des Antiquités 
Egyptiennes du Musée du Caire. 
Nos. 59001-59531. Zenon Papyri, 

τ ΠῚ Edis ΟΣ Edgar. 
Cairo, 1925--28. 

12) (CEA cegasasaaao xenon = P Cattaoui, ed. G. Botti in Rivista 
Egiziana vi. p. 529 ff. 

uC ormelccsccceresraes = Greek Papyriin the Library of Cor- 

nell University. Edd. William 
Linn Westermann and Casper J. 
Kraemer, Jr. New York, 1926. 

BiBlephicrcccscesesses = Elephantine-Papyrt. Βα. ©: 
Rubensohn. Berlin, 1907. 
12 D6 beacocassoscacroscn = Eudoxit ars astronomica, qualis in 

Charta Aegyptiaca superest, ed. 
F. Blass. Kiliae, 1887. 

PAP AY precnacce iccceencet = Faytim Towns and their Papyrt. 
Edd. B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, 

and D. G. Hogarth. London, 
12 12 Ge) ssancaaso0nsa00020 = Papiri Fiorentint 1.-11Π1. Edd. 

G. Vitelli and D. Comparetti. 
Milan, 1906-15. 

PyPrank#. sece-s erence = Griechische Papyri aus dem Besitz 
des Rechtwissenschaftlichen Semi- 
nars der Universitat Frankfurt 
(being Setzunesberichte der Het- 
delberger Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften, Philosophisch-historische 
Klasse, 14 Abhandlung), von H. 
Ewald. Heidelberg, 1920. 

PAG enipeectherence neers: = Les Papyrus de Genével. Ed. J. 
Nicole. Geneva, 1896-1900. 

IPGISSWweest ccmaaesnese = Griechische Papyri 2u Giessen 1. 
Edd. O. Eger, E. Kornemann, 
and P. M. Meyer. Leipzig, 

ῬΙΘΟΡαΒρΡΕ. τ τιον: =A Group of Greek Papyrus Texts. 
Ed. Edgar J. Goodspeed (being 
Classical Philology, ΠῚ 2ay 
Chicago, 1906. 

P Goodsp Cairo...... = Greek FPapyri from the Cairo 
Museum. Ed. E. J. Goodspeed. 
Chicago, 1902. 

= Chicago Literary Papyri. Ed. 
E. J. Goodspeed. Chicago, 1908. 

IPNGTAGL ace soaceaessecnss = Griechische Papyri der Sammlung 
Gradenwitz. Ed. ἃ. Plaumann. 
Heidelberg, 1914. 

BaGrenfilevseades esses = An Alexandrian Erotic Fragment, 
and other Greek Papyri, chiefly 
Ptolemaic. Ed. B. P. Grenfell. 
Oxford, 1896. 

P Goodsp Chicago ... 


ΣΟΥ ΤΣ τ την τ ττννς = New Classtcal Fragments, and other 
Greek and Latin Papyri. Edd. 
B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt. 
Oxford, 1897. 
= Dikaiomata, herausgegeben von der 
Graeca Halensis. Berlin, 1913. 
= Griechische Papyrusurkunden der 
Hamburger Staats-und ζ7η1- 
versilatsbibliothek I. Ed. P. M. 
Meyer. Leipzig u. Berlin, 1911- 

Flinders Petrie, Hawara, Biahmu, 
and Arsinoe. London, 1889. 
Veroffentlichungen aus der Heidel- 
Papyrus-Sammlung 1. 

Para Wwarals.cossessoxss = 

ΕΙΣ does = 
Ed. A. Deissmann. 

Corpus Papyrorum Hermopolitan- 
orum 1. Ed. Ὁ: Wessely. 
Leipzig, 1905. 

The Hibeh Papyrt, I. 
Grenfell and A. S. Hunt. 
don, 1906. 

Papyri landanae Parts i-iv. Edd. 
E. Schafer, L. Eisner, L. Spohr, 
and G. Spiess. Leipzig, 1912— 

apyrt from Karanis. Ed, E. J. 
Goodspeed. Chicago, 1900. 

Papyrt Graect Muset antiquarit 
publici Lugduni-Batavi, 2 vols. 
Ed. C. Leemans. 1843, 1885. 

Papyrus Grecs de Lille 1. Parts 1. 
ii. ili, Ed. P. Jouguet. Paris, 

Griechische Urkunden der Papyrus- 
sammilung su Leipatg 1. Ed. L. 
Mitteis. Leipzig, 1906. 

Greck Papyri in the British 
Museum. Vols. I. and 11. ed. 
F. G. Kenyon; Vol. III. edd. 
F. G. Kenyon and Η. I. Bell; 
Vols. IV., V., ed. H. I. Bell. 
London, 1893-1917. 

being Greek Papyri in the British 
Museum, ed. by H. I. Bell in 
Jews and Greeks Lgypt. 
London, 1924. 

= Papyrus de Magdola being Papyrus 
Grecs de Lille 11. Ed. J. Les- 
quier. Paris, 1912. 

Papyrus Grees αἱ Epoque Byzantine 
(being Catalogue Général des 
Antiquités E ey ptzennes du Musée 
du Caire, Nos. 67001—67359), 
par Jean Maspero,I.—III. Cairo, 

Griechische Texte aus Agypten, 
ed. P. M. Meyer. Berlin, 

= Classical Philology, xxii. 3 (July, 

1927), pp. 237 ff. 


Edd. Β. P. 


P Lond 1912-1929 


12 ETE span σοι συ θα 

15) WEE) 9) soroseegredesccns = 

12 WISTS? hosnscencnsnn = 

P Michigan 

P Mon 

JEONG, cossnadonencn dc 

ἘΣ ΡΑΥ 74 πο 

PR SatideKihanerensess 

IPUSUYASS) stesso sone nese 

= Veriffentlichungen aus der Papy- 
rus-Sammlung der K. Hof- 
und Staatsbibliothek 2u Miinchen. 

I. Byszantinische Papyri. Leip- 
zig, 1914. 

= Papyrt Osloenses. 1. Magical 
Papyri. Ed. 5. Eitrem. Oslo, 

= The Oxyrhynchus Papyri. Vols. 
I.-VI. edd. B. P. Grenfell and 
A. 5. Hunt } Vols. VII.-IX. ed. 
A. 5. Hunt; Vols. X.-XV., edd. 
B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt; 
Vol. XVI., edd. B. P. Grenfell, 
A. S. Hunt, and H. I. Bells 
Vol. XVII., ed. A. 5. Hunt. 
London, 1898—1927. 

= Paris Papyri in Woteces et Extraits 
XVIII. ii. Ed. Brunet de Presle. 
Paris, 1865. 
= The Paris Magical papyrus edited 
by C. Wessely in Denkschriften 
der philosophisch - historischen 
Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie 
der Wissenschaften 2u Wren 
XXXVI (1888), p. 75 ff. 
The Flinders Petrie Papyri in the 
Proceedings of the Royal Irish 
Academy—‘“‘ Cunningham Mem- 
oirs,” Nos. viii., ix., and xi. 
Parts I. II. ed. J. P. Mahaffy ; 
Part III. edd. J. P. Mahaffy 
and J. G. Smyly. Dublin, 
= Corpus Papyrorum Raineri. 
Griechische Texte 1. Ed. C. 
Wessely. Vienna, 1895. 

= Papyrus Grecs et Démotiques. Ed. 
Th. Reinach. Paris, 1905. 

= Revenue Laws of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus. Ed. Β. P. Grenfell 
with an Introduction by J. P. 
Mahaffy, Oxford, 1896. 

= Catalogue of the Greek Papyri in 
the John Rylands Library, Man- 
chester 1., ed. A. 5. Hunt ; II. 
edd. J. de M. Johnson, V. Martin, 
and A. S. Hunt. Manchester, 

=Greek Parchments from Avroman 
in Media, discovered by Dr. Sa‘id 
Khan, published in JHS xxxv. 
pp. 22-65, by E. H. Minns. 
London, 1915. 

= Pubblicaziont della Societa Italiana 
per la ricerca det Papirt grect δ 
latint in Egitto: Papirt Grect 
e Latint 1.-IX. i. Florence, 

= Griechische Papyrus zu Strassburg 
I, II. Ed. F. Preisigke. Leipzig, 



12 RSE consoooccoDpaneC = The Tebtunis Papyrt. Vol. 1. edd. 
B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, 
and J. G. Smyly; Vol. II. 
edd. B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, 
and E. J. Goodspeed. London, 


LEN AERC loconcanscabsoses = Papyrus de Théadelphie. Ed. P. 
Jouguet. Paris, 1911. 

LEN (0) Po gadonnisnosuo bocce = Papyrt Graect Regit Taurinensis 
Muset Aegyptit. 2vols. Ed. A. 

Turin, 1826-7. 

Win Geenecosssecem canons = A. Mai, Classicorum auctorum δ 
Vaticanis codictbus editorum 
Tomi IV. et V. Rome, 1831-33. 

Preisigke .............. = Papyri in Sammelbuch: see under 
Abbreviations ITI. 

Selece1Ons ..0....0-.0000 = Selections from the Greek Papyri, 
by George Milligan. Cambridge, 

(QUE ὡς ςοσοςοεθαοοσοοο = Urhunden der Plolemderzeit. (Al- 
tere Funde). 1. Papyri aus 
Unteragypten. Ed. U. Wilcken. 
Berlin u. Leipzig, 1927. 


Witkowski? or Wit- 
kowski 2pf?........ = Epistulae Privatae Graecae*. Ed. 
S. Witkowski. Leipzig, 1911. 


AUudollent ....0.c0.00-00 = Defixionum Tabellae. Ed. A. 
Audollent. Paris, 1904. 

Brit. Mus. Inserr.... = The Collection of Ancient Greek 
Inscriptions in the British 
Museum: Oxford, 1874- 

(COE TEE copes ad06059005000 = Inscriptiones Graecae ad Res 
Romanas pertinentes, ed. R., 
Cagnat. I. III-IV. 1-5. Paris, 

CHANGE Tae νον το τον ses = Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygza, 
by W. M. Ramsay. Vol. I. 
Parts i. ii. Oxford, 1895, 1897. 

(CUE lemprco-nc0n AAC oHSED = Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum. 
Berlin, 1873-97. 

(CU GC ssenemoonacnenceococen = Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. 
Berlin, 1828-77. 

(CLUE ene BOCA = Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, 
Berlin, 1862-1909. 

απ ΄- = (unpublished) Greek Inscriptions 
from Phrygia, ed. W. M. Calder. 

(CELA Boccceacsaccanse00ds = Delectus Inscriptionum Graecarum. 
Ed. P. Cauer. Leipzig, 1883. 

(GOS daatipnceencot TR μας μα = The Inscriptions of Cos, edd. W. R. 
Paton and E. L. Hicks. Oxford, 

Duchesne et Bayet.... = Mémoire sur une Mission au Mont 

Athos, par L’Abbé Duchesne et 
M. Bayet. Paris, 1876. 

Hays ΟὟ τ ππΠ τ = Faytim Towns and their Papyri, 
PP: 317-332- 

(BID roscnnncce on c0oscngaa = Sammlung der griechischen Dialekt- 

Inschriften. Ed. H. 
Gottingen, 1884- 

ΧΟ ΣΝ τειν τ Corio = Inscriptiones Graecae, ed. cons. et 
auct. Acad. Regiae Borussicae. 
Berlin, 1873- 

UGaScpberwacewanvercnwen = Corpus Inscriptionum  Graeciae 
Septentrionalis. Ed. W. Ditten- 
berger. Berlin, 1892. 

ΘΝ = Inscriptiones Graecae Stciliae et 


ftaliae. Vid. G. Kaibel. Berlin, 
ὙΠ 11... = Inscriptiones Graecae Insularum 

Maris Aegaet. Edd. H. von 
Gaertringen and W. R. Paton. 
Berlin, 1805-- 

NOP AE Srerorecocn wens = Inscripliones Oris Septentrionalis 
Ponti Euxinz, being Inscriptions 
from Olbia on the Euxine in the 

Appendix to Scythians and 
Greeks, by E. H. Minns. Cam- 
bridge, 1913. 

τε κοι ττχσοοοσσοσπον = Epigrammata Graeca ex lapidibus 
conlecta, Ed. G, Kaibel. Berlin, 

TEBSISO YD re οποτιοκκιζοσοσο = Inscriptiones Antiqguae Orae Sep- 

tentrionalts Ponti Euxini Graecae 
εἰ Latinae, ed. B. Latyschev. 
I, II. Petropolis, 1885, 1890. 
VE PUXOMME Ὁ πΠ τ = Recueil des mnscriptions grecques 
et latines de l Egypte, by M. 
Letronne. 2 vols. Paris, 1842-8. 

ραν = Die Inschriften von Magnesia am 
Maander, Ed. O. Kern. Berlin, 

Meyer Ost7.......-..00« = Ostraka der Sammlung Deissmann, 

ed. Paul M. Meyer in Griechische 
Texte aus Agypten, p. 107 ff. 
Berlin, 1916. 

HEA AT a 1 τὴν τ ROOT = Recuetl a’ Inscriptions 
Ed. Ch. Michel. 

Paris, 1900. 

Supplément i. Paris, 1912. 
Milner 220 (527 ceceoes See under Zhedb. Ostr. 
OG IS ire nanenles ss-ecees = Ortentis Graeci Inscriptiones Se- 
lectae. 2 vols. Ed. W. Ditten- 
berger. Leipzig, 1903-5. 

Ostr or Wilcken Ost = Griechische Ostraca aus Aegypten 
und Nubien. 2 vols. Ed. U. 
Wilcken. Leipzig, 1899. 

TETAS ppp OBRORBOOCTIOUDOOO = Papers of the American School of 
Classical Studies at Athens. 

DEE cro nOR DOSE IOICOD = Die Inschrijten von Pergamon 1. 
Il. (in AMtertiimer von Pergamon 
vili.). Ed. M. Frankel. Berlin, 

PL EURE EEN dew so saciae τοῖς: = Sammeibuch Griechischer Urkun- 
den aus Agypten. I, 11. III. 
Ed. F. Preisigke. Strassburg 
and Berlin, 1915-27. [Includes 
many papyri: when these are 
cited the abbreviation is ‘* Prei- 
sigke”” in Roman type. ] 


Freisighé OStr sci = Die Prinz-Joachim-Ostraka, edd, 
F. Preisigke and W. Spiegelberg. 
Strassburg, 1914. 

ΣΑΣ cot OROO Scr OGRE = Die Inschriften von Priene, Ed. H. 
von Gaertringen. Berlin, 1906. 
Roberts-Gardner...... = Introduction to Greek Epigraphy, 
Part ii. Zhe Jnscriptions of At- 

tica. Edd. E. 5. Roberts and 
E. A. Gardner. Cambridge, 

Syll. and SyiP ....... = Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum®. 
2 vols. and index. Ed. W. 
Dittenberger. Second edition. 
Leipzig, 1888-1901. References 
are also given to the third edition, 

3 vols. and index. Leipzig, 
TE (OR Tere CORAM = Theban Ostraca, pp. 68-161. Greek 
Texts, ed. J. G. Milne. Oxford, 
Waddington Zrscrip- 
(HES mooneosenck cocecng = Instriptions grecques et latines 

recuetllies en Gréce et en Asie 
Mineure. “Edd. Ph. Le Bas et 
W. H. Waddington. Paris, 1870. 

Wilcken Osty .......c0s0eee See under Osi¢r. 
Wiinsch 4/............ = Anttke Fluchtafeln 

(in Avene 

Texte fiir theologische Vorle- 
sungen und Ubungen, 20). Ed. 

R. Wiinsch. Bonn, 1907. 


Quotations from Papyri and Inscriptions are printed as in 
the editions from which they come, except for the notation 
used to show that the modern editor wishes to insert or 
delete. Here the text is given as found in the original 
document, with a note in brackets if necessary. Square 
brackets [ ] denote a gap in the original ; round brackets () 
the resolution of an abbreviation (as (ἔτους) for 4), except in 
some inscriptions where the editor uses them to denote faint 
or missing letters; angular brackets < > a mistaken omis- 
sion in the original ; braces {} a superfluous letter or letters ; 
and double square brackets [[]] a deletion. Letters which 
are not read with certainty are indicated by dots underneath. 
Interlineations and erasures in the original are generally 
pointed out in a note. The line given for a cited word is 
that which contains the beginning of the word. 



> ta 

For ἀβαρής in a metaphorical sense, as in 2 Cor 11%, 
Nageli (p. 38) cites C/G 5361'° (Berenice, i/B.c.) ἀ. ἑαυτὸν 

παρέσχηται, and BGU I. 248° (ii/A.p.) ἐὰν δέ σοι GBalpé|s | 

ἦν, χρῆσόν por dvaprov. Add P Oxy VI. 933” (late ii/a.D.) 
and BGU IV. 1080!7 (iii/A.p.?) εἴ σοι ἀβ[α]ρές ἐστιν καὶ 
δυνα[τόν, σ]υναπόστιλόν pot κτλ. The physical sense is 
cited from Aristotle ; the metaphysical appears in Plutarch 



For a Greecised form” ABpapos, cf. BGU ΤΙ. 585ii-3 (after 
A.D. 212) Πααβῶς ᾿Αβράμου. The non-Greecised form is 
common in Faytim documents of the Christian period, e.g. 

BGU I. 103" (vi/vii a.p.) ᾿Αβραάμ ; see further Deissmann | | 
| ἄγαμος. 

BS, p. 187. A Jew ᾿Αβράμϊιος ? is named in BGU II. 
7154-2 (Fayim—a.D. 101-2). 


As a substantive (Rom τοῦ, Rev οἱ etc.) & is common in 
the magic papyri, e.g. P Lond 121° (iii/a.p.) (=I. p. 93) 
ἐπὶ τῆς ἀβύσσου, 7.17 (=I. p. 100) τῇ καλουμένῃ ἀβύσσῳ. 
See also Nageli, p. 46. 


This rare adjective, which in the NT is confined to 1 Pet 
214, is found as an astrological term in a magical papyrus 
of iv/A.p., P Lond 12216 (=I. p. 116), ἀγαθοποιὲ τῆς 
οἰκουμένης : cf. 76. 46% (iv/A.pD.) (=I. p. 66) pera 
ἀγαθοποιῶν, with reference to stars of benign influence. 

δέον (/. δέον θεὸν) ἱκετεύειν, πάντα ἀγαθοποιεῖν. 


The comparative βελτίων (in the LXX about 20 times 
for the commoner κρείσσων) occurs in the fragmentary 
P Petr III. 42 H (8) 15 (middle of iii/B.c.) (= Witkowski 
Epp.*, p. 16). In a votive inscription discovered at Cos 
(Paton and Hicks, 92), Nero is described as ἀγαθὸς θεός 
(cf. Deissmann ZAZ, p. 349). For ἀγαθὸς δαίμων, see 57 
in the same collection (=C/G 2510)—Tiyxq ᾿Αγαθᾷ καὶ 
᾿Αγαθῷ Δαίμονι καὶ τῶ(ι) δάμω(ι), etc., etc. Une other 
phrase is worth quoting: P Oxy II. 29814 (i/A.p.) ἐὰν ἐπ᾽ 
ἀγαθῷ mapayévy, ‘if you arrive happily,” 7. III. 531° 
(ii/A.D.) ἕως ἐπ’ ἀγαθῷ πρὸς σὲ παραγένομαι, BGU III. 
83519:: (beginning of 111Α.}.) εἰς τὴν ἐπ᾽ [ἀ]γαθοῖς γεναμένης 
κατασποράν, P Flor I. 2110 (a.p. 239) α΄. The neuter pl., 
as in Lk 1219, may be illustrated by P Ryl I. 2818? (iv/a.p.) 
ποὺς δεξιὸς ἐὰν ἅλληται, δεσπότης ἔσται πολλῶν ἀγαθῶν 
καὶ κτημάτων, ‘if the right foot quiver, the man will be 
master of many blessings and possessions” (Ed.). 

Part I. 

| ἀγαθωσύνη. 

The word is ‘‘found only in bibl. and eccl. writers” 
(Grimm-Thayer). But the abstract suffix -σύνη (on which 
cf. Brugmann-Thumb Griech. Gramm.4, p- 224) was pro- 
ductive in the Hellenistic period. About a dozen nouns 
occur in NT, and ἁγιωσύνη and μεγαλωσύνη come under 
the same condemnation in Grimm-Thayer: so would 
ταπεινοφροσύνη, but Thayer quotes Josephus and Epic- 
tetus against Grimm. Nageli (p. 43) has ‘‘ profane” 
warrant for ἁγιωσύνη, which is none the worse for being 
later than NT times. Any writer was free to coin an 
abstract of this sort, just as we can attach the suffix -mess 
to any adjective we please; and the absence of attestation 
signifies nothing that could carry any weight. 

BGU I. 8615 (ii/a.p.) ἐφ᾽ ὃν χρόνον ἄγαμ[ός ἐστιν, 20. 

| 113} (ii/A.D.) εἴ τινες ἄγαμοι εἶεν, P Ryl I. 282° (iv/a.p.) 

ἀγάμῳ δὲ γάμον δηλοῖ. Pretsigke 374 (i/B.C./i/A.D.) has 

| &yape on a gravestone. 

The verb is found in Aristeas (ed. Wendland) 242, ἀλλὰ ἐτιτιμῶντος αὐτῆι. 


P Lond 445 (B.c. 161) (=I. p. 34) ἀγανακτοῦντα ἐφ᾽ οἷς 
διετελοῦντο ἐν τοιούτωι ἱερῶι. P Oxy VIII. 11198 (Δ... 254) 
ἥτις ἀγανακτήσασα ἐπέστειλεν KTA. Sy// 803% (iii/B.c.) 
πρᾶτον ἀγανακτῶν tale mpdfge . . . In 75. 356% (uc. 6) 
τὴν κοινὴν ἁπάντων ὑμῶν dodadelav ἀναι]ρούντων ἀγα- 
νακτοῦντες, it takes ἃ gen., which might however be a gen. 
abs. : the inscription, a rescript of Augustus, is in the high 
style. P Magd 24° (iii/B.c.) ἀγανακτήσαντος δέ μου καὶ 
P Théad 151° (iii/A.pD.), in an ad- 
vocate’s pleading. A curious use of the passive occurs in 
the late P Lond IV. 1367%(A.p. 710) μέλλεις ἀγανακτηθῆναι, 
**you will incur our anger.” The word is also found in the 
apocryphal Gospel of Peter 4 (ed. Swete), where on one of 
the malefactors upbraiding the Jews for their treatment of 
Jesus on the Cross, we read ἀγανακτήσαντες ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ ἐκέλευ- 
cay ἵνα μὴ σκελοκοπηθῇ, ὅπως βασανιζόμενος ἀποθάνοι. 


This NT ἅπ. eip. (2 Cor 74) may be illustrated by P 
Grenf 11. 8211: (c. A.D. 400) μεταγνῶναι ἔχετε ὥστε 
καὶ ἀγανακτήσεως δικαστικῆς πειραθῆναι, where certain 
offenders are threatened with legal proceedings and penalties, 
if they disregard the writer’s demand. 


The Pauline phrase in 1 Th 14 ἀδελφοὶ ἠγαπημένοι ὑπὸ 
[rod] θεοῦ, which in this exact form is not found else- 
where in the NT (cf. in the LXX Sir 45! ἠγαπημένον ὑπὸ 
(ἀπὸ N) θεοῦ καὶ ἀνθρώπων), is well illustrated by a similar 



use in connexion with Ptolemy on the Rosetta stone, OG/S 
got (B.C. 196) ἠγαπημένου ὑπὸ τοῦ POa. Cf. a Munich 
papyrus in Chrest. I. 1091" (end of iii/B.c.), where Wilcken 
restores [Πτολεμαῖ]ος αἰωνόβιος ἠγα[πημένος ὑπὸ τῆς 
Ισιδος]. It may be noted that in Mk 10% Field (Λίοζες, 
Pp. 34) suggests the translation ‘‘caressed” for ἠγάπησεν, 
comparing Plut. Peric/. 1: ξένους τινὰς ἐν ἹΡώμῃ πλουσίους, 
κυνῶν τέκνα καὶ πιθήκων ἐν τοῖς κόλποις περιφέροντας καὶ 
ἀγαπῶντας (fondling) ἰδὼν ὁ Καῖσαρ. .. ἠρώτησεν εἰ 
παιδία παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς οὐ τίκτουσιν αἱ γυναῖκες. Β. L. 
Gildersleeve (Justin Martyr, p. 135) suggests that ‘the 
larger use of [ἀγαπᾶν] in Christian writers is perhaps due 
to an avoidance of φιλεῖν in the sense of ‘kissing.”” He 
says Xenophon made the two words absolute synonyms, 
comparing MZemorahsilia ii. 7. 9 with 12; while he depre- 
cates refinements in Jn 2111", since ‘the Evangelist 
himself did not see the point, as Augustin notes (Czv. Dez 
vii. 11). This seems undeniable in Xenophon Zc., 
though in so severely simple a writer as Jn it is extremely 
hard to reconcile ourselves to a meaningless use of synonyms, 
where the point would seem to lie in the identity of the 
word employed. Gildersleeve’s remark that “ ἀγαπᾶν is a 
colder word than φιλεῖν and less intimate’’ will hold for 
“profane” Greek ; but this is emphatically a case where the 
needs of a new subject take up a rather colourless word and 
indefinitely enrich it. In NT ἀγαπᾶν is purged of all cold- 
ness, and is deeper than φιλεῖν, though the latter remains 
more human. See R. H. Strachan’s references and discus- 
sion in Zxfos. VIII. vii. 263-7 (March 1914). A Christian 
metrical epitaph (Ca/der 69 — after midd. iv/A.D.) has &. with 
infin. as in Class. Οὐκ; νῦν ἀγαπᾷς od μαθεῖν τίς ἐγὼ ξένος 
ἢ πόθεν ἦλθα. 


Though it would be going too far to say that this import- 
ant Biblical word was ‘‘ born within the bosom of revealed 
religion,” it is remarkable that there have been only three 
supposed instances of its use in ‘‘ profane” Greek, two of 
which are now read otherwise and the third is doubtful. 
Deissmann originally cited P Par 495 (B.c. 164-58) in this 
connexion (#vde/studien, p. 80 f.) ; but in the English edition 
(BS, p. 198 f.) he admitted that the restoration ταραχήν must 
be substituted. Next Hatch in /BZ xxvii. 2, p. 134 ff. cited 
an inscription of the Imperial period, from Tefeny in Pisidia, 
giving the mantic significance of various throws of the dice : 
πένψει δ᾽ εἰς ἀγάϊπη]ν σε φιλομμειδὴς ᾿Αφροδείτη. But 
Prof. Deissinann now calls our attention to a Breslau disser- 
tation by F. Heinevetter W2rfel-und Buchstabenorakel in 
Griechenland und Kleinasien (1912), where it seems to be 
proved (p. 10) that εἰς ἀγαθόν must be read in the line we 
have quoted. There remains only the citation (Cronert, 
Lex. s.v.) of 80 ἀ[γ]άπης ἐϊναρ]γοῦς from the Herculaneum 
papyri of Philodemus the Epicurean (i/B.c.), with the note 
‘© (sicher?).”” 

The history of this word is so crucial for the orientation 
of the Biblical Greek vocabulary that we must pursue it in 
some detail. Deissmann’s argument from Thayer’s Philonic 
citation of ἀγάπη is repeated in the English 4S (p. 199) 
without regard to Ramsay’s criticism (Zxf7 ix. p. 568). 

| ἐνγαρεύειν τοὺς ἐπὶ τῆς χώρας---α prefect’s rescript. 


min., p. 69) Philo is not taking the word from the LXX, 
unless Wisd 3° (love towards God) 618 (love of Wisdom) may 
be taken as the models for his ennobled use of the word. 
For in LXX it is used 14 times of sexual love (Jer 25 
figuratively), and twice in antithesis to μῖσος : Sir 4811 & 
is the only other occurrence besides those from Wisdom. 
Aristeas (ii/i B.c.) has the word (§ 229) in the higher sense, 
and may stand with the author of Wzsdom as the earliest to 
adapt it to this purpose. In its redemption from use as a 
mere successor to the archaic ἔρως, Alexandrian Jews of 
i/B.C. seem to have led the way. The fact that its use was 
very restricted made it easier to annex for a special purpose. 
Since the Svzg of Songs (where it occurs ΤΙ times) could 
hardly be proved to have existed for the NT writers, there 
were virtually no other associations before their minds; and 
the appropriation of ἀγαπᾶν and ἀγάπη proceeded side by 
side. As the record of its use in Aquila, Symmachus and 
Theodotion shows (see HR), the word retained in inde- 
pendent circles the connotations we find in Cant and Eccl, 
and grew slightly more common. In late Christian papyri 
we find it narrowed like our ‘‘charity”: Crénert cites P 
Gen I. 147 (iv/vy A.D.) and P Lond 77°8 (viii/a.p.) (=I. 
p- 234). On the Christian use of ᾿Αγάπη as a proper name 
see W. M. Ramsay C. and B., ii. p. 492 f. 

It should finally be remarked that there is no reason for 
postulating ἀγάπη as the origin of a denominative ἀγαπάω, 
as τιμή produces τιμάω, etc. ᾿Αγάπη is in any case a back- 
formation from the verb, replacing the older ἀγάπησις, and 
originating doubtless in a restricted dialectic area. Cf. the 
case of οἰκοδομή, 9. τ΄. 


For the use of this characteristic NT designation in the 
Christian papyri, see for example the address of the much- 
discussed letter of Psenosiris P Grenf II. 73 (late iii/a.p.) 
(= Selections, p. 117), ᾿Απόλλωνι πρεσβυτέρῳ ἀγαπητῷ 
ἀδελφῷ ἐν K(upl)w χαίρειν. So P Lond 417} (c. Α.1.. 346) 
(ΞΞ 11. p. 299, Sevectéons, Ὁ. 123), P Heid 67 (iv/a.D.) (= 
Selections, p. 125) α΄. The word is also found in a horoscope 
of A.D. 20-50 addressed to a certain Tryphon—P Oxy II. 
235°, Τρύφων ἀγᾳπετέ : he may of course have been a Jew— 
see on the fem. T'pvpatwa below. 


Ptolemaic examples of this interesting old Persian word 
are P Petr II. 201-5 (B.c. 252) τοῦ. . . λέμβον. 
ἀγγαρευθέντος ὑπὸ σοῦ with reference to a ‘‘ post boat,” and 
P Tebt I. 5183, 555 (p.c. 118) where for the editors’ émaperety 
Wilcken (Archiv iii. p. 325) reads ἐγγαρεύειν. From A.b. 
42 add P Lond 1171 (c)? = (III. p. 107) μηδενὶ ἐξέστω 

| BGU 1. 2riii 38 (4.p. 340) οἴνου évyapias, and from the 

| arvwn nomine utebantur. 

inscriptions νὰ 932°4 (beginning of iii/A.D.) ἀνγαρειῶν 
ἄνεσιν with Dittenberger’s note, ‘‘ vehicula cursus publici 
ponderosissima et lentissima, quae bubus vehebantur (czersus 
clabularis Cod Theod. VI. 29, 5, 1, VIII. 5, 11), angarz- 
» Herwerden Lex. cites a form 

| ἀνενγάρευτος = ἀναγγάρευτος, from an inscr. which Mayser 

| (p. 56) refers to Arch. Zezt. 1890, p. 59. 

And Deissmann certainly seems justified in asserting that in | 
| ‘ Angariae” in AZo vi. (1906) p. 249 ff. For the spelling 

the Quod Deus immut. (p. 283 M =Cohn-Wendland, ed. 

See further Zahn 

Jntr, i. p. 66, Deissmann BS p 86 f., and Rostowzew 


with ἐν in Mk 15 8* B* Deissmann (4S Ρ. 182) compares 
BGU 1. 2uiii 16 (4p. 340—coeval with the MSS.) évyaptas. 
The noun &yyapos appears in Greek as early as Aischylus 
Agam. 294 ἀγγάρου πυρός, “‘the courier flame”: it is 
probably the Iranian cognate of ἄγγελος. It survives in 
vernacular MGr ayyapepévos, ‘‘ put to compulsory labour” 
(Thumb Havdbook, p. 315). In his note on P Lond IV. 
1376! (A.D. 711) the editor suggests that in the late Aphrodito 
papyri ἀγγαρευτής is used in the general sense of ‘‘ foreman,” 
“ superintendent.” 


is found in P Tor I. 11:56 (ii/B.c.) for the ‘*casket” or 
“‘chest ” in which plaintiffs in the court of the Chrematistae, 
or Greek judges of Egypt, were in the habit of placing their 
petitions (Archzv iii. p. 26 ff). See also P Gen I. 74°* 
(probably iii/A.D.) διὸ ἐρωτηθεὶς ἐκλαβὼν ἀντίγραφον καὶ 
βαλὼν els ἀγγῖον σφράγισον : similarly in Sy// 790% 
(i/B.c.) of oracular πινάκια, which are put εἰς ἀγγεῖον and 
sealed (κατασφραγισάσθωσαν) with various officers’ seals 
In BGU I. 248 (ii/A.p.) a note is added on the margin— 
χρῆσον Σαβείνῳ ἀνγεῖον, εἰς ὃ κόμιζέ μοι ἔλαιον, where a. is 
a jar for oil, asin Mt 25*: cf. P Oxy VII. τογοῦῦ (iii/A.b.) 
ἀνγείῳ ἡμιχόῳ, P Hamb I. 23% (a.p. 569) μεστὰ ἀγγῖα 
τριάκοντα, P Lond 1036° (vi/a.D.) (= III. p. 269) otvo(v) 
ayytov μέγα ἕν, P Leid Will 8 a. μέλιτος μεστόν. 

The form &yyos, which is found in the true text of Mt 
138, may be illustrated from A/iche/ 13614f (Thasos, iv/B.c.) 
ἢν δέ τις ἐγβάλλη[ι τῶν δούλων κόπρον, ὥστε] τὸ χωρίον 
εἶναι τὸ ἄγγος τοῦ ἀναιρερημένου τὸν κῆποίν] KTA. The 
word is used of a cinerary urn (as in Herod. i. 113) in C/G 


In the curious pamphlet on omens drawn from involuntary 
twitchings, P Ryl I. 2818 (iv/a.p.), we find σφυρί δὴν δεξιὸν 
ἐὰν ἅλληται, ἀγγελίαν αὐτῷ σημαίνι ἀπροσδόκητον, “1 
the right ankle quiver, it signifies that the person will 
have unexpected news.” The word is common in literature. 


In Sy// 51271, a dialect inscr. of ii/B.c. from Calymna, 
ἄγγελοι are envoys whose names are given. The word is 
used in the sense of ‘‘intermediary” (cf. Gal 319) in Sy// 
122” (iv/B.C.) ὀμόσαι δ] ἀγγέλλων. For the presumably 
Christian ‘‘angel” inscriptions from Thera see Deissmann 
LAE, Ῥ. 279 with accompanying facsimile, and the paper 
“It is his Angel” (J. H. M.) in 71.5 1902, p. 519 f. Add 
(from Cronert) 7G XII. iii. 933. In Archzv iii. p. 445, No. 67, 
is published a Greek inscription from Assouan of the time of 
M. Aurelius, which begins—MeyaAy τύχῃ τοῦ [θε]ο[ῦ. . . 
τ]ῶν ἀνγέλων τῆς [ἱ]ερεί[ας] : cf. alsop. 451 No. 94 (time of 

Diocletian), Ὑπὲρ εὐχῆς τῶν ἀνγέλων ’Epeonvol ἀνέθηκαν | 

κτὰ. Οἱ ἄγγελοι θεοῦ, as in 1 Tim 54, occurs in the ex- 

tremely interesting Jewish inscription Sy// 816'° κύριε Oo | 

πάντα ἐ[φ)ορῶν kal οἱ ἄνγελοι θεοῦ. Dittenberger assigns it 
to i/A.D. and yet apparently prefers to regard it as Christian : 
there does not, however, seem to be anything distinctive of 
Christianity—it is a Jewish prayer for vengeance upon un- 
known murderers: see Deissmann LAZ, p. 423ff. It is 

interesting to observe that the special meaning ‘‘angel” is | 

᾽ , 

apparently a reversion to the oldest signification, for in 
Homer the ἄγγελος is often a messenger of the gods. The 
two branches of the Aryan language-group diverge here. In 
Vedic Indian the Avyzvasah are ‘‘ higher beings intermediate 
between gods and men,” as Macdonell rather tentatively 
concludes ( Vedic ALythology, 143). In Persian angara (?—see 
on ayyapevw) isa human messenger. Perhaps both meanings 
coexisted in the corner of the Indo-Germanic area to which 
the word is restricted. See also Ilatzidakis on ἄγγελος in 
Sitz. Ber. αἱ. Wien. Akad. 1913, 2. 


For ἀγγέλλω =“ proclaim, summon to an office,” see the 
summons to celebrate the accession of Hadrian, P Giss I. 338. 
(A.D. 117) ἥκω (sc. Φοῖβος θεός)... ἄνακτα καινὸν ᾿Αδρια- 
νὸν ἀγγελῶ[ν]: cf. P Flor I. 4}: 8ff (ap. 265) ὁ] ἀγγελεὶς 
ἀντι[λά]βηται τῆς ἐνχειρισθείσης αὐτῷ χρείας [ὑ]γι[ῶὥς] καὶ 
πιστῶς. It is hardly accidental that the words quoted from 
the Giessen papyrus form an iambic line: the document has 
a strong literary flavour. ᾿Αγγέλλω is one of those verbs 
which became practically obsolete in the vernacular except 
in their compounds. Nine of these are found in NT, while 
the simplex only occurs in Jn 4°? ND, 2018 y*ABIX. Jn 
is a writer who likes uncompounded verbs: see Camé. 576/. 
Essays, p. 492. 


See s.v. ἀγγεῖον. 


The noun occurs twice in a farm account, P Lond 1171 
(B.c. 8) (Ξ- ΠΙ. p. 177). For the adjective ἀγελαῖος, sce 
Sy/l 587°°° (iv/B.c.) κεραμίδες ayeAatat, with Dittenberger’s 


“© Nowhere found in prof. auth.,” says Grimm, nor are we 
able to supply the gap—which is not surprising! It is a 
good sample of a class of words which any author might coin 
for a special purpose. 


᾿Αγενής, as opposed to εὐγενής, is well illustrated by P 
Oxy I. 33¥-° (late ii/A.p.) where, in a dramatic interview 
with the Emperor, in all probability M. Aurelius—though 
Wilcken (Chrest. I. p. 34f.) decides for Commodus—a 
certain Appianus, who had been condemned to death, ap- 
peals to his nobility (εὐγένεια) in such a way as to lead the 
Emperor to retort—@yjs οὖν ὅτι ἡμεῖς ἀγενεῖς ἐσμεν ; For the 
more general sense of ‘‘ mean,” ‘‘ base,” see the verso of the 
illiterate P Oxy I. 79% (not earlier than ii/A.p.), perhaps a 
school composition (Edd.), μηδὲν ταπινὸν μηδὲ ayevés . . . 
πράξῃς. In Sy// 855" (a dialect inscr. from Delphi, record- 
ing the ‘‘sale” of a slave to the god for freed »m—ii/B.c.) 
εἰ δέ te Μνασὼ (the slave) πάθοι ἀγενὴς ὑπάρχουσα, τὰ 
καταλειφθέντα ὑπὸ Μνασῶς ᾿Αγησιβούλας (the mistress) 
ἔστω : here ἀγενής must mean ‘‘ childless,” as in the similar 
phrase in Sy// 8627, an inscr. of the same period, place and 
subject. The word was used in this sense by Isaeus, 
according to Harpocration, 



Clear evidence for the verb and noun outside bibl. and 
eccl. writings appears to be wanting: cf. Anz Swdsidza, 
Ρ. 374 f. The suffix -άζειν was as active as our -/y in pro- 
ducing new words, and the abstract -ασμός accompanied it, 
as -/ication accompanies our verb. When therefore ἅγιος 
was appropriated in Jewish circles to represent their special 
idea of ‘‘ holiness,” it was natural that the factitive derivative 
should be coined from it, as a technical term which would 
be immediately understood by any Greek, even if he had 
never met with the actual form. The series was the more 
needed, as Greek religion had already the forms ἁγίζω, 
ἁγισμός, ἁγιστεύω, ἁγιστήριον, etc., with their technical 
meanings: the variant words with the added -a- answered 
to them in function, but were free from pagan association. 


The adjective is common as a title of the gods in the 
inscriptions, e. σ. OGZS 3781 (A.D. 18-9) θεῷ ἁγίῳ ὑψίστῳ : 
cf. 26, 721' ὃ δαδοῦχος τῶν ἁγιωτάτων ᾿Εἰλευσῖνι μυστηρίων. 
The superlative may be further illustrated (cf. Jude?) from 
the oldest recovered Christian letter P Amh I. 3(a)iii 22f. 
(between A.D. 264 (265) and 282 (281)) τοῖς κατ᾽ αἰὐτὸν 
ἁγιωτάτοις προ[εστῶσι]: cf. Deissmann Z4Z, p. 192 ff. 
For τὸ ἅγιον as “temple” cf. OGZS 56° (the Canopus 
inscr. of Ptolemy III, B.c. 239) καθιδρῦσαι [sc. ἄγαλμα 
Χρυσοῦν διάλιθον] ἐν τῶι ἁγίωι. : 

ἁγιότης, ἁγιωσύνη. 

᾿Αγιότης, as a title, is found in the late P Giss I. 55° 
(vi/A.D.) addressed by one “‘ papa” or ‘‘ bishop ” to another 
--ἠξιώθην. . . γράψαι πρ[ὸ]ς τὴν σὴν ἁγιότητα]. Fora 
similar use of ἡ ἁγιωσύνη with reference to an ἐπίσκοπος, 
see the Pe/agfa-Legenden (ed. Usener) p. 107, cf. p. 84, 
On the “‘profane” warrant for ἁγιωσύνη, and the natural- 
ness of coining (with ἱερ(ε)ωσύνη for model), see the remarks 
on ἀγαθωσύνη above. 


With the use of ἀγκάλη in Lk 2%, cf. OG/S 56 (Canopus 
decree, B.C. 239) (τις) τῶν... ἱερέων πρὸς τὸν στολισμὸν 
τῶν θεῶν οἴσει ἐν ταῖς ἀγκαλαῖς. For the derived sense of 
“bundle” (ἡ. δ. ‘‘armful”) see P Lond 131 vecto *7 (a.p. 
78-9) (=I. p. 183) δεσμεύων ἀγκάλας, P Oxy VI. 935!8 ". 
(iii/A.D.) ἡ μεταφὶ ορὰ] τῶν ἀνκαλῶν ἔστε εὐθέως ὑπὸ τοῦ 
πατρός, ““1ῆε transport of the bundles will be performed 
immediately by my father” (Edd.). 


P Lond 1164 (4)® (a.p. 212) (=TIII. p. 164) ἀνκύραις 
σιδηραῖς δυσὶ σὺν σπάθαις σιδηραῖς (the two teeth of the 
anchor), Sy// 588.171 (11,8.6.) ἄγκυρα σιδηρᾶ. For the 
figurative sense, as Heb 61%, cf. a. γήρως, 7G XII. vii. 
123 ὁ). 


In P Lond 193 verso 23 (ii/a.p.) (=II. p. 246) a borrower 
pledges her κιτῶν(α) ἄγναφο(ν) Aevkd(v), ‘new white shirt,” 
for an advance of 11 drachmas. P Hamb I. ro (ii/a.p.) 
has it in a list of garments that had been stolen, including 


an abolla ἄγναφος: P. Μ. Meyer renders ‘‘ ungewalkt, 
frisch vom Webstuhl, rudis,” and gives some other references. 
Plutarch 169C, 691D, has ἄγναπτος, ‘‘ undressed, uncarded.” 


OGTS 5655 (decree o1 Canopus, B.C. 239) μετέχειν δὲ καὶ 
τοὺς ἐκ τῆς πέμπτης φυλῆς τῶν Εἰὐεργετῶν θεῶν τῶν ἁγνειῶν 
καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἁπάντων τῶν ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς, 26. 5738 (i/A.D.) 
τῶι δὲ ποιήσαντι ἔστωι ἁγνεία, an inscription cut in the 
rock near a temple in Cilicia. Cf. Sy/7 6555 (a.p. 83), μετὰ 
πολλῆς ἁγνείας kal νομίμων ἐθῶν, and the celebrated Epi- 
daurian inscription quoted under ἁγνός. P Par 5xiv-10 
(B.C. 114) couples ἁγνει[ῶν] and λειτουργιῶν following 
[τ]άφων. BGU IV. 1198! (i/B.c.) ποιούμενοι ἁγνήας Kal 
θυσίας. The verb is found BGU I. 149 (ii/iii a.p.), temple 
accounts, including kat ταῖς κωμασίαις τῶν θεῶν (proces- 
sions of images of the gods) τοῖς ἁγνεύουσι ἐκ περιτροπῆς 
(according to rota) ἱερεῦσι: Θὼθ a ὑπὲρ ἁγνείας ἡμερῶν f ἐξ 
ἡμερησιῶν [so much]. A very similar entry appears in 
BGU I. τ (iii/a.p.). 

In P Oxy V. 840%, the fragment of an uncanonical gospel 
composed before A.D. 200, we read that the Saviour brought 
His disciples εἰς αὐτὸ τὸ ἁγνευτήριον Kal περιεπάτει ἐν TO 
ἱερῷ, ‘into the very place of purification, and was walking 
in the temple.” For the verb ayvetw see BGU IV. 12018 
(A.D. 2) τῶν ἁγνευόν[τ]ων ἱερέων διαπεραιωμένων πρὸς τὰς 
λιτουργείας καὶ θυσείας τῶν θεῶν, IP Tebt II. 29858 (Α.Ὁ. 
107-8) ἱερεῦσι] ἴφοις ἁγνεύου[σ]. καθ᾽ ἡμέραν (πυροῦ) δ, 
“to officiating priests } art. of wheat daily ” (Edd.). 

ἁγνίζω, ἁγνισμός. 

The verb occurs in the Leyden /afyrus magica (ed. Diete- 
rich) VI. 36 ποιήσας βόθρον ἐπὶ ἡγνισμένῳ τόπῳ. For the 
subst. see Sy// 879181. (end of iii/B.c.) τὸν δὲ γυναικονόμον 
τὸν ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου αἱρούμενον τοῖς ἁγνισμοῖς κτλ. Cf Anz 
Subsidia, p. 283. 


A good parallel to the Pauline phrase 1 Th 413 οὐ θέλομεν 
δὲ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν occurs in P Tebt II. 3148 (ii/a.p.) πιστεύω 
σε μὴ ἀγνοεῖν, which also illustrates the use with the nega- 
tive in 2 Cor 2%. The construction in P Tebt I. 4335 (B.c. 
118) ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν ἔν τισιν ἠγνοηκότων may help the difficult 
2 Pet 215 ἐν ois ἀγνοοῦσιν βλασφημοῦντες. The suggestion 
of wilful ignorance (see ἄγνοια) appears in P Oxy IX. 11888 
(A.D. 13) στοχα(σάμενος) τοῦ μηδ(ὲν) ἀγνοη(θῆναι) μηδὲ πρὸς 
χάίριν) οἰκονομηθιῆναι), “making it your aim that nothing 
be concealed or done by favour” (Edd.). For ἀγνοεῖν of a 
person, cf. P Giss I. 69% (A.D. 118-9) Χαιρήμονα τὸν 
ἀναδιδόντα τὸ ἐπιστό[λι]ον τοῦτο οὐκ ἀγνοεῖς, ἄδελφε. 


The royal decree of Euergetes II. and the two Cleopatras, 
P Tebt I. 53(B c. 118), proclaims an amnesty for all their 
subjects for ἀγνοημάτων ἁμαρτημ[άτ]ων [ἐϊνκλημάτων 
καταγνωσμάτων (see note), where the difference between the 
first two words is brought out by the editors’ rendering, 
” “crimes” : cf. Archiv ii. p. 483 ff An inscrip- 
tion from Egypt, OG/S 116? (ii/B.c.), has συγγνώμην . . .] 
av γεγονόσιν ἀγνοήμα[σιν ...] in a broken context, but 



the meaning seems clear. The combination quoted above 
from P Tebt I. 5 apparently recurs in BGU IV. 11857 
(i/B.C.) ἀγνοημ]άτων ἁμαρτημάτων καταγνωσμάτωϊν - . .|v 
σκεπεστικῶν αἰτιῶν πασῶν kTA. Similarly in P Par 63 *i-? 
one of the Ptolemies writes ἀπολελυκότες πάντας τοὺς 
ἐνεσχημένους ἔν τισιν ἀγνοήμασιν ἢ ἁμαρτήμασιν ἕως τῆς 
8 τοῦ ἐπείφ. (On ἐνέχεσθαι ἐν see Φγοίεσ. p. 61 (). The 
Seleucid Demetrius uses a like combination in 1 Mace 133; 
and it is further found in Tob 3%, and Sir 232 (cited by 
Thayer). ᾿Αγνόημα is accordingly marked by this associa- 
tion as meaning an offence of some kind, and “‘ error ” is its 
natural equivalent : so in Heb 97. 


The connotation of wilful blindness, as in Eph 4.5, is found 
in P Tebt I. 24% (B.c. 117), where an official reports the 
misconduct of certain persons whose plans he had frustrated, 
so that λήγοντες τῆς ἀγνοίας they left the district. The 
writer had avotas first, and then added y above the line. 
In the ordinary sense of inadvertence it is common: e.g. 
BGU IV. 11149 (B.c. 8-7) γέγονεν δὲ kar’ ἄγνοιαν εἰς 

ὃ κατάπλους ᾿ 
τὸ αὐτοῦ Κοίντου Καικιλίου Κάστορος ὄνομα. With a 

A.D.) ἔπτεὶ κατ᾽ ἄγνοιαν τῶν φροντίδων αὐτῶν ἠργάσατο, 12. 
I. 78% © (iii/a.p.) ἵν’ οὖν μὴ δόξω συνθέσθαι τῇ τοῦ πραγ- 
ματικοῦ ἀγνοίᾳ ἐπιδίδωμι τὰ βιβλίδια κτὰ. The simple dat. 
appears with same sense in P Flor II. 1325 (iii/a.p.) ἔλε[ξ]αν 
πεποιηκέναι ταῦτα ἀγνοίᾳ. For κατὰ ἄγνοιαν, as in Ac 31’, 
see P Oxy 11. 237% *8 (a.p. 186) ἵνα οἱ συναλλάσσοντες 
μὴ kat’ ἄγνοιαν ἐνεδρεύονται, “in order that persons enter- 
ing into agreements may not be defrauded through ignorance” 


In its narrower sense we may compare a psephism from 
Assos, dated A.D. 37, Sy// 364°° τὴν πάτριον ἁγνὴν ΤΤαρθένον 
(cf. 2 Cor 11°), ze. Athena Polias, as Dittenberger notes— 
the ‘‘ Blessed Virgin” of Greek religion: cf. Pretsigke 2481 
(i/A.D.) ᾿Ιουλία ἁγνή, ἐτῶν Ky, εὐψύχι. It is applied to 
holy places in P Tebt II. 616 (ii/a.D.), a letter from a 
προφήτης, --[ὅ]τι ἔξεστι] πᾶσι ἐν ἁγνοῖς τόποις γενέσθαι. 
For the ceremonial use of a. see Priene 205, εἰσίναι εἰς 
t[0] ἱερὸν ἁγνὸν é[v] ἐσθῆτι λευκ[ῆι], an inscription at the 
entrance to a ἱερὸς οἶκος. Rouffiac (Recherches, p. 62), who 
cites the passage, aptly recalls the inscription of the temple 
of Epidaurus mentioned by Clement Alex. (S¢vom. V. 1. 13, 
3) to illustrate the transition from the ritual to the moral 

ἁγνὸν χρὴ νηοῖο θυώδεος ἐντὸς ἰόντα 
ἔμμεναι" ἁγνείη δ᾽ ἐστὶ φρονεῖν ὅσια. 

{Also in Porphyry a aést. ii. 19, ap. Syi/ ii. p. 267.) There 
is also a noteworthy usage in the Chian dialectic inscr., 
Syll 5708 (iv/B.c.) [ὃ ἰἸδὼν κατειπάτω πρί[ὸς] τὸς βασιλέας 
ἁγίνῶς] πρὸς τὸ θεῦ, “give information . . . if he would be 
blameless before the God.” An interesting example of the 
adj. occurs in P Oxy I. 41°9f (the report of a public meeting, 
ili/iv A.D.), where at a popular demonstration in honour of 
the prytanis the people are described as shouting—ayvol 


πιστοὶ σύνδικοι, ἁγνοὶ πιστοὶ συΐν Ἰή[γορο]ι, ls ὥρας πᾶσι 
τοῖς τὴν πόλιν φιλοῦσιν, ‘ True and upright advocates, true 
and upright assessors! Hurrah for all who love the city!” 
(Edd.). ‘Ayvas in the sense of Phil 117, ‘‘honestly,” is 
common in honorific inscriptions, as OG/S 48 513 (Magnesia, 
Roman age) τὰς λοιπὰς δὲ φιλοτειμίας τελιάσαντα ἁγνῶς 
καὶ ἀμέμπτως, 16. 524° (Thyatira, do.) ἀγορανομήσαντα 
τετράμηνον ἁγνῶς : so as early as Pindar (O/. iii. 37). 

The adjective and its derivatives may accordingly take a 
wide meaning, as wide as our fvere in the ethical sense. But 
a starting-point must not be overlooked: cf. the Avestan 
yasna “ritual,” Sanskrit ya/, Av. yaz ‘‘to worship,” show- 
ing that it originally denoted ‘‘in a condition prepared for 
worship.” The uses noted under ἁγνεία and in this article 
show that this meaning persisted ; and it is not out of sight 
in NT times. In pagan technical language it definitely con- 
noted twofold abstinence, as a necessary condition of entrance 
into a temple. The definition of Heyschius gives us the 
condition in its oldest form: “ ἁγνεύειν" καθαρεύειν ἀπό τε 
ἀφροδισίων kal ἀπὸ vexpod.” 

7G IV. 588% (Argos, ii/A.D.) δικαιοσύνης ἕνεκεν καὶ 
ἁγνότητος (cited by Grimm). 


BGU II. 614” (a.p. 217), tv’ οὖν μὴ ἀγνωσία ἧ. Ρ Ha- 
wara (Archiv v. p. 383) 69" (i/ii A.D.) tre ἀνισθησίαν ἴτε 
ἀγνωσίαν aitiacQwr. The latter instance has the suggestion 
of disgraceful ignorance which attaches to both the NT 


Deissmann (S¢ Paul, p. 261 ff.) supplies an interesting 
parallel to the Greek inscription which St Paul read on an 
altar at Athens, Ac 17% ἀγνώστῳ θεῷ, from a votive inscrip- 
tion, probably of ii/A.D., on an altar discovered at Pergamon 
in 1909. The inscription is mutilated, but may probably be 
restored as follows— 

θεοῖς ἀγν[ώστοις] 
δαδοῦχοί ς]. 

“ΤῸ unknown gods Capito torchbearer.” See also P Giss 
I. 325. (A.D. 117) ἥκω σοι, ὦ δῆμ[ε], οὐκ ἄγνωστος Φοῖβος 
θεός, where the description of Φοῖβος as οὐκ ἄγνωστος may 
be due, as the editor suggests, to the fact that he was the 
god of the special district in question. Cf. also BGU II. 
5908 (A.D. 177-8), where γεν]ομένων ἀγνώστων ἡμεῖν refers 
to two (divine !) Caesars, Commodus and his great father. 
‘© Agnostos Theos” is the title of an elaborate monograph 
by E. Norden (Leipzig, 1913), in which he makes the 
Areopagus speech in Ac 17 the starting-point for a series of 
discussions on the history of the forms of religious speech. 


The ordinary meaning ‘‘market” does not necd illustrat- 
ing. That bankers were to be found there may be seen in 
BGU III. 986° (Hadrian’s reign) διὰ τῆς “A... τοῦ 


Θεογείτονο[ ς τρ]απέ(ζης) ἀγορᾶς. It denotes ‘* provisions,” 
“supplies,” in P Petr II. 13 (17)5 (B.c. 258-3), and 20. 
15 (2)° (B.C. 241-39) [τ]ὴν γινομένην ἀγορὰν eis. . . ‘* pro- 
visions up to a certain amount.” Cf, P Amh II. 29" (c. B.c. 
250) ἢ εἴ twles ἄλλαι ayopal συντάσίσονται, as restored by 
Wilcken, 4vchivii. p. 119. In an important article on the 
system of the conventus, or official circuit of the Prefect in 
Roman Egypt (A7chzv iv. p. 366 ff), Wilcken states that 
ἀγορά is often used = forz in its more pregnant sense of a 
judicial assembly (cf. OGZS 517 note 7). So in BGU III. 
888* (A.D. 160) we find a man described as vopoypados 


The verb (MGr = “‘ buy ”) is common in deeds of sale, e. g. 
P Lond 882*4 (z.c. 101) (= III. p. 14) ἣν ἠγόρασεν παρὰ O., 
26. 1208) (8.6, 97) (=IIT. p. 19). It is used of the purchase 
of slaves in OG/S 33878 (the will of Attalus II1.—B.c. 133): 
cf. 1 Cor 650, 7% τιμῆς ἠγοράσθητε (Deissmann LA Z, 
Ρ. 328). So P Oxy VIII. 11495 ff. (ii/a.p.) ἀ[γο]ράσαι 
παρὰ Tacap[a]mlwvos ὃν ἔχει δοῦλον Σαραπίωνα, ‘to buy 
from Tasarapion her slave Sarapion,” a/. Both the verb 
and the corresponding substantive are found in P Oxy II. 
2051). 48, a long letter by a tax-collector of i/A.D., στατῆρας 
πορφύ[ρ]ας ἀγόρασον . . . ἐὰν εὕρῃς ἀγ[οἱραστὴν τοῦ 
μέρ[ους] τῆς οἰκίας. For ἀγοραστός, see also P Petr II. 
2011. 5,8 (B.C, 252) τοῦ ἀγοραστοῦ = ‘‘(wheat) for sale,” and 
P Tebt I. 301! (A.p. 123) (= Se/ectrons, p. 78) ἀγοραστὴν 
παρὰ Θενπετεσούχον . . . οἰκίαν, “the house as purchased 
from Thenpetesuchus,” αὐ ᾿Αγοράζειν mapa is illustrated 
above (P Lond 120819, P Oxy 1149°, etc.): for ἀ. ἀπό cf. 
P Flor 11. 1751} (A.p. 255) δήλοι (for δήλου) ἀπὸ τίνος 
τέκτονος ἠγοράσθη. For the gen. of price cf. P Par 595 (= 
Witkowski £77, p. 75—B.C. 60) τούτων (sc. I talent 140 
drachmae) ἠγώρακα σίτου ap(taBas) B (Spaxpav) XA κτλ. 


Prof. Lake (Zarlier Epistles of St. Paul, p. 69 n+) regards 
ἀγοραίων in Ac 17° as ‘‘ agitators,” in view of Plutarch demz7. 

aul. 38, ἀνθρώπους ἀγεννεῖς καὶ δεδουλευκότας, ayopatous 
δὲ καὶ δυναμένους ὄχλον συναγαγεῖν, a neat double parallel. 
In Syd 55.355 (ii/B.c.) it is used of “" merchants,” ‘‘ dealers.” 
The grammarian Ammonius (iv/A.D.) would distinguish 
ἀγοραῖος = ἐν ἀγορᾷ τιμώμενος from aydpatos — ἐν ἀγορᾷ 
τεθραμμένος : Cronert remarks that the MSS. vary. For the 
special use seen in Ac 19%8, ἀγοραῖοι ἄγονται Kal ἀνθύπατοί 
εἰσιν, Wilcken (Avchzv iv. ει, under ἀγορά) can only cite 
from the papyri P Oxy III. 4711*° (an advocate’s speech, 
ii/A.D.) [τὰ] Tod. [. . . . .] ἀγοραίου κριτήρ[ια, where it is 
derived from ἀγορά = forzm, (He quotes a striking parallel 
to the whole phrase of Ac Zc. from P Flor I. 614% (a.p. 
86-8) ὅπου διαλογισμοὶ καὶ ἡγέμονες παραγενόμενοι.) In 
OGTS 4845 (1i/A.D.), however, an imperial rescript addressed 
to the Pergamenes, we find tats ἀγοραίοις πιπρασκομένων : 
unfortunately there are gaps on each side, but the gender 
shows that ἡμέραι is understood, denoting in this connexion 
“‘market days.” See also Ramsay’s notes on the a&yopata 
(σύνοδος), conventus zuridicus, at Apamea, C. and B. nos. 
294, 295 (ii. p. 461, also p. 428): also Cagnat IV. 790 and 



᾽Α. is of constant occurrence in the formula used by one 
person signing a deed or letter on behalf of another who 
cannot write—typaa ὑπέρ τινος ἀγραμμάτου, e.g. BGU I. 
1181. 17, 74. 152° (both ii/A.D.): cf. P Oxy 11. 2754 
(A.D. 66) (= Selections p. 58) Ζωίλος . .. ἔγραψα ὑπὲρ 
αὐτοῦ μὴ ἰδότος γράμματα, The great frequency of ἀγράμ- 
ματος, invariably in this sense, suggests that the sneer in 
Ac 415 is intended to picture the Apostles as “illiterate,” 
and not merely ‘‘unversed in the learning of the Jewish 
schools” (Grimm). For the place which dictation had in 
the composition of the NT writings, see Milligan W7 
Documents, pp. 21 ff., 241 ff. 

In the literal sense this verb occurs in P Louvre 10632 
(= Chrest. I. 167}, B.C. 131) ἐὰν τῆς TapaxA[s......... oli 

ἁλιεῖς δυνηθῶσι ἀγρεύειν τὸν [αὐτὸν τρόπον, ὃν καὶ] πρότερον 
εἰθ[εἸσμένοι e[v] τόποις [ἦ]σαν, and P Oxy I. 1229(iii/iv A.D.) 
ἡμεῖ[ς] δὲ ἀγρεύειν τῶν θηρίων δυνά[με]θα οὐδὲ ἕν, ‘and we 
cannot catch a single animal” (Edd. ). 


In view of Sir W. Μ. Ramsay’s recent discussion of the 
meaning of & in Rom 111? (see Pazline Studies, p. 219 ff.), 
the occurrence of the adjective in Sy/7 54018? (ii/B.c.) may be 
noted—kvPous κατασκευ ασάμεϊνος ξύλων ξηρῶν ἀγριελαΐνων. 


P Tebt II. 612 (i/ii A.D.) θήρας ἀγρίῳν : cf. BGU IV. 
1123° (time of Augustus) ἢ ἰχθύας ἢ ἀγρίας ἢ ξυλείας. The 
adjective is used of a ‘“‘ malignant” sore or wound in Syd/ 
802144 (jii/B.c.) ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀγρίον ἕλκεος δεινῶς διακείμ[ενἼος : 
26. 806° (Roman age). 


This old and once common word is unexpectedly rare in 
papyri. P Strass 1. 5.28 (13) (a.p. 151) concerns 2§ arourae of 
“catoecic land,” ἃς kal παρα[δώσει ἡ δεδανισμ]ένη κατ᾽ 
ἀγρὸν σπίορί]μας, ““νν1}} transfer these as they lie in good 
condition for sowing,” as the edd. render the same formula 
in P Ryl II. 164° (a.p. 171): Preisigke, ‘fin einem land- 
wirtschaftlich brauchbaren Zustande, saatfahig.” The same 
connotation of ‘‘agricultural land” appear in a few instances 
we can quote. P Amh II. 6857 (i/a.b.) τῆς vuvel κατ᾽ ἀγρὸν 
θεωρίας. 70. 134°(ii/A.D.) ὄντα ἐν ἀγρῷ μετὰ τῶν θρεμμάτων, 
‘*in the fields with the cattle” ; and as late asiv/a.D., 26. 1434 
ὃ yap ἀγρὸς ᾿Αβίου ἐξῆλθεν els σπ[ο]ράν. In P Oxy III. 
506%? (A.D. 143) ἀπογράφεσθαί τινα ἐπὶ τῶν ἀγρῶν, “register 
any one as owning those lands” : ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀγροῦ has apparently 
been erased. /. VI. 967 (ii/A.D.) καλῶς δὲ ποιήσεις ἔπιστεί- 
λασα els ἀγρὸν ἄρξασθαι τῶν els τοὺς ἀμπελῶνας ποτισμῶν. 
P Eleph 135 (B.C. 223-2), περὶ δὲ τοῦ οἰναρίου ΤΙραξιάδης 
οὔπω εἰσελήλυθεν ἐξ ἀγροῦ : this resembles the ἀπ᾽ ἀγροῦ 
(‘from field labour” probably) in Mk 153. Apart from one 
Byzantine document, the two instances quoted are the only 
occurrences of ἀγρός in P Oxy I.-X., and in the indices to 
P Fay, P Hib, P Tebt, P Grenf and the Revenue Law it 
never appears at all, nor in vols. III. and TV. of BGU. It is 

. , 

not worth while to present the scattered instances that are | 
ἠξάμην is Homeric, and survives in Herodotus and early 

found in some other collections. Cr6nert’s remark that 

ἀγρός is obsolete in MGr, except in Cyprian, having been | 
progressively supplanted by χώρα and χωρίον, falls into line 

with its relative infrequency in the papyri. It is, however, 
very common throughout the LNX, and in the Synoptic 
Gospels (Mt 16, Mk 8, Lk 9). In Acts it only comes once, 
and it may be significant that Luke has χώρα (Lk 1215, 217) 
or χωρίον (Ac 138f, 434, 588, 287) where ἀγρός might have 
been expected. So also Jn 455, 4°, Jas 5σ΄. It is difficult to 
draw a clear inference, but it looks as if for some reason 
ἀγρός was a favourite word with translators from Hebrew or 
Aramaic. We shall meet with other words, rare or com- 
paratively rare in vernacular documents, which have secured 
a good deal of space in bibl. concordances in this way. 


P Giss I. 197 (early ii/A.D.) συν]εχῶς ἀγρυπνοῦσα νυκτὸς 
A[pépas]. P Ryl 11. 62° (iii/A.D.) ἀγρυπνεῖται καὶ κολά- 
ἵεται. For the construction with ἐπί (as in Prov $*4, Job 
2152), see the Septuagint Memorial from Adrumetum of 
iii/A.D., cited by Deissmann BS, p. 275, 1. 6f., ἀγρυπνο[ῦν)τα 
ἐπὶ τῇ φιλίᾳ αὐτῆς κτλ. Cf. P Giss I. 678 (ii/a.p.) οἷς 
ὀφείλω ἐπιτεταγμέϊνως (/. -ταμ-) ἐπ] αγρυπνεῖν. 


This word, in NT only 2 Cor 6°, 1137, is found in Sy// 803°° 
(iii/B.c.) οὗτος ἀγρυπνίαις συνεχόμενος διὰ τὸμ πόνον τᾶς 
κεφαλᾶ[ς]--α passage which also throws light on the NT 
usage of συνέχομαι, e.g. Mt 45 νόσοις καὶ βασάνοις συνε- 
Xopévovs. For the adverb of the primary ἄγρυπνος, see 
OG/S 194” (i/B.c.) ἀ[γρ]ύπνως . . . [ἐφ]ρόντισεν. 


This word, very common in papyri, is claimed for NT 
vocabulary by an acute conjecture of Mr A. Pallis (4 few 
Notes on St Mark and St Matthew, based chiefly on Modern 
Greek, Liverpool, 1903, p. 12). In Mk 655) ἐν ἀγοραῖς 
appears as ἐν πλατείαις in D 565 700; and the Old Syriac, 
Latin and Gothic versions have ‘‘streets,”’ which is pre- 
ferable in sense. Tallis suggests that ἐν ἀγυιαῖς was the 
original, from which bya very slight corruption came ἀγοραῖς 
in the Greek MSS, and by paraphrase πλατείαις in D and 
its fellows. In Oxyrhynchus papyri ἐν ayuid is a recurrent 
legal formula, describing documents drawn up ‘“‘in the 
street”: see Grenfell and Hunt, P Oxy IV. p. 202, and 
Mitteis in Mitteis-Wilcken Papyruskunde, II. i. p. 61 π΄. 


The spread (mostly in the compounds) of the late and 
vulgar sigmatic aor. act. is well seen in uneducated writers of 
papyri. Thus P Grenf II. 441} (A.D. 101) and BGU II. 60718 
(A.D. 163) κατῆξαν, BGU I. 81% (a.p. 189) κατήξαμεν, 
P Ryl I. 27° (iii/a.p.) συνάξας. P Hawara 3124 (ii/A b.) (in 
Archiv v. p. 393) ἄξαι, P Giss I. 27° (ii/A.p.) ἄξω: cf. P Tebt 
I. 2215 διάξησθε (B.c. 112). Thackeray Gr. p. 233 gives 
LXX evidence ; Cronert A/em. Herc., p. 232 n® has pas- 

_ sages from late papyri, together with ἄξωσιν from Hercu- 
laneum (i/A.D.). Cf. also 2 Pet 26, Ac 1457 D, and below. 

W. G. Rutherford Mew Phrynichus, p. 217f., shows that 

Attic. Whether its appearance in (mostly illiterate) papyri 
is due to survival in dialects, especially Ionic, or to inde- 
pendent recoinage of a very obvious type, need not be 
discussed here. The importance of the form for the NT 
was emphasized by Moulton in Camé. Bibl. Essays, p. 485 
(1909), (cf. Aznlectung, p. 84). In Lk 3}7 N*reads συνάξαι, 
as do all authorities in 134 (ἐπισυνάξαι), We may be quite 

| sure that Luke never emended the normal strong aorist into 

this colloquial, if not uneducated form. It was therefore in 
Q, and Mt 3%, 2357 represent emendations—one to the 
future, which appeared in the last clause of the verse 
(κατακαύσει), the other to the ‘‘correct” infinitive ἐπισυν- 
ayayety: the latter emendation figures in all MSS. except 
δ in Lk 317. The point has important results, when set 
among others of like nature, in the discussion of the 
synoptic problem: see #xfos. VII. vii. p. 413. The active 
perfect of &yw does not appear in NT; but we may note 
that ἀγήγοχα (Tobit 12%) can be quoted from OG/S 
219} (iii/B.c.), 267!” (ii/B.c.). There are many varieties 
here : -ayéwxa P Tebt I. 5138 (B.c. 118) and Letronne 84 
(i/B.c.) ; a@yeloxa (or cpd.) P Tebt I. 195 (8c. 114), P 
Par 1557 (B.c. 120), P Ryl II. 675 (ii/B.c.), P Oxy 11. 28314 
(A.D. 45), Ρ Leid B* (ii/B.c.) ; -ayéoxa P Tebt I. 124 
(c. B.c. 118). We have not attempted to make this list 

For ἄγω in the sense of ‘‘ fetch,” ‘‘carry away,’’ see 
P Oxy IV. 7427 (B.c. 2), where instructions are given to 
deposit certain bundles of reeds in a safe place ἵνα τῇ 
ἀναβάσει αὐτὰς ἄξωμεν. Wilcken’s proposal (2f. Witkowski 
Epp.*, p. 128) that ἄξωμεν should be assigned to &yvupe 
seems to us improbable. For the construction with pera 
(2 Tim 411) cf. P Petr II. 32 (22) ἄγων μεθ’ αὑτοῦ. For 
“bring before” a court of justice, as Mt 1048, Ac 18", cf. 
BGU I. 22%. (A.D. 114) (= Selections, p. 76) διὸ ἀξιῶ 
ἀκθῆναι τοὺς ἐνκαλουμένους ἐπὶ σὲ πρὸς δέουσ(αν) ἐπέξοδον, 
—a petition to the Strategus. So also P. Tebt II. 33.116 1 
(c. A.D. 131) ἀξιῶ ἀχθῆναι αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ σέ: the constr. with 
ἔπί is regular, asin NT. Note P Oxy X. 1279 (A.D. 139) 
μετὰ δὲ τὴν πενταετίαν οὐκ ἀχθήσομαι els τὴν μίσθωσιν 
“*T shall not be forced to take the lease” (Edd.). ”Ayew 
for ‘‘keeping,” ‘‘ holding” a special day or festival (as 
Tob 1115: cf. Ac 19%8 ἀγοραῖοι dyovrar—see s.v. ἀγο- 
patos) appears in OG/S 456!° καταγγελεῖς τῶν πρώτων 
ἀ(χ)θησοϊμένων ἀγώνων], ‘‘heralds of the first games 
that shall be held.” So with ἐ[νιαυσίας ἑ]ο[ρ]τάς in 
OGTIS 111*8 ; P Oxy VII. 1025} (iii/a.D.) pass. with θεωρίαι ; 
P Giss 1. 27° (ii/A.D.) στεφανηφορίαν ἄξω. More generally 
we have σχολὴν ἄγειν in P Tebt 11. 315! (ii/a.p.), and 
ἄγοντος τὰ κατ᾽ ἔϊτο]ς γεωργικὰ ἔργα in P Kyl II. 1549 
(A.D. 66). Somewhere under this heading will come Lk 247 
τρίτην ταύτην ἡμέραν ἄγει, where if the verb is not im- 
personal, 6 "Ingots might be supplied as subject. The 
intransitive ἄγειν may be seen in the meaning ‘‘ lead,” of 
a road or canal, as P Petr I. 22 (2); and a rather simi- 
lar intransitive use occurs in an Egyptian inscr. of 
Augustus (Pretsigke 401, A.D. 10-1) who records that he 
ποταμ[ὸν] .. . ἤγαγεν... ῥέοντα Sv ὅλης τῆς πόλεως : 
in the Latin equivalent ffwnen... *“Ayopev 
(as in Jn 14*) survives in MGr ἄμε, ‘‘go’’ (Thumb). 




The figurative sense of ἀγωγή, as in 2 Tim. 319, may be 
paralleled from P Par 611] f (B.C. 156) πάντα ἐστὶν ἀλλότρια 
τῆς τε ἡμῶν ἀγωγῆς, P Tebt I. 2457 (B.c. 117) μ[ο]χθηρὰν 
ἀγωγήν. Cf. OGIS 223} (iii/B.c.) φαίνεσθε γὰρ καθόλου 
ἀγωγῆι ταύτῃ χρῆσθαι, and 72. 474° (i/A.p.) διὰ [τὴν κο- 
σμιωτάτην αὐτῆς] ἀγωγήν with Dittenberger’s note. ἃ good 
example is also afforded by 77αρε 164° (i/ii A.D.) ἤθει 
Kal ἀγωγῇ κόσμιον. As action-noun to ἄγειν, it means 
*freightage” in Sy// 58717 (B.c. 329-8, Attic) τῆς τομῆς 
τῶν λίθων καὶ τῆς ἀγωγῆς Kal τῆς θέσεως. Hence “ load,” 
“freight,” cf Wilcken Os¢r. ii. 707 (Ptol.) ἀχύρου ἀγω(γὴν) 
ἕνα (sic), ὁ. 1168 εἰς τὰς Kapelvous ἀγω(γαί) (sc. ἀχύρου) : 
so P Oxy IX. 119710 (a.p. 211), P Lond ττό4(1)7 and 34 
(A.D. 212) (=III. p. 164 f.). ᾿Αγωγὴν ποιεῖσθαι = ** carry 
off,” ‘‘arrest,”’ is found in P Tebt I. 39% (B.c. 114) and 70. 
4851. (c. B.C. 113), and in P Fay 12% (c. B.c. 103) the 
substantive occurs in the sense of ‘‘abduction.” For a. as 
a legal term see P Lond gs514 (A Ὁ. 249) (=III. p. 221) 
ὁμολογῶ μηδεμίαν ἀγωγὴν ἔχειν κατὰ μηδένα τρ[όπ]ον πρός 
oe, and cf. “«γελήν iv. p. 466. 


The ethical meaning of ἀγών is requent in late Greek, e. g. 
P Flor I. 3628 (iv/A.b.) τ[ὸ]ν περὶ ψυχῆς ἀγῶ[ν]α. In Col 2}, 
however, Field (Votes, p. 195) prefers to think of outward, 
rather than of inward, conflict, and compares Plut. ΚΔ. Flam. 
XVI. πλεῖστον δ᾽ ἀγῶνα καὶ πόνον αὐτῷ παρεῖχον αἱ περὶ 
“Καλκιδέων δεήσεις πρὸς τὸν Μάνιον, where Langhorne trans- 
lates, ‘‘ but he had much greater difficulties to combat, when 
he applied to Manius in behalf of the Chalcidians.” In a 
petition of B.c. 5, BGU IV. 11397", we find διὸ ἀξιοῦμέν [σε] 
τὸν πάντων σωτῆρα Kal avTiAnp Tropa ὑπὲρ σπλάγχνου τὸν 
ἀγῶνα ποιούμενοι to compel restitution of a stolen daughter. 
For the literal meaning, see Sy// 524 where various τῶν τε 
παίδων καὶ τῶν ἐφήβω[ν] ... ἀγώνες in reading, music, etc., 
are enumerated; BGU IV. 1074%° (iii/A.D.) of great games 
at Oxyrhynchus, etc., etc. 


P Tebt II. 42318 (early iii/A.D.) ὡς εἰς ἀγωνίαν με γενέσθαι 
ἐν τῷ πάροντι, ‘‘so I am at present very anxious ’ (Edd.). 
The corresponding verb is common with the meaning ‘‘to 
be distressed,” “τὸ fear.” Thus P Petr II. 11 (1) ἵνα εἰδῶμεν 
ἐν ols εἶ Kal μὴ ἀγωνιῶμεν, “that we may know what you are 
about, and we may not be anxious” (Ed.) ; 7d. 111. 53 (/)!° 1: 
ov yap ὡς ἔτυχεν ἀγωνιῶμεν, “for we are in a state of 
no ordinary anxiety” (Edd.); P Oxy IV. 7444 (B.c. 1) 
(= Selections, p. 32), μὴ ἀγωνιᾷς, ‘do not worry’; 70.14 
ἐρωτῶ oe οὖν ἵνα μὴ ἀγωνιάσῃς, “1 urge you therefore not 
to worry.” An almost contemporary instance is afforded by 
BGU IV. 1078°® (A.D. 39) ὅτι ἀγωνιῶ περὶ ὑμῶν : of a later 
date are P Giss I. 17°1# (time of Hadrian), τό. 19% μεγάλως 
ἀγωνιῶσα περί σου, PSI 947° (ii/A.D.) μὴ ἀγωνία δὲ περὶ 
τῶν ἱματίων. The verb is found twice in the apocryphal 
Gospel of Peter 5, ἠγωνίων μή ποτε ὁ ἥλιος ἔδυ, and 
10 ἀγωνιῶντες μεγάλως καὶ λέγοντες ᾿Αληθῶς υἱὸς ἣν θεοῦ. 
On the translation of ἀγωνία in Lk 2244 see a note by 
Moffatt in Zag. VIII. vii. p. 91 ff. 




is very common in the inscriptions, 6. σ. Sy// 213°% 
(ii/B.C.) ἀγωνιζόμενος ὑπὲρ τῆς κοινῆς σωτηρίας, where the 
reference is to warfare. So 26. 163}8 (B.c. 318-7) πρ]οείλετο 
τελευτῆσαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἐναντίων aylwvitdpevlos ὑπὲρ τῆς δημο- 
κρατίας : 7%. 1997 (iti/B.c.) and 198!9 (B.c. 281) ἀγωνιζόμενος 
ὑπίὲρ αὐτοῦ], etc. Cf. an Athenian inscription of B.c. 
268-6, Sy// 214), ἐπειδὴ πρότερομ μὲν ᾿Αθηναῖοι καὶ 
«Λακεδαιμόνιοι καὶ οἱ σύμμαχοι οἱ ἑκατέρων φιλίαν καὶ 
συμμαχίαν κοινὴν ποιησάμενοι πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς πολλοὺς: καὶ 
καλοὺς ἀγῶνας ἠγωνίσαντο per ἀλλήλων πρὸς τοὺς κατα- 
δουλοῦσθαι τὰς πόλεις ἐπιχειροῦντας. The phrase here 
hardly differs from 2 Tim 47, and when taken along with 
the preceding inscription makes it decidedly less clear that 
the figure there is drawn from the games, as Deis-mann 
thinks (2.4.2, Ὁ. 312), illustrating the passige from a ii/A.D. 
inscription from the theatre at Ephesus—jyovicaro ἀγῶνας 
τρεῖς, ἐστέφθη δύω (Greek Inscriptions in the British Museum 
III. 604). For the rare use of &. with an inf. asin Lk 1359 
ἀγωνίζεσθε εἰσελθεῖν, Field (odes, p. 66) compares Diod. 
Sic. X., p. 25, ed. Bip. : ὥστε 6 μὲν πατὴρ ἐξίστασθαι τῆς 
ὅλης ἀρχῆς ἠγωνίζετο τῷ παιδί. The verb is MGr. 


This NT ἅπ. εἰρ. (1 Cor 915) is found in ἤλίελεῖ 10067 
(Teos, ii/B.c.) ἀδάπανον τὴν συμμορίαν καθιστάνειν : cf. 
Priene 111)%8 (end of i/B.C.). 


P Oxy IV. 744! (B.c. 1) (= Selections, p. 32). “T\apt- 
ova (/.-wv)” Adute τῆι ἀδελφῆι πλεῖστα χαίρειν, ““ Hilarion to 
Alis, his sister, heartiest greetings,” Alis being doubtless wife 
as well as sister, by a not uncommon Egyptian practice. 
It figured in Egyptian religion: cf. P Oxy VI. 8867 - (iti/a.b.) 
ἡ lows ζητοῦσα ἑαυτῆς Tov ἀδελφὸν κὲ ἄνδρα "Οσιρειν. Cf. 
for this an Egyptian inser. of the reign of Augustus, Archiv 
vy. p. 164’ Α[ρ]τεμίδωρος ᾿Ανουβᾶτος καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἀδελφὴ “Hpa- 
κλία. . . καὶ 6 υἱὸς “EppavotB(t)s, and still more clearly P 
Tebt II. 320° (a.b. 181) ta[s]... γυναικὸς... [οὔσης polv 
ὁμοπίατρίου) Kal ὁμ[ομ(ητρίου) ἀδ]ελ(φῆς). But there 
seem to be places where the word means simply ‘‘ wife” : 
see under ἀδελφός, and cf. P Oxy VII. 1070 (iii/a.D.), where 
a man addresses his wife as ἀδελφή and speaks of ** our child 
and your brother and your father and your mother and all 
our (relations)’—clearly she was not ‘‘sister” literally. 
Dittenberger on OG/S 60% (B.C. 247-21) Βερενίκη, ἡ ἀδελφὴ 
kal γυνὴ αὐτοῦ (Ptolemy Euergetes), shows that ἀδελφή 
was an honorary title: Berenice was her husband’s cousin. 

For the later metaphorical use of the word (1 Cor 7", etc.), 
cf. the Paris magical papyrus 1. 1135 ff. χαίρετε ols τὸ 
χαίρειν ἐν εὐλογίᾳ δίδοται ἀδελφοῖς Kal ἀδελφαῖς ὁσίοις 
καὶ ὁσίαις. 


For the literal and the more general derived sense we may 
quote Sy// 474° ἀδελφοὶ ols κοινὰ τὰ πατρῷα, and 276" διὰ 
τὸ Μεσσαλιήτας εἶναι ἡμῖν ἀδελφούς]. In P Lond 421 
(B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30, Selections p. 9) ᾿Ισίας Ἡφαιστίωνι 
τῶι ἀδελφῶ[ι χαί(ρειν)], it seems probable that Isias is 


addressing her Azsband, not brother : see Kenyon’s note ad /. 
where Letronne’s statement that the Ptolemies called their 
wives ἀδελφαί even where they were not actually so is 
quoted. Witkowski £//.2 p. 61 maintains this against 
Wilcken, quoting Wilamowitz (Gr. Zeseduch I. p. 397), and 
noting that Isias says ἡ μήτηρ σου, showing that Isias and 
Hephaestion were not children of the same mother. Cf. 
also P Par 45 and 48 (ii/B.c.) where men address with τῷ 
ἀδελφῷ χαίρειν men who are no relation to them. For the 
use of ἀδελφοί to denote members of the same religious com- 
munity cf. P Tor I. 1-20 (ii/B.c.) where the members of a 
society which had to perform a part of the ceremony of 
embalming bodies are described as ἀδελφῶν τῶν τὰς 
λειτουργίας ἐν ταῖς vekpiats παρεχομένων, and in P Par 
q2iete. (jj/B.c.) the same designation is applied to the 
“fellows” of a religious corporation established in the 
Serapeum of Memphis. In P Tebt I. 12 (8.6. 118) Crénert 
assumes that one town clerk addresses another as ἀδελφός : 
Grenfell and Hunt take it literally—see their introduction. 
Cronert quotes also Sy// 607 (tii/iv A.D.), where it is used 
between two δεκάπρωτοι, and OG/S 2572 (B.c. 109), where 
one king so addresses another. In this last case the kings 
were the sons of sisters, but Dittenberger warns us against 
taking ἀδελφός as used loosely for ἀνεψιός. He refers to 
OGTS 1383 (ii/B.c.), where Ptolemy Euergetes II. addresses 
as ‘‘brother” one Lochus, who in other inscriptions is 
ovyyevqs—‘‘ our trusty and well-beloved cousin,” as an 
English king would have put it. ᾿Αδελφέ as a term of 
address may be illustrated by P Flor 11. 228 (iii/A.D.), where 
Palas thrice calls Heroninus ἀδελφέ : in four other letters to 
him, from about the same time, he only calls him φίλτατος. 
So P Tebt 11. 314! (ii/A.D.) ἔρρωσό por ἄδελφε, in a letter 
addressed at the beginning τῷ] τιμιωτάτῳ. (The voc. survives 
in Pontic MGr &§e\de—elsewhere aSeppé—says Thumb.) 
A clear case is Βα IV. 1209? (B.c. 23), where Tryphon 
addresses τῶι ἀδελφῶι, and goes on to write of his correspon- 
dent’s late brother as his own former friend: τοῦ εὐκλήρου 
ἀδελφοῦ cov ἡμῶν δὲ φίλου γενομένου ΠΠετεχῶντος. ᾿Αδελφός 
as a title of address is discussed in Rhezn. Mus. N.F. ἵν. 
p- 170. From the Christian papyri we may note P Grenf 
11. 73? (late iii/a.D.) (= Selections p. 117) ᾿Απόλλωνι 
πρεσβυτέρῳ ἀγαπητῷ ἀδελφῷ ἐν K(vupt)w χαίρειν, P. Lond 
41711: (c. A.D. 346) ( ΞΞ 11. p. 299, Selections p. 123) τῷ 
δεσπότῃ μου καὶ ἀγαπητῷ ἀδελφῷ ᾿Αβιννέῳ πραι(ποσίτῳ), 
and P Jand 11° (iii/iv A.D.) τῷ κυρίῳ μον ἀδελφῷ Πέτρῳ (cf. 
Wilcken, Archiv vi. p. 295). For the Christian use of the 
word see Harnack A/isston and Expansion of Christianity" 1. 
Ῥ. 405 ff. On ἀδελφός ““ improperly” used in the LXX, see 
anote by Hort 7he Zpestle of St. James, p. 102f. 


This word, which is confined to 1 Pet 217, 59 in the NT, 
occurs in the late P Giss I. 57? (vi/vii a.D.), P Oxy I. 158? 
(same date) παρακαλῶ τὴν ὑμετέραν λαμπρὰν γνησίαν ἀδελ- 
φότητα, “1 urge you, my true and illustrious brother.” From 
an earlier date may be quoted Ramsay C. and B., ii. p. 720, 
no. 655 (prob. iii/A.D.) εἰρήν[η] πάσῃ τῇ adeA[PdtyT]L: 
the inscription is the dedication of a κοιμητήριον, which 
Ramsay notes as a Christian term appearing as early as A.D. 
251. Ramsay’s remark, ‘‘It is noteworthy that the collect- 
ive ἀδελφότης had already been formed,” betrays forgetfulness 

Part 1. 


of 1 Pet //.cc., as well as of occurrences in Dion Chrysostom 
and 1 and 4 Maccabees: see Grimm. Crénert adds Vettius 

Valens, whom Kroll dates under the Antonines—see his 
index s.v, 


P Lond 940° (a.p. 226) (=III. p. 118) ἀδήλου ὄντος εἰ 
ὑμεῖν διαφέρει ἡ κληρονομία, P Oxy I. 1185 (late ili/A.D.) 
διὰ τὸ ἄδηλον τῆς ὁδοιπορίας. 


Lighttoot’s translation of ἀδημονῶν, ““ distressed,” in Phil 
255, is borne out by P Oxy II. 29845 1. (i/a.p.) λίαν ἀδημονοῦμεν 
χάρ[ι]ν τῆς θρεπτῆς Σαραποῦτος, where the editors render, 
“I am excessively concerned on account of the foster-child 
Sarapous.” Towards the etymology of this word, T. W. Allen 
(CR xx. p. 5) traces an adj. δήμων in the //éad (M 211), 
with the meaning ‘‘ knowing” “ prudent,” so that ἀδημονεῖν 
would suggest originally bewilderment. The adj. must be 
independent of δαήμων, though ultimately from the same 
root (devs, as in δέδαε, Skt dasmdh: cf. Boisacq Dict. 
Ltym., Ρ. 168). 


Without suggesting that there is anything to be called a 
real parallel with Rev 218, it may be worth while to quote P 
Oxy I. 331 $® (late ii/A.D.), an interesting papyrus describing 
an interview between M. Aurelius or Commodus and a rebel, 
τίς ἤδη τὸν δεύτερόν μου ᾷδην προσκυνοῦντα καὶ τοὺς mpd 
ἐμοῦ τελευτήσαντας ... μετεκαλέσατο, zc. ‘facing death 
for the second time.” The word does not appear in the 
indices of any papyrus collection, so far as non-literary 
documents go: the magic papyrus, P Leid Vvii- 90 (οὗ ἡ 
γῆ ἀκούσασα ἐλεύσεται, ὁ ἄδης ἀκούων ταράσσεται) will 
serve as exception to prove the rule. Except for its appro- 
priation from the literary language to represent Sheo/ in the 
LXX, we should probably not find it in NT. It is signifi- 
cant that Paul substitutes θάνατε for ἅδη when quoting Hos 
13! in 1 Cor 15°. Prof. W. M. Calder tells us the word is 
common on tombstones in Asia Minor—doubtless a survival 
of its use in the old Greek religion. 


OGIS τοορῦ fii/A.D.) οὐδὲ τοῦτο τὸ μέρος κατέλιπον 
ἀδιάκριτον. For the adv. see P Oxy IV. 7155 (a.p. 131) 
where a registration of property is certified with the words 
κ[αἸτακεχώ(ρικα) ἀδιακ(ρίτως ἢ). The editors translate 4. 
“jointly,” as = κοινῶς ἐξ ἴσου in 1. 7, but Wilcken (Archiv 
iv. p. 254) prefers ‘‘ohne Untersuchung ’’—a rendering 
which may help us in Jas 317. 


Syll 7325 (c. B.C. 34) ἐφ᾽ ἣ ἔσχηκεν πρὸς τὴν σύνοδον 
ἀδιαλίπτωι φιλοτιμίᾳ. In the adverb we have an early 
example of this Hellenistic compound in P Tebt I. 2746 
(B.C. 113), τ]ὴν ἀδιαλίπτως προσφερομ[ένην σ]π[ο]υδήν : cf. 
BGU_ 1. 180° (μι A.D.) ἐν λειτουργίᾳ εἰμ] ἀδιαλεί- 
[πτΊως, Sy// 7325 (i/B.c.) ἀδιαλίπτως δὲ ἐπαγωνιζόμενος, 
76. 805* (Roman period) of a cough. Other citations are 


ἀδιόφθορος 10 ἀεί 

261-0) σῖτον καθαρὸν ἄδολον ἀπὸ πάντων μετρήσει, 2). 9819 
(B.C. 251-0) σῖτον κα[θαρὸν ἄ]δ[ο]λον κεκοσκιν[ευμένον] 
(‘‘sifted”). Six examples come from this volume of iii/B.c. 
all referring to ‘‘ unadulterated” corn. From i/a.D. we may 
cite P Oxy VIII. 11241 (A.p. 26) πυρὸν νέο[ν] καθαρὸν ἄδολον 
ἄκρειθον, ‘‘ wheat that is new, pure, unadulterated, and un- 
mixed with barley.” PSI 31% (4.b. 164) τὰ ἐκφόρια παραδώσω 
τ ᾿ ἐν τῇ κώμῃ καθαρὰ καὶ ἄδωλα gives the adj. a general appli- 
ἀδικέω. cation to all farm produce. P Oxy IV. γ72915 (Α.Ὁ. 137) 

The verb is common in petitions, as P Tebt I. 42° ἀπ)οδότωσαν τῷ μεμισθ[ωἸκότι τὸν μὲν οἶνον παρὰ ληνὸν 
(c. B.C. T14) ἠδικημένος καθ᾽ ὑπερβολὴν ὑπ[ὸ] “Αρμιύσιος, γέον ἄδολον gives the rare application to liquids: cf. P Ryl 
P Eleph 27(a)-® (ili/B C.) τούτου δὲ γενομένου ἐσόμεθα οὐκ | J]. 97%(4.p. 139), of oil. The wordis used οἴλαχανοσπέρμον, 
ἠδικιρεενοι : so P Passal® (Ptol.) (=Witkowski Zp.” p. 53) | ‘vegetable seed,” in P Fay 89" (a.p. 9), and of λάχανον 
φρόντισον οὖν, ὅπως μὴ ἀδικηθῆι ὁ ἄνθρωπος. With cognate | in BGU IV. 101512 (A.D. 222-3). Cf. Sy// 65329 (i/B.c.) 
acc. (as in Col 3%) BGU IV. 11387 (i/B.c.) ὃ ἠδίκησεν οἱ πωλοῦντες ἄδολα Kal καθαρά. So of χρῖμα in Aeschylus 
ἐμαρτύρησ(εν). In the sense of Aarming something inanim- Agam. 95 (but cf. Verrall), and in MGr of wine (Abbott, 
ate (Rev 6% 7%%—the latter paralleled in Thucydides) see | Sos of Modern Greece, p. 68). The figurative use appears 
Sy 5578 τὴν δὲ λοιπὴν χώραν τὴν ἱερὰν tod ᾿Απόλλωνος in the late P Par 2115 (a deed of sale, a.D. 616), ὅμολο- 


In Sy// 16825 (Ἰν}8.6.} the Athenian statesman Lycurgus 
is praised as ἀδιάφθορον κί αὶ ἀνεξέλεγκτον αὑτὸν ὑπὲρ] τῆς 
πατρίδος. . . παρ[έχων]. Some late MSS. give the de- 
rived ncun (-(a) in Tit 27, and Grimm ingenuously traces 
our adjective to the verb ἀδιαφθείρω ! 

τοῦ Πτωΐου μὴ ἀδικεῖν μηδένα, and cf. SCH 1902, p. 217: | yoopev.. . ἀδύλῳ συνειδήσει. 
ἐάν τις τὴν στήλην ἀδικήσει, κεχολωμένον ἔχοιτο Mijva | 
καταχθόνιον. The wider sense οἵ ἀδικεῖν “injure” is well | ex 7 


illustrated by Swete on Rev 2}. uf τι = β 
y In Wilcken Os¢y. ii. 1600 (ii/A.D.) ἅδροκ appears twice, 

Se representing presumably something from ἁδρός. The ad- 
ἀδίκημα. jective occurs in BGU IIT. γδινῖ: 5 (i/a.p.) πατέλλον ἁδρόν. 
The concrete noun from ἀδικεῖν, defined in Aristotle (a/. 
Thayer) as τὸ ἄδικον ὅταν πραχθῇ, occurs frequently. So | |. ἢ 
BGU IV. τορδ33 (18.6.}, a marriage contract, of a ‘‘wrong” ἀδυνατέω. 
done to the wife (εἰς αὐτὴν ἀδίκημα), P Lille I. 291 (iii/B.c.) Applied to persons this verb retains its classic sense, 
ἐὰν δέ τις περὶ ἀδικήματος [ré]po[v] οἰκέτηι ὄντι δίκην ‘to be incapable,” in late Greek: cf. P Par 35°°(B.c. 163), 
γραψάμενος ὡς ἐλευθέρωι καταδικάσηται, P Amh 11. 3318 διὰ τὸ ἐμὲ ἐν κατοχεῖ Evra ἀδυνατεῖν, 20. 63!’ 1: (B.C. 165) 
(.- B.C 157) ἐνφανισμῶν περί τινων ἀδικημάτω[ν] καὶ ὅπως μήτεν τῶν ἀδυνατούντων γεωργεῖν περισπᾶται μηθείς, 
παραλογειῶν σίτου τε καὶ χαλκοῦ ‘‘ misdeeds and pecula- | and“?! τοὺς ἀδυνατοῦντας ἀναγκάζειν ἐπιδέχεσθαι τὰ τῆς 
tions,” A/ichel 472191., 88.4581., 100987, etc. | γεωργίας. The neuter sense, ‘‘to be impossible,” when 
applied to things, appears in the LXX, which seems to tell in 
favour of the AV rendering in Lk 1°7, as against the RV: 
see Hatch Essays p. 4, Ficld Notes p. 46 f., where the true 
reading παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ (RV) is rendered ‘‘ for from God no 
word (or, nothing) shall be impossible.” 


P Oxy IX. 1203%4 (i/a.p.) τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς Λεονίδου 
ἐπὶ τῇ ἡμῶν ἀδικίᾳ πραχθέντα ‘‘done by his father L. to 
our hurt.” BGU IV. 11234 (i/B.c.) μηδ᾽ ἄλλο μηδὲν 
ἐπιτελεῖν ἐπὶ τῇ τοῦ ἑτέρου ἀδικίᾳ. P Tebt I. 104? (B.c. 

> , 
92) the husband may not alienate the property, ἐπ᾽ ἀδικίαι ἀδύνατος. 

τῆι ᾿Απολλωνίαι. P Magd 1419 (1111...) συγγρα]φὴ ἐπ᾽ In P Par 66% (late Ptol.) πρεσβύτεροι καὶ ἀδύνατοι are 
ἀδικίαι γεγραμμένη. It is curious that this recurrent com- | men ‘*not strong enough” to work: cf. also P Lond g7r# 

bination should not appear in NT (except in 1 Cor 138, | (ili/iv A.D.) (=I. p. 128) ἀδύνατος γάρ ἐστιν ἡ γυνὴ διὰ 
which is quite different), among two dozen instances of the | ἀσθένιαν τῆς φύσεως] and 2%. 6785 (B.c. 99-8) (= III. Ρ- 18) 
noun. For the concrete sense we find in papyri the neuter | ἀ]δύνατίος ὄμμ]ασι. In Sy// S02 (11,8...) ἀδύνατος is 
ἀδίκιον, which is also Attic, and quotable from Ionic inscrip- | associated with ἀπίθανος, applied to ἰάματα, 26. 512% 

tions: see instances in Mayser Gr. p. 432. (ui/B.c.) of witnesses unable to appear. 
ἄδικος. ἄδω. 
P Tebt II. 2867 (a.p. 121--38) νομὴ ἄδικος [οὐ]δὲν εἰσχύει, For the dative construction as in Eph 53, Col 31", cf. from 

‘unjust possession is invalid”; 26. 30 215 (A.p. 71-2) ἄδικον | the LXX Judith 16 1% doare τῷ κυρίῳ, and such passages 
[ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ἀπαιτεῖσθαι]. Of a person, BGU II. 531% 21 | as Philostr. ρίας. i. xi. 780 Καύστρῳ ταῦτα καὶ Ἴστρῳ 
(ii/A.D.) πέπεισαι [γὰρ] μοῦ τῇ γνώμῃ ὡς οὔτε εἰμὶ ἄδικος ᾷσονται, Heliod. Aethiop. Ve U5 ἐμβατήρια ad. Διονύσῳ 

οὔτε ἀ[λ]λοτρίων ἐπιθυμητής. Instances need not be mul- | (Nageli, p. 42). For the passive see P Giss I. ουϑ (ii/iii a.p.) 

tiplied. | ὕμνοι μὲν di[Sovrar] γλώττῃ ξενικῇ. 
ἄδολος. | ἀεί. 
The sense of this adjective in 1 Pet 25 is now set at rest It may he well to note that ἀεί, whose oldest form is αἰξεί, 

by its constant occurrence in the papyri in the sense of | is the locative of a neuter noun identical with Lat. aevom : 
“unadulterated.” Thus P Hib 1. 8518} (p.c. | αἰών is the same word in a different declension. The papyrus 


‘ > 
** pure, 

ἀετός ΠῚ 

form is ἀεί, as Mayser shows, p. 103 f. : αἰεί, which Brug- 
mann Grech. Gram.* p. 57 thinks to be re-formed under 
the influence of aidy, crept in after the Ptolemaic period. 
It occurs however as early as B.C. 22 in the new parchment 
from Avroman in Western Media (P Said Khan 2 49), de- 
scribed by E. H. Minns at the Hellenic Society (Nov. 11, 
1913): τελέσουσι δ᾽ αἰεὶ κατ᾽ ἐνιαυτίό]ν κτλ. It figures 
in the standing formula of the Decian libelli (A.D. 250) : as 
P Ryl IL. 112 αὐ, ἐδ, ες. The word comes most frequently 
in similar formal phrases, like ἐπὶ or εἰς Tov ἀεὶ χρόνον (e. g. 
P Oxy III. 503°°—a.p. 118, or P Lips I. 3i-8—a.p. 256), 
or in the stiff language of legal documents, as BGU IV. 
1108** (B.c. 5) ete. It only occurs in this one place in 
BGU I.-IV.: in P Oxy I.-X. its total is 7, for the non- 
dissociated from formula. It may be seen also eight times 
in CPR in a standing formula. It is significant in this con- 
nexion that it is greatly outnumbered in NT by πάντοτε, which 
replaces itin MGr. Note the petition P Ryl II. 1148 (c. a.p. 
280) oikiwrat . . TOD. [ἐμὲ τὴν xnpaly . . ἀεὶ ἀποστερεῖν, 
““it has become a habit with S. on all occasions to rob me”’ 


Michel 833" (Delos, inventory of temple treasures, B.C. 
279), ἀετὸς ἀργυροῦς τῶν ἀρχαίων διαπεπτωκώς. Asa con- 
stellation name it appears twice in ἃ calendar, Ρ Hib I. 27107 138 
(c. B.C. 300), and rather later in the Eudoxus papyrus. 
Mayser (p. 104) cites instances of its appearance as a proper 
name, by way of showing that the old Attic spelling αἰετός 
did not survive : it may be seen in Sy// 537°® (second half of 
iv/B.C.), where the word is an architectural term (= gable). 
In Sy// 583" (i/A.D.) we have a marble altar of Zeus at 
Smyrna, ἔχων ἀετὸν ἐν ἑαυτῷ : so 7. 588! (Delos, c. B.C. 
180) ἀετοῦ κεφαλὴ ἀργυρᾶ ἐπίχρυσος. 


To the instances of this word from profane authors in 
Grimm-Thayer, add Hippocrates Περὶ Avatrys III. 79, where 
it is used along with ἄρτος. 


This vernacular word (Lk 23!? D) is supported by P Par 
11° (B.C. 157) καταπεφευγότας διὰ τὴν ἀηδίαν, 2). 487 π΄ 
(B.C. 153) τοῦ πρός σε τὴν ἀηδείαν ποήσαντος, ‘* who had 
that disagreement with you,” P Lond 3425 1: (a.p. 185) 
(= Il. p. 174) ἄλογον ἀηδίαν συνεστήσαντο, and almost 
identically BGU I. 2244f (a.p. 114) (= Selections, p. 75) ; 
ef. P Tebt II. 3049 (A.D. 167-8) ἀητίαν [2.6. -δίαν] 
συῆψαν (1. συν-), ‘they picked a quarrel.” The verb ἀηδίζο- 
patoccurs in P Lond 42'+*7 (p.c. 172) (=I. p. 30, Se/ections, 
p- 10 f.) in the sense ‘‘I am troubled, distressed.” For the 
adverb see BGU II.665!1 19f (i/a.D.) ἀηδῶς δὲ ἔσχον περὶ 
τοῦ ἵππου, 20. III. So1®* (ii/A.p.) λείαν ἀ[η]δῶς ἤκουσα 

παρὰ κτὰ. Instances of these words are frequent: we need 
not cite more. 



A very late (vi/A.D.) citation may be made from an 
illiterate document which fairly proves the word in continued 
vernacular use: P Lond 991" (= III. p. 258) ἀπὸ Onpedtov 
ἕως ἀέρως. Vettius Valens p. 330!® has 6 τε περικεχυμένος 

» , 

ἀὴρ ἄφθαρτος ὑπάρχων καὶ διήκων els ἡμᾶς ἀπόρροιαν και- 
ρικὴν ἀθανασίας ἀπονέμει κτὰ. In Wiinsch AF 45 (iii/A.p.) 
we have ἀέρος τὴν ἐξουσίαν ἔχοντα Qn ᾿Ιάω eeach—but in 
syneretic documents of this kind a reminiscence of Eph 2? is 
not excluded. Add P Leid Will 88 9 ἀέρα βλέπων. In 
ΒΟΌΣ IV. 1207® (n.c. 28) we find some gauzy fabrics 
described as depo:[t]54. The noun survives in MGr. 

This word, which in the NT is confined to 1 Cor 15°3f., 
1 Tim 615, occurs several times in Wisdom, but not else- 
where in the Greek OT: cf. however, Sirach 512 A kal ἀπὸ 
ἀθανάτου ῥύσεως ἐδεήθην, ‘and to the Immortal One did 
I pray for deliverance,” and see also Didache 48. As show- 
ing the wider connotation of the word in early times, cf. the 
description of Caligula in SyZ/ 3654 (i/A.D.) τὸ μεγαλεῖον τῆς 
ἀθανασίας, and the use of the formula οὐδεὶς ἀθάνατος in 
sepulchral epitaphs, where, as Ramsay (Luke the Physician, 
p- 273) has shown, the meaning is ‘‘no one is free from 
death” rather than ‘‘no one is immortal.” Pagan examples 
of this usage can be cited (Ramsay, zw szfra), but it is 
generally Christian. One interesting instance may be cited 
where the formula has been expanded into two lines: 
ovdls [a0a]varos, εἰ μὴ μόνον ts θεὸς αὐτός, ὁ πάντων 
γεν[ετὴ]ς κὲ πᾶσι τὰ πάντα μερίζων, “no one is immortal 
except only the one God Himself, who is father of all and 
gives all things to all” (Svaudies in the Eastern Roman 
Provinces, p. 129). Wiinsch AF 53: (Deissmann’s ‘*‘ LXX 
Memorial ’’—iii/A.D.) has τοῦ Κυρίου α[ἰ]ω[νίου] ἀθανάτου 
παντεφόπτου. Preisighke 364 (iii/iv A.D.), where a tomb is 
forbidden to be used for any παρὲξ τῶν γαμβρῶν ἀθανάτων, 
shows a strange sense as well as irregular grammar, As 
illustrating the vernacular usage, reference may be made 
to P Strass I. 305 (A.D. 276), where the epithet is 
applied to she-goats—atyas θηλείας τε[λ]είας ἀθανάτους, 
obviously in the sense of ‘‘very strong, hardy”: see the 
editor’s introduction, where he translates 4. ‘‘von 
eiserner Bestand,” and cites Herod. vii. 31, μελεδωνῷ 
ἀθανάτῳ ἀνδρὶ κτλ. : cf. also P Cairo Preis 413 (iv/a.p.) 
1. yelov aBavd[rov . . . 1. ἀρούρας. Crénert, however (Lex. 
s.v.), takes it in the sense to be mentioned next. In BGU 
IV. 1o058* (B.c. 13) μηθὲϊν τ]ὸ καθόλου λαβοῦσα διὰ τὸ 
ἀθάνατον αὐτὴν ἐπιδεδέχθαι τροφεύενν (/. -ew) the word 
appears to imply that the person providing a slave as wet- 
nurse undertook to carry out the contract for the two stipu- 
lated years ‘‘apart from the death of” the infant, whose 
place could be filled by another: cf. the Persian Guard, the 
“Immortals,” so called because their numbers were kept up 
to the same figure. Antiochus of Commagene uses the 
adjective as an epithet of κρίσις in his famous inscription, 
OGTS 383% (i/B.c.), meaning presumably “unalterable”: 
cf. Syl 365’ (i/A.D.) τῆς ἀθανάτου χάριτος of Caligula. 
From the sixth century we may quote P Oxy I. 130”, where 
a petitioner says that he will send up ὕμνους ἀθανάτους 
““unceasing hymns” to the Lord Christ for the life of the 
man with whom he is pleading. See also Vettius above 

(s.v. ἀήρ). 

This late form is found in P Tor I. 14.” (B.c. 120) als 
[vc θεαῖς] ἀθέμιτά ἐστιν νεκρὰ σώματα, a passage which 

ὄθεος 12 

seems to support the rendering ‘‘abominable” in 1 Pet 4%, 
and in consequence perhaps the Gentile destination of the 
Epistle: see Bigg’s note ad/. Vettius Valens the astrologer 
(ii/A.D.) tells us that under the influence of Saturn, Mars 
and Venus some people ἀθεμίτοις μίξεσι καὶ ἀδιαφόροις 
(“reckless”) ἀνεπιστρεπτοῦσι (p. 43%): the same writer 
(p. 184°) speaks of men who ἀρνοῦνται τὰ θεῖα καὶ ἑτεροσε- 
βοῦσι ἢ ἀθεμιτοφαγοῦσιν. The word is thus equivalent to 


OGIS 569% (iv/A.D.) τῆς τῶν ἀθέων ἀπεχθοῦς ἐπιτηδεύ- 
σεως. For the popular cry αἶρε τοὺς ἀθέους, “Ανναν with 
the atheists,” directed against the early Christians, see the 
account of the martyrdom of Polycarp in Eus. #.£. iv. 15, 
19: cf. 75. ix. 10, 12, map’ ᾧ ye (Maximinus) μικρῷ πρόσθεν 
δυσσεβεῖς ἐδοκοῦμεν kal ἄθεοι καὶ παντὸς ὄλεθροι τοῦ βίου. 
See also the Logion P Oxy I. 1 γεείοῦ ἐὰν ὦσιν [β΄ οὐκ] 
ε[ἰσὶ]ν ἄθεοι. 


An instance of this word, which in the NT is confined to 
2 Peter (27, 317), may be quoted from the late P Oxy I. 1297 
(vi/A.D.) where a man breaks off the engagement of his 
daughter to a certain Phoebammon, because it had come to 
his ears that the latter was giving himself over to ‘‘ lawless” 
deeds—axykoévar σε παρεμβάλλοντα ἑαυτὸν ἐν τοῖς αὐτοῖς 
ἀθέσμοις πράγμασιν. 


This verb, which isnot approved by the Atticists (frequent 
in Polybius), occurs five times in the Pauline writings, 
always with reference to things, except 1 Th 48 ὁ ἀθετῶν 
οὐκ ἄνθρωπον ἀθετεῖ ἀλλὰ τὸν θεόν. In the LXX it repre- 
sents no fewer than seventeen Hebrew originals. It appears 
in the new Median parchment of B.c. 22, P Said Khan 
2811, For its use in the papyri, cf. P Tebt I. 74°° 
(B.c. 114-3) ἐν τῆι ἠθετημένηι ἱερᾷ, BGU IV. 1123" 
(time of Augustus) ἀθετεῖν τῶν ὡμολογημένων, P Oxy IV. 
808 (i/A.D.), ἠθέζτισται) of loans repaid and cancelled, 76. 
VIII. 11208 (iii/A.D.) ἐξείσχυσεν τὰ βιβλείδια ἀθετηθῆναι, 
‘*procured the failure of the petition” ; and in the inscrip- 
tions, OG/S 44418 ἐὰν δέ τινες τῶν πόλεων ἀθετ[ῶσι] Td 
σύμφωνον. This is fairly near the meaning suggested from 
the LXX in Mk 6%, ‘‘ break faith with her,” by Abbott /od. 
Voc. p. 322: see also Field WVo/es, p..30. The adjective is 
found in P Amh 11. 6415: (A.D. 107) where certain officials 
are described as ἀ]θέτους . . . κ[αὶ] μὴ ἀναλογοῦντας τὴν 
ἐ[π]ιμέλειαν, ‘‘inefficient and incapable of doing their duties” 
([ 44.) : cf. P Lond 2373 (c. A.D. 346) = (II. p. 291) τὸν ἐν 
ἀθέτῳ σιτόκριθον, with reference to corn (wheat and barley) 
rejected by the inspector as unfit for food. 


The force of ἀθέτησις in Heb γ15, 9° is well brought out 
by Deissmann’s reference (4S p. 228 f.) to the technical 
legal formula in the papyri els ἀθέτησιν καὶ ἀκύρωσιν, as in 

BGU I. 4415 (A.D. 102) τὴν δίια)γραφὴν els ἀθέτησιν καὶ | 

ἀκύρωσιν, ‘the decree to be annulled and cancelled.” So 

᾽ , 

P Amh II. 1118 5. (a.p. 132), P. Tebt II. 207." (A.D. 
198), P Said Khan 2>-14 (R.c. 22), etc. 


720 XIV. 1102 (Rome, ii/A.p.). CP Herm 119 verso iii. 18 
(a rescript of Gallienus), εὐδοκίμων κατὰ τὴν ἄθληστιν] 
γενομένων. Sy// 6865: (ii/A.D.) ἀξίως καὶ τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ ᾿Ολυμ- 
πίου καὶ τῆς ἀθλήσεως. Other words of this family are well 
evidenced. Thus OG/S 3397® (Sestos, ii/B.c.) τιθὲς ἄθλα 
πάντων τῶν ἀθλημάτων, with ἀθλητής, ἀθλόφορος, etc. 
ἀθροίζω. ? 

OGIS 764° (c. B.C. 127) Td... ἀθρο[ισθὲν πλῆθος]. 
P Par 404? (B.c. 156) χρήματα ἠ]θροικότες. For the adjec- 
tive see P Petr IT. xi(1)? (iii/B.c.) (= Selections, p. 8) ἀθροῦν, 
“in a lump sum.” Cf. P Amh II. 79% (ii/a.p.) ἀθρόον 
ἀργύριον. On its form see Cronert Wem. Herc., p. 166. 


P Amh II. 377. [10 (B.c. 196 or 172) μὴ ἀθύμει. Ῥ Giss 
I, 794i 4 (ii/A.D.) οὗ χ[άρι]ν odS[el]s ἀθυμεῖ πωλεῖν κτῆμα. 
The substantive is found P Par 2215 (ii/B C.) τῷ δὲ μὴ ἡμᾶς 
εἶναι σὺν αὐτῷ ὑπὸ τῆς ἀθυμίας μετήλλαχεν τὸν βίον. The 
adverb ἀθύμως occurs in Sy// 226199 (iii/B.C.) πολλῶν ἐχόντων 
a. καὶ παρεσκεασμένων ἐγλείπειν τὴν πόλιν. 


P Oxy II. 237%-2? (ii/a.D.) οἰ ὐ]δ[δ] τότε ἀθδος ἐσόμενος, 
ἀλλὰ τοῖς τεταγμένοις ἐπιτίμοις ἐνεχόμενος, “ἀπ even so 
he shall not escape his liabilities, but shall be subject to the 
legal penalties”—a legal opinion quoted in the lengthy 
Petition of Dionysia. An earlier example is afforded by 
P Tebt I. 4478 (ii/B.c.) where certain precautions are taken 
lest an assailant ἀθῶιος διαφύγηι, ‘‘should escape un- 
punished.” Cf. Syd? 7905 (i/B.c) ἃ ἐὰν ὀμό[σω]σιν, 
ἔστωσαν ἀθῷοι. 

P Fay 107? 
(ὦ δ. -a) τέσσαρα, ‘‘ carried off four goat skins.” 

(A.D. 133) ὑφείλαντο δέρματα αἴγειαν 
P Oxy II. 

P Leid X*¥-9 (iii/iv A.D.) μιγνυμένη αἵματι alyelm For a 
form αἰγικός, see P Grenf II. 511° (A.D. 143) ἀπέχειν 
αὐτοὺς τιμὴν δερμάτων αἰγικῶν τεσσάρων. Also δέρματα 
αἴγινα P Lond 2365 (A.D. 346) (-- 11. p. 291). 


The word is common (MGr = ‘‘seashore”) ; but it may 
be noted that in P Tebt I. 79 (c. B.c. 148) it refers to the 
shore of Lake Moeris; in 26, 82 (B.C. 115) and 83 (late 
ii/u.c.) to the shore of a marshy lake then covering the 
neighbourhood of Medinet Nehds (see the editors’ note on 
p. 346). So P Fay 82? (a.D. 145), P Tebt II. 308° 
(A.D. 174). On the use of the term in Ac 27°9, see W. M. 
Ramsay St Paul, p. 341, and Expositor V. vi. p. 154 ff. 
P Fay 222 (iii/A.D.) is the beginning of a document ad- 
dressed Φιλίππῳ αἰγιαλοφύλακι ᾿Αρσινοί[του]. We find 
γῆ αἰγιαλῖτις mentioned in P Oxy VI. g18™ti 19 (1i/a.p.), 
P Lond 9247 (a.p. 187-8) (=III. p. 134): Sir F. ἃ. 
Kenyon renders ‘land on the border of the lake.” 



In P Lond 43° (ii/B.c.) (=I. p. 48) a mother con- 
gratulates her son because he had been learning Αἰγύπτισ, 
γράμματα, or the demotic speech: cf. P Tebt II. 291# 
(A.D. 162) where a priest gives practical proof of his 
qualifications by his knowledge of ἱε]οατικὰ [kal] Αἰγύπτια 


Syil 306 (ii/B c.—Delphi) ὅπως ὑπάρχῃ ἁ δωρεὰ εἰς 
πάντα τὸν χρόνον ἀΐδιος. In OG/S 565: (iii/B.c., the 
Canopus inscription of Ptolemy III.) it is ordained to pay 
τιμὰς ἀϊδίους in all the temples to Queen Berenice, who 
els θεοὺς μετῆλθεν shortly before. So 26. 248° (ii/B.C., 
Antiochus Epiphanes) τὰ καλὰ τῶ[ν] ἔργων els ἀΐδιομ. 
μνήμην ἀνάγων. In 74. 3831 Antiochus I. of Commagene 
(i/s.c.) claims περὶ δὲ ἱερουργιῶν ἀϊδίων διάταξιν πρέπουσαν 
ἔποιησάμην. The phrase τ. ἀΐδιον χρόνον is common in the 
inscriptions, e.g. Sy// 968 (iv/B.c.). The adjective has been 
restored in the late P Lond 113® (vi/a.p.) (=I. p. 202) 
τὴν ἀϊδί[α]ν ἰσχύν : otherwise we cannot quote papyri— 
possibly the word was only appropriate to the stiffer language 
of inscriptions. 


We can supply no papyrus references for this expressive 
word (1 Tim 25, Heb 12% MPa), but it is found in 3 Mac- 
cabees and in Epictetus; also OG/S 5078 (ii/A.D.) (with 
ἐπιείκεια). The verb occurs P Fay 12 (c. B.C. 103) οὐκ 
αἰδεσθεὶς δὲ τοζῦτο], ‘‘so far from being abashed” (Edd.), 
and often elsewhere: it is curious that Nageli (p. 57) should 
make it absent from the papyri as from NT—a glance at 
the indices would suffice. The adj. αἰδέσιμος and its ab- 
stract -ότης came into common use in late times. 


An interesting parallel to the common Biblical phrase 
αἷμα ἐκχέω, especially as it appears in Deut 19’ καὶ οὐκ 
ἐκχυθήσεται αἷμα ἀναίτιον, is afforded by an inscription 
found on a tombstone at Rheneia, containing a Jewish 
‘‘prayer for vengeance,” Sy// 816°* (i/A.D.) ἐγχέαντας 
αὐτῆς τὸ ἀναίτιον αἷμα ἀδίκως : see the full discussion in 
Deissmann 2.42 p. 4231. For the use of αἷμα, as in Jn 11", 
cf. P Lips I. 28! (a.p. 381) mp[d]s τὸ εἶναί cov vilo]y 
γνήσιον καὶ πρωτότοκον ὡς ἐξ ἰδίου αἵματος γεννηθέντα σοι. 
In P Leid C (verso) 119 (p. 118 —B.c. 161) two men appear in 
a dream saying Πτολεμαῖος, λαβὲ to[is] χαλκοὺς τοῦ 
αἵματος : they count out a purseful and say to one of the 
Twins εἰδοὺ τοὺς χαλκοὺς Tod αἵματος. Leemans quotes an 
opinion that this meant the price of a victim, and compares 
Mt 27% In the sense of murder or blood-guiltiness it finds 
modern support in the Pontic dialect (Thumb &Z, xxii. 
p- 489), which is evidence for its place in the Eastern 
Kovwg, apart from any Semitic influence. 

αἱ μορροέω. 

The noun occurs in BGU IV. 1026! (magical text, 
iv/v A.D.) αἱμάροιαν lara:.—following a spell from Homer, 
described as αἱμαροικόν (//. 1%). Thumb (/Z xxii. 



p- 489) compares αἱματορροῦσα “hemorrhage” in MGr 


Syil 452" (c. B.c. 240, Epidaurus, in dialect) κατὰ τὸν 
αἷνον τὸν τῶν ᾿Α[Γχαι]ῶν is explained by Dittenberger as a 
““decree” of the Achaean Council. He compares 74. 306” 
(ii/B.c.) μήτε κατὰ ψάφισμα μήτε κατ᾽ alvoy, the former 
being a decree of the people, the latter of the Senate 
(Delphi) ; and he cites Hesychius alvos* γνώμη, παροιμία, 
παράδειγμα, ἔπαινος " kal ἡ χειοοτονία kal ψήφισμα. 


Dittenberger, in his note on Sy// 835° (iv/B.c., Elatea) 
[6 δᾶμ]ος aivet, observes that the use of the verb belongs to 
the older language. But Plutarch has it occasionally ; and 
in the LXX it is four times as frequent as ἐπαινέω, especially 
in the sense of praising God. 

In Michel 1001-8 (Thera, c. B.C. 200) αἱρείσϑω τὸ 
κοινὸν. . . ἄνδρας κτλ" kal ἐγγραφέτω kal τὰν τούτων 

αἵρεσιν ὁ ἐπίσσοφος, the noun is the omen actionzs of 
αἱρεῖσθαι, “choose.” The two meanings (1) anmzmus, sen- 
tentia, and (2) secta, factzo, are both illustrated by Ditten- 
berger in OG/S: for (1) he gives fourteen examples from 
i/B.c. or earlier, for (2) only three of equal antiquity, viz. 
176 τῆς ᾿Αμμωνίου αἱρέσεως, 178 similar (both from reign of 
Ptolemy ΧΙ, ii/i B.c), and 442 (a senatus consultum of 1/B.C. 
apparently) Σύλλ]ας αὐτοκράτωρ συνεχώρησεν [πΊ]όλ[εις 
ὅπως ἰδί]οις τοῖς νόμοις αἱρέσεσίν τε ὦσιν. (Note the effect 
of slavish translation from Latin ablative.) 2 Pet 21 is the only 
NT passage assigned by Grimm to the first head, and there 
the RV has a margin assigning it to (2). Herwerden cites 
an inscription from Delphi of iii/B.c. (ΘΟ xx. p. 478) where 
the word equals εὔνοια : ἐνεφάνισε τὰν αἵρεσιν, ἂν ἔχει ποτί 
τε τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ τὰν πόλιν Cf. Nolerts-Gardner 55 (a 
decree of the Senate and people) καὶ αὐτὸς δὲ Φαῖδρος 
τὴν αὐτὴν αἵρεσιν ἔχων τοῖς προγογόνοις (/. προγόνοις) 
διατετέλεκεν ἑαυτὸν ἄξιον παρασκευάζων τῆς πρὸ: τὸν 
δῆμον εὐνοίας. The editors note that this sense οἱ αἵρεσις 
“* propensus animus,” ‘kindly feeling towards a person,” 
is very common in later inscriptions. 

In the papyri the meaning seems generally ‘‘choice” : in 
wills it is used = “" voluntas,” or ‘ disposition,” e.g. P Oxy 
VI. 907! (A.D. 276) αἱρέσει τῇ ὑποτεταγμένῃ, ““ according to 
the disposition below written.” Ρ Tebt I. 27° (B.c. 113) 
ἐπὶ τὴν αἵρεσιν τῶν émvyevy[pjatwy shows the pure verbal 
noun ‘‘ receiving,” and in P Oxy IV. 716” (A.D. 186) τὴν 
ἀμείνονα αἵρεσιν διδόντι it isa ‘‘ bid” (at an auction) ; so 
also BGU II. 6565 (ii/A.b.) προσερχέστωσαν (2.2. -θωσαν) 
τοῖς πρὸς τούτοις ἕρεσειν (/.c. αἵρεσιν) διδόντες. Other 
examples of the word are P Petr II. 1° τὴν τῶν ἀνθρώπων 
αἵρεσιν, P Par 63-8 (c, B.C, 164) προαιρούμενος ἵνα 
μετακληθῇς ἔτι πρὸς τὴν ἐμὴν αἵρεσιν, and BGU IV. 10708 
(A.D. 218) εὐδοκοῦντα τῇ αἱρέσει τῆς ἐπιτροπῆς. P Tebt I. 
289f- (B.c.114) comes nearest to the meaning (1)---καὶ κατὰ 
τὸ παρὸν δ[ι]ὰ τῶν avad[opav] τῆι αὐτῆι αἱρέσει κεχρημένων, 
which the editors render ‘‘ since they show the same behaviour 
in their reports.” This use gives us a foretaste of the devel- 
opment zz malem dtartem, producing “* factiousness” and 


then ‘‘heresy”’: cf. SyéZ 308% (ii/B.c.) γίνωνται δὲ καὶ 
ἄλλοι {[mAlwral τῆς αὐτῆς αἱρέσεως. In Sy// 367" (i/A.D) 
αἱρεσιάρχης means the chief of the profession (medical). 

Syll 6332 (ii/A.D.) αἱρετίσαντος (το)ῦ (θ)εοῦ. 


The middle usage of this word, which alone occurs in the 
NT, may be illustrated from P Par 26°! (B.c. 163-2) 
( = Selections, p. 18) ὑμῖν δὲ γίνοιτο κρατεῖν πάσης ἧς ἂν 
αἱρῆσθε χώρας, P Lips I. 104!% (c. B.C. 96-5) περὶ ὧν ἂν 
αἱρῆσθε γράφετέ por, P Oxy IIL. 489% (a will, A.D. 117) 
καθ᾽ ὃν ἐὰν αἱρῶμαι [τρόπον], P Ryl 11. 15.345 (A.D. 138-61) 
k]iptos γὰρ Sy τῶν ἰδίων οὕτως ἥρημαι διατέσθαι, P Tebt II. 
31929 (Δ... 248) ὃ ἐὰν αἱρῆται, and so frequently. It is ἃ 
sign of the gradual disappearance of the subtler meanings of 
the middle, that so early as B.C. 95 we find ἐὰν αἱρῆτε and 
ἐὰν αἱρεῖσθε used side by side for ‘‘if you like,” P Grenf II. 
361418: see further Prolegomena, p. 159. For other uses of 
the active cf. P Fay 3414 (A.p. 161) τὸ αἱροῦν ἐξ ἴσου, 
‘equal instalments,” the same in 2. 9317 (A.D. 161), P 
Oxy III. 502% (a.p. 
δραχμὰς ἑκατόν, ‘the proportionate amount of the rent, 
100 drachmae” (Edd.), BGU Il. 4052° (A.D. 348) πέπρακα 
εἰς τὸ Epody (7. 6. αἱροῦν) μοι μέρος. 


For αἴρω, “raise,” 
(ii/A.D.) ἄραι τὴν χεῖρα, and so 70. 607% 57. 
for αἴρειν χεῖρας may be specially noted, the Alexandrian 
inser. in Predsigke 1323 (ii/A.D.): θεῷ ὑψίστῳ καὶ πάντων 
ἐπόπτῃ Kal Ἡλίῳ καὶ Νεμέσεσι αἴρει ᾿Αρσεινόη ἄωρος 
τὰς χεῖρας. The inscr. is heathen, but has striking simi- 
larity to the Jewish prayer for vengeance on which 
Deissmann comments in ZAZ p. 423 ff. : is its thought 
partly due to Jewish suggestion? In P Fay 103% (iti/A.D.) 
payment is allotted to the bearers of a corpse—tois ἠρκάσι 

“lift up,”? as in Rev τοῦ, cf. Syd/ 807% 
One passage 

(4-601) αὐτόν : cf. P Grenf 11. 77° (iii/iv A.D.) ( = Se/ec- | 

tions, p. 120). In a magical formula of iii/A.D. instruc- 
tions are given to take twenty-nine palm leaves, on whicn 
the names of the gods have been inscribed, and then 
—épe (= alpe) κατὰ δύο δύο, ‘‘Jift them up two by two,” 
P Oxy VI. 8861 ( = Selections, p. 111). A good parallel to 
ταῦτα ἐκ Tov pléjofov]. Jn 19!° ἄρον, ἄρον, σταύρωσον 
αὐτόν may be illustrated from a strangely incongruous 
source, the well-known school-boy’s letter, where the boy’s 
mother is represented as saying—avacratot με’ Gppov αὐτόν, 
(= Selections, p. 103): cf. Syl? 737% (ii/a.D.) ἐὰν δὲ 
ἀπειθῇ, αἰρέτωσαν αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ πυλῶνος. A parallel of 
a different kind is found in the defixio from Cnidus, Avacoé- 
—which the editor should not (p. 559) assign to aipety ! 
In the curious nursery alphabet, P Tebt II. 278 (early i/a.v.) 
αἴρειν is used six times for stealing (a garment). So in the 
passive BGU IV. 120118 (A.p. 2) εὕροσαν τὸν στροφέα τοῦ 
ἑνὸς μέρους [τ]ῆς θύρας ἠρμένον χ[ε]ρσείν. The use is 
common. With εἰς it can express ‘‘removing to” a place, 
as P Tebt 11. 308® (a.p. 174)—a man has paid for 20,000 

164) τὰς aipotoas τῶν ἐνοικίων | 


airy pos 

papyrus stalks ‘t which he has had transported to Tebtunis 
by Heracleides ” (εἰς T. ἄρας διὰ “H.). The classical use of 
the middle may be seen in P Lond 8545 (i/ii a.p.) (= ΠΙ. 
p- 206, Sevections, p. 70) ἀράμενος ἀνάπλο[υν], of a tourist 
going up the Nile. To Wetstein’s parallels for Lk 197% 
αἴρεις ὃ οὐκ ἔθηκας C. Taylor (/7S ii. p. 432) adds the 
Jewish precepts quoted by Philo (Mangey II. 629) ἅ τις 
παθεῖν ἐχθαίρει μὴ ποιεῖν αὐτόν, ἃ μὴ κατέθηκεν μηδ᾽ 
ἀναιρεῖσθαι, and Plato Legy. xi. (913 C) κάλλιστον νόμων 
διαφθείρων καὶ ἁπλούστατον Kal οὐδαμῆ ἀγεννοῦς ἀνδρὸς 
νομοθέτημα, ὃς εἶπεν' “A μὴ κατέθου μὴ ἀνέλῃς In MGr 
only as compounded, παίρνω = ἀπαίρω. 


This verb, in NT only Lk 9%, is asserted by Nageli 
(p- 57) to be absent from the papyri. This is a still more 
remarkable oversight than that noted under αἰδώς. A few 
examples will suffice. P Eleph 13° (B.c. 223-2) ἐχάρην ἐπὶ 
τῶι pe αἰσθέσθαι τὰ κατά oe, P Oxy III. 472° (c. A.D. 130) 
οὔτ᾽ ἔφη πρός τινα αἰσθέσθαι οὐδενός (‘‘ noticed anything”), 
BGU 11. 3γ2.:16 (Α.Ὁ. 154) ἴστωσαν [μ]ὲν tlolv... ἐκ 
ταύτ[ η9] τῆς αἰτ[ίας ἔ]τι κατεχόμενον α[ἰσ]θήσεσθαι τῆς 
τοῦ μεγίστου Αὐτοκράτορος εὐ[μ]εν[ εἰ]ας (see Chrest. I. 
p- 33), 22. 417% (ii/iii A.D.) αἰσθόμε(νον) τὴν τοῦ καιροῦ 
πικρίαν (note the accus. in a vernacular document), 2d. 
5311. 19 (ii/A.D) α[ἰ]σθόμενος πῶς pe φιλεῖς, and an ostrakon 
in Archiv vi. p. 220 (iii/B.C.) ἀπόστειλον Tots ὑπογεγραμ- 
μένοις Tas πεταλίας κρυφῆι kal μηθεὶς αἰσθανέσθω. but it 
is hardly necessary to go on to the other five or six volumes 
in which the index contains this verb. It survives in MGr. 


P Leid Wiv-44 πάσαις ταῖς αἰθήσεσι, Wiinsch AP 
18% (ΠῚ A.D.) τούτους ἀναθεμα[τ(]ζομεν᾽ σῶμα, πνεῦμα, 
ψ[υ]χήν, [δι]άνοιαν, φρόνησιν, αἴσθησιν, ζοήν, καρδίαν, and 
z). 4°° (iii/A.D.) βασάνισον αὐτῶν τὴν διάνοιαν, τὰς φρένας, 
τὴν αἴσθησιν. Prof. H. A. A. Kennedy, following Klopper, 
quotes a good passage from Hippocrates to illustrate Phil 
1°:—de Of. Med. 3 A καὶ τῇ ὄψι καὶ τῇ ἁφῇ Kal τῇ ἀκοῇ 
καὶ τῇ ῥινὶ καὶ τῇ γλώσσῃ καὶ τῇ γνώμῃ ἔστιν αἰσθέσθαι. 


For this word (Heb 5") see Linde, fic. p. 32, who cited 
Epicurus, Aristotle, etc., but shows that it came into the 


BGU III. 909! (a.p. 359) πολλὰς ἐ[σ]χρολογίας εἰς 
πρόσωπόν μου ἐξειπών. A literary citation is P Oxy III. 
41078 (Doric, iv/B.c.) τὸ δὲ φεύγεν τὰς αἰσχρολογίας με- 
γ[αλ]οπρεπὲς καὶ κόσμος λόγω, “the avoidance of abuse 
is a mark of high-mindedness and an ornament of speech” 
(Edd). The adj. is generally associated with foul or filthy 
rather than abusive speaking in Col 38: cf. Didache 535, 
where after a warning against ἐπιθυμία the Christian is 
counselled to be μηδὲ αἰσχρολόγος μηδὲ ὑψηλόφθαλμος 
(‘Sone who casts lewd eyes”: cf. 2 Pet 213) ἐκ γὰρ τούτων 
ἁπάντων μοιχεῖαι γεννῶνται. 

BGU IV. 1024 Vii. 20 (ji/iii A.D.), where a judge says toa 
scoundrel ἀπέσφα[ξ]ας γυναῖκα, Διόδιμε, αἰσχρῶς, P Tebt 


I. 2459 (B.c. 117) αἰ]σχρά without context, 2ό. II. 2764 
(ii/iii A.D.—an astrological work) ἀπὸ αἰσχρᾶς περιστά- 
[σεως Ὁ] ‘San unfavourable position.” The word is not 

common, and is peculiar to Paul in NT. 


In P Eleph 1° (a marriage contract, B.C. 311-10) (= Sedec- 
tions, p. 2) provision is made that if the bride κακοτεχνοῦσα 
ἁλίσκηται ἐπὶ αἰσχύνηι τοῦ ἀνδρός, “shall be detected 
doing anything wrong to the shame of her husband,” he 
shall be entitled to take certain steps against her: cf. P 
Gen 21" (ii/B.c.) (us completed, Avchiv iii. p. 388) μηδ᾽ 
aifo]xtvev Μενεκράτην ὅσα φέρει ἀνδρὶ aicxivnv—the 
same formula in P Tebt I. 104° (B.c. 92). So P Par 47% 
(c. B.C. 153) (= Selections, p. 23) ὑπὸ τῆς αἰσχύνης, ‘for 
very shame,” P Oxy III. 47178 (ii/A.D.) ἅπαξ yap ἐν ἔθει 
τῆς οα[ἰσ]χύνης γενόμενον, ‘for when once accustomed to 
his shame.” 


P Par 4955 (B.C. 164-58) ὁ δέ, φαίνεται, τὴν ἡμέραν 
ἐκείνην ἀσχοληθείς, ἤσχυνται συμμεῖξαί por: we may either 
suppose φαίνεται parenthetical or emend ἠσχύνθαι. Zi. 38 
οὐκέτι ἥκει πρὸς ἐμὲ αἰσχυνθείς, Sy// 80212 (iii/p.c., Epi- 
daurus) αἰσχυνόμενος S[& ἅτε] καταγελάμενος tm[d] τῶν 
ἄλλων. For the active (not in NT) see P Oxy III. 4974 
(early ii/A.D.) αἰσχύνειν Θέωνα, P Gen 2111, as quoted 
under αἰσχύνη. 


The ordinary meaning of this word ‘‘to make a request,” 
““to ask for something” is borne out by the papyri, e.g. 
P Fay 109} (carly i/A.D.) αἴτησον Σάραν τὰς τοῦ (δραχμὰς) 
uB, ‘‘ask Saras for the twelve (silver) drachmae.” In ἐῤ. 
121. (c, A.D. 100) it is construed with the accusative of 
the thing and παρά, τὸ δέρμα τοῦ μόσχου οὗ ἐθύ[σ]αμεν 
αἴτησον παρὰ τοῦ] κύρτου βυρσέως, “ask the hunch- 
backed tanner for the hide of the calf that we sacrificed ” 
(Edd.): cf. Ac 3%. See further σοῦ. ἐρωτάω, and for the dis- 
tinction between active and middle Pvo/eg., p. 160f. If the 
middle connotes a greater degree of earnestness, it is natural 
that it should be more frequent than the active, as for 
example in the phrases αἰτούμενος λόγον SyA@ . . . (P Hamb 
I, 65 (A.D. 129), αἰτούμενος... ὀνόματα... δίϑομει (GU 
I. 91° a.p. 170-1), and see the list of passages in the index 
to Sy// (iii. p. 245). The verbal occurs negatived in P Ryl 
IT. 1634 (A.D. 139) γῆς κατοικικοῦ ἀναιτήτου, “not subject 
to demand ’’ (Edd.—see the note on 1645). 


Syl 418% (iii/A.D.) οὐδεὶς ἡμεῖν ἐνόχλησεν οὔτε ξενίας 
(αἰτή)ματι οὔτε παροχῆς ἐπιτηδείων. For αἴτησις see 
P Oxy I. 567% (a.p. 211) διέγραψα δὲ τὸ ὡρισμένον τῆς 
αἰτήσ[εω]ς τέλος : “1 have paid the appointed tax for 
making such a request ” (Edd.) : the word is fairly common. 

P Petr IIT. 53 (7) (iii/B.c.) ἀπέσταλται εἰς ᾿Αλεξανδρείαν 


πρὸς αἰτίαν ὑπὲρ ἧς [ἀπ]ολογίζεται ἀ[λΊλ᾽ οὐ τυχὼν ἐπι- Ϊ 

δείξειν (Ὁ for -δεῖξαι) [π]ρὸς βίαν ἔχεται, ‘“‘he was sent to 


defence ; but since he did not succeed in clearing himself 
he is forcibly detained” (Edd.). So BGU I. 2673(a.p. 199) 
τοῖς δικαίᾳ [ν] αἰτ[(]ν ἐσχηκόσι, and so identically P 
Strass I. 22° (iii/A.D.)—it was a legal formula. Note 
P Ryl IL. 1447* (A.D. 38) ἐτόλμησεν πθόνους (= φθόνου) 
μοι ἐπαγαγεῖν αἰτίας τοῦ μὴ ὄντος, ‘to bring baseless 
accusations of malice” (Edd.). In 2. 63" (iii/A p.—an 
astronomical dialogue) tis δὲ ἡ αἰτία τούτων [τ]ῶ[ν] 
[εἰδώλων (‘* What is the cause of these images ?”—Edd.) 
we might possibly render ‘‘ case ” : 
‘“What is the meaning?” If so, it comes fairly near 
Mt 197° εἰ οὕτως ἐστὶν ἢ αἰτία τοῦ ἀνθρώπου μετὰ τῆς 
γυναικός. Cf. P Par 4957 (B.C. 164-58) εἴπερ οὖν ἐστὶν αὕτη 
ἡ αἰτία. A more general use in P Hib I. 437 (B.c. 261 (260)) 
ἵνα μὴ αἰτίας ἔχῃς, ‘lest you be blamed.” ῬΡ Giss I. 4οἱ" 2 
(A.D. 212) joined with A[.B]é\Aov[s] in the sense of gzere//ae 
(Ed.). The more ordinary meaning ‘reason, excuse,” 
like Mt 19%, etc., hardly needs illustration, but cf. BGU I. 
1367" (A.D. 135) κατὰ ταύτην [τὴν αἰτίαν, P Oxy III. 472° 
(c. A-D. 130) εἶχεν μὲν οὖν αἰτίας, and frequently in the 
inscriptions, e.g. A/échel 45614 (ii/B.c.) διὰ ταύτας τὰς 
αἰτίας. BGU IV. 12057 (8.6. 28) τὴν αἰτίαν τοῦ φακοῦ 
has an insufficiently clear context. ἤάνευ αἰτίας, sze caussa, 
appears in PSI 417° (iv/a.D.). 

Prof. Hunt paraphrases 

3) 66 


In Rom 3° D*G ἠτιασάμεθα is read for προῃτιασάμεθα of 
the printed texts: cf. P Tebt I. 3519 (B.c. 111) παρὰ ταῦτα 
ποιῶν ἑαυτὸν αἰτιάσεται, “᾿ 
will render himself liable to accusation,” and OG/S 484°° 
(ii/aA.D.) ἠτιάθησαν. In P Oxy VII. 10325! (a.p. 162) 
τὸν ὑπηρέτην αἰτιᾷς, we have an abnormal active. The 
verb is not uncommon. 

any one disobeying these orders 


For the absolute use = ‘‘ guilty,” cf. BGU II. 6512° 
(A.D. 192) and P. Flor I. οὐδέν (a.p. 255) πρὸς τοὺς φανη- 
σομένους αἰτίους : so P Tebt II. 330! (ii/a.p.) πρὸς τὸ 
φανέντος τινὸς αἰτ[ίο]υ péviv μοι τὸν Ady[oly, ‘if any one is 
proved to be the culprit, he may be held accountable to me” 
(Edd.), 74. 333! (A.D. 21€), etc. A more neutral sense, 
“responsible,” occurs three times in the Revenue Papyrus 
(B.c. 259-8), where sundry officials ‘‘ shall, each of them 
who is responsible (ἕκαστος τῶν αἰτίων), pay a fine to the 
Treasury,” if on inspection it appears that the proper acreage 
has not been sown. It is used wholly 27 donam partem in 
Heb 5°, with which cf. Diodorus Siculus iv. 82 αἴτιος éyé- 
veto τῆς σωτηρίας. For the dependent genitive cf. also 
Syll 737°° (ii/A.D.) ὃ αἵτιος γενόμενος τῆς μάχης. The 
Lukan use of the neuter = ‘‘ cause,” shading into ‘ crime,” 
may be illustrated from P Hib I. 7338 (B.c. 243-2) ὅπως 
εἰδηις εἶναι] αἴτιον Tod μὴ γενέσθαι τῶι Δω[ρίωνι ἀπόδοσιν 
τὴν] Π]Πάτρωνος βίαν, “the reason. . . is the violence of 

P.” (Edd.). 


So in Ac 257 (all uncials), hitherto without external 
parallel: the confusion between -aw and -ow forms recalls 
ἡσσᾶσθαι and (Ion.) ἑσσοῦσθαι. It is now supported by 
P Fay 1118 (A.D. 95-6) ( = Sedections, p. 66) ὁ [ὀν]ηλάτης 

Alexandria to meet a charge against him and make his | Td αἰτίωμα περιεπύησε, ‘the donkey-driver shifted the 


blame from himself.” The generally illiterate character of 
the document somewhat discounts the value of its evidence. 


The adverb occurs in P Fay 12374 8. (c. A.D. 100), 
an uneducated letter — alpvi8([.Jws (with a letter erased) 
εἴρηχεν ἡμῖν σήμερον : cf. Sy// 324° (i/B.c.) αἰφνίδιον 
σ(υ)μφορὰν θεασάμενος, also 26. 3207 αἰφνιδίως ἐπιβαλόν- 
tos and OG/S 33015 (ii/B.c.) ἐκ τῆς αἰφνιδίου περιστάσεως. 


Syll 3487 10. (Cyzicus, i/B.c.) ὃν αἰχμα]λωτισθέντα ἐκ 
“Λιβύης... [ὅ]τι ἠχμαλώτισται Μᾶρκος. Phrynichus (ed. 
Lobeck, p. 442) characterizes the verb as ἀδόκιμον (7. ε. 
good vernacular !). 


The word is found in P Lille I. 38° (after B.c. 241-0) 
αἰχμαλώτοις els τὴν γινομένην σύνταξιν "] In their note 
the editors think that the reference is to certain prisoners 
brought from Asia by Philadelphus (cf. P Petr II. 29(4)* 
to some of whom a regular ‘‘allowance” or ‘‘ grant” 
(σύνταξις) may have been made. Dittenberger’s indices 
show seven inscriptions in $y/< and one in OG/S containing 
the word, all in the Hellenistic period. For the subst. see 
Michel 965° (beginning ii/8B.C.) ἔϊσωισεν ἐκ τῆς αἰχμαλωσίας. 


Magn 180°". (ii/A.D.) μόνος τῶν ἀπ᾽ αἰῶνος νεικήσας 
᾿Ολύμπια, etc.—the athlete is claiming to have made a 
record: cf. the description of a certain ἀρχιερεὺς τῶν θεῶν in 
Syll 3638 (i/A D.), as διὰ βίου πρῶτον τῶν ἀπ᾽ αἰῶνος, and 
26. 68638 (ii/A.D.) ἣν μόνος ἀπ᾽ αἰῶνος ἀνδρῶν ἐποίησεν. LP 
Oxy I. 33}: (ii/A.p.) θεωρήσατε ἕνα ἀπ᾽ αἰῶνος ἀπαγόμενο]ν, 
“behold one led off to death,” literally ‘* from life.” Μίπης 
Tos PE 1. 22% τῶν am αἰῶνος. Preisigke 1105 (i/A.D.) ἐπ᾽ 
ἀγαθῷ εἰς τὸνι (/. Tov) αἰῶνα. P Giss 1. 1319 (1i/A.D.) ὅπω [9] 
πλουτή[σ]ῃς εἰς αἰῶ[να] ““ for the rest of your life.” P Oxy I. 
41 (ili/iv A.D.) isacurious report of a public meeting at Oxy- 
rhynchus, punctuated with cries of Αγουστοι κύριοι εἰς τὸν 
αἰῶνα, ‘the Emperors for ever !” : cf. OG/S 515°° (iii/A.D.) 
Succlam(atum) est: tsata[va] with Dittenberger’s note. So 
Syil 376° (i/a.D.) Διὰ ᾿Εἰλευθερίῳ [Népwv]e εἰς aidva: also 
Magn 1397 (i/B.c.) εὐεργέτην δὲ [γ]εγονότα τοῦ δήμου κατὰ 
πολλοὺς [τ]ρόπους πρὸς τὸν αἰῶνα, OG/S 38344 (1}8.6.}) εἰς τὸν 
ἄπειρον ai@va—passages which are sufficient to show how 
thoroughly ‘‘Greek” the prepositional combinations with 
αἰών «τε. Reference should be made to Sy// 757 (i/A.D.), an 
interesting inscription dedicated to Αἰών asa deity. For αἰών 
= period of life, cf. Sy/Z 3645 (A.D. 37) ὡς ἂν τοῦ ἡδίστου 
ἀνθρώποις alavo(s) viv ἐνεστῶτος. On the Rosetta stone, 
OGIS 90 (8.6. 196), Ptolemy V is described as αἰωνόβιος : 
cf. P Lond 319 (B.c, 146 or 135) (=I. p. 46) ἐπὶ βασιλέως 
alwyoBlov. So P Giss I. 367° (B.c. 161) βασιλεύ(οντος) 
αἰωνοβίο(υ) of Ptolemy Philometor. See below on αἰώνιος, 
where also there are remarks on etymology. 

> 7 

Without pronouncing any opinion on the special meaning | 

which theologians have found for this word, we must note 
that outside the NT, in the vernacular as in the classical 


> , 

Greek (see Grimm-Thayer), it never loses the sense of 
perpetuus (cf. Deissmann &S p. 363, LAZ p. 368). It is 
a standing epithet of the Emperor's power: thus Cagnat 
IV. 144° of ‘liberius, BGU I. 176 τοῦ αἰωνίου 
κόσμου of Hadrian. From the beginning of iii/A.D. we have 
BGU LI. 362' 2 © ὑπὲρ σωτηριῶν καὶ aiw[viov] διαμο[νῆ]ς 
τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Avrtoxpa[topos] Σεουήϊρου ᾿ΑἸντωνίνου. 
Two examples from iv/A.D. may be quoted addressed to the 
Emperor Galerius and his colleagues: ὑμετέρῳ θείῳ kal 
αἰωνίῳ [νεύματι], and [ὑπὲρ] τῆς αἰωνίου kal ἀφθάρτου 
βασιλείας ὑμῶν, OG/S 569°° *4 Ultimately it becomes a 
direct epithet of the Emperor himself, taking up the succession 
of the Ptolemaic αἰωνόβιος (see above under αἰών sub fin). 
The earliest example of this use we have noted is BGU IV. 
1062” (A.D. 236), where it is applied to Maximus: so in P 
Grenf II. 67”, ayear later. (In both the word is said to be very 
faint.) P Lond 2339 (=II. p. 273) παρὰ τῆς θιότητος τῶν 
δεσποτῶν ἡμῶν αἰωνίων Αὐγούστων, referring to Constantius 
and Constans, is the precursor of a multitude of examples of 
the epithet as applied to the Christian Emperors. The first 
volume of the Leipzig Papyri alone has twenty-seven 
instances of the imperial epithet, all late in iv/A.D. Even 
in BGU I. 303? (A.D. 586) and 26. 309% (A.D. 602) we 
have still τοῦ αἰωνίου Αὐγούστου (Maurice). In Sy// 757!” 
(i/A.D.—see under αἰών) note θείας φύσεως ἐργάτης αἰωνίου 
(of Time). νὰ 74018 (iii/A.D.) joins it with ἀναφαίρετον. 
P Grenf II. 711! (iii/A.D.) ὁμολογῶ χαρίζεσθαι ὑμῖν χάριτι 
αἰωνίᾳ Kal ἀναφαιρέτῳ is a good example of the meaning 
perpetuus ; and from a much earlier date (i/B.c.) we may 
select OG/S 3838 Σ᾿ (a passage in the spirit of Job 1924) : 
᾿Αντίοχος . - - ἐπὶ καθωσιωμένων βάσεων ἀσύλοις γράμμασιν 
ἔργα χάριτος ἰδίας εἰς χρόνον ἀνέγραψεν αἰώνιον. Add 
BGU IL. 5311: 2° (ii/A.p.) ἐὰν δὲ ἀστοχήσῃς [αἰωνίαν 
μοι λοίπην (7. 6. λύπην) [π]αρέχιν μέλλις. In his Index to 
OG/S Dittenberger gives fourteen instances of the word. 

The etymological note on αἰών in Grimm-Thayer, though 
less antiquated than usual, suggests the addition of a state- 
ment on that side. Αἰέν is the old locative of αἰών as αἰές is 
of alas (acc. αἰῶ in Aeschylus), and αἰεί, ἀεί of *aiFov (Lat. 
aevum), three collateral declensions from the same root. In 
the Sanskrit gz and its Zend equivalent the idea of /z/e, and 
especially dong /ife, predominates. So with the Germanic 
cognates (Gothic azws). The word, whose root it is of course 
futile to dig for, is a primitive inheritance from Indo-Ger- 
manic days, when it may have meant “long life” or “‘old 
age”—perhaps the least abstract idea we can find for it in 
the prehistoric period, so as to account for its derivatives. 

In general, the word depicts that of which the horizon is 
not in view, whether the horizon be at an infinite distance, as 
in Catullus’ poignant lines— 

Nobis cum semel occidit brevis lux, 
Nox est perpetua una dormienda, 

or whether it lies no farther than the span of a Ceesar’s life. 


In a literal sense the noun occurs in a formula used in 
agreements for renting houses, which the tenant undertakes to 
leave in good condition. Thus P Oxy VIII. 112828 (a.p. 173) 
παραδότω τοὺς τόπους καθαροὺς ἀπὸ κοπρίων καὶ πάσης 
ἀκαθαρσίας : 20. VI. 912° (A.D. 235), BGU II. 393}Ὁ 
(A.D. 168) dv[ev] ἀκαθαρσία[ς], P Lond 21628 (A.D. 94) 

ἀκάθαρτος 17 

(=II. p. 187), P Lips I. 1619 (a.p. 138) where ἀπό stands 
without καθαρούς (see under ἀπό). Vettius Valens, p. 219, 
has it in conjunction with κιναιδία : Kroll takes it as ‘‘ ozs 
impuadicitia (?).” 


The adjective is found in a moral sense of an unclean 
demon in the long magical papyrus P Par 5741°38 (= Se/ec- 
tions, p. 113). It occurs in the correspondence of the 
architect Cleon (B.c. 255-4), P Petr II. 4, (3)§ (p. [8]), 
εἰλήφαμεν δὲ τοῦ ἀκαθάρτου kal τὸ [. . ., where the 
ganger Apollonius seems to be writing about a supply of 
iron for quarrymen, but the mutilation prevents our deter- 
mining the reference. Vettius Valens, p. 761, has πάθεσιν 
ἀκαθάρτοις kal παρὰ φύσιν ἡδοναῖς, where the ethical sense 
is completely developed : half way comes Sy// 6338 (ii/A.D. 
according to Michel), where a Lycian named Xanthus 
dedicates a shrine to Mén Tyrannus and says καὶ [μηθένα] 
ἀκάθαρτον προσάγειν " καθαριζέστω δὲ ἀπὸ o(k)dpSwv καῇ 
Xotpéwy] κα[ὶ γ]υναικός --ἴῃξ impurity is ritual. 

The well-known letter of a prodigal son, BGU III. 84614* 
(ii/A.D.) ( = Selections, p. 94) has the adverb ἀκαιρίως πάντα 
σοι διήγηται, ‘unseasonably related all to you.” For the 
adjective cf. Sy// 7301 (ii/B.c.) at λίαν ἄκαιροι δαπάναι. 
The derived noun appears in P Par 63** 356 (B.c. 165) 
διά τε τὴν περιέχουσάν pe (/. με) κατὰ πολλοὺς τρόπους 


BGU IV. τοῖσι δ (A.p. 222-3) λ[άχαν7ον νέον νέον κα- 
θαρὸν ἄδολ(ον) . [. . &]kak[ov] must have a passive sense 
“‘undamaged.” So P Oxy I. 142° (A.D. 534), a similar 
formula. For & = “simple” rather than ‘‘innocent” in 
Rom 1618, see the quotations from Wetstein recalled by 
Field Notes, p. 166. 


In P Oxy III. 646 (time of Hadrian) a legacy includes 
κλείνη ἀκανθίνη, z.e. a couch made of acantha-wood (Herod. 
ii. 96, Strabo 175). Sir F. G. Kenyon (P Lond I. p. 140), 
calls it ‘‘the Egyptian acacia from which gum arabic is 
obtained, and whose branches were in early times used 
for boat-building.” Its pods are mentioned in P Leid X 
(iii/iv A.D.), a long list of chemical prescriptions : J. 35 
(p. 237) ἀκάνθης κεράτια. The name, or derivatives of it, may 
be seen in P Lond 214}8 8. (a.p. 270-5) (ΞΞ 11. p. 162), 16. 
1177277 (a.D. 113) (=TIII. p. 186), P Oxy I. 121‘ (iii/a.p.), 
7b. VI. 9091? (A.D. 225), 26. VIII. 11125 (A.D. 188), P Flor 
I. 50% (A.D. 268), etc. This evidence isolates further the 
word as used in Mark and John (Isa 341%) ; but the meaning 
there is not shaken We need not discuss the identification 
of ἄκανθα, ἄκανθος (so MGr ἀγκάθι, Pontic ἀχάντι, thorn”), 
and the derived adjective, as occurring in Egypt: in the 
NT the exact nature of the thorny plant indicated is in- 
determinate : see Zzc. Bzb/. 5059 f. 

The adj. may be cited from P Oxy I. 535 (a.p. 316) 
ὅθ[εν] ἐφῖδον τὴν περσείαν ἄκαρπον οὖσαν πολλ[ῶ)ν ἐτῶν 
Part I. 

’ , 

διόλου ξηραντῖσαν. For the subst. see Sy// 420% (i/a.p.) 
διὰ τὰς γενομένας eblet]ns ἀκαρπίας τῶν ἐλαιῶν. 


To illustrate this NT ἅπ. εἰρ. (Tit 257} Deissmann (8.5 
p- 200f.) cites from the inscriptions a sepulchral epitaph 
CIG 1971 4° (Thessalonica, A.D. 165), where the word is 
applied to the deceased, and a similar usage in an inscription 
at Rome /GS/ 2139 (date?) (ἄμεμπτος, ἀκατάγνωστος), 
also a deed of tenure from the Fayiim, BGU I. 308% (Byz.) 
(= Chrest. 11. 278) ἐπάναγκες ἐπιτελέσωμεν τὰ πρὸς 
τὴν καλλιεργίαν τῶν ἀρουρῶν ἔργα πάντα ἀκαταγνώστ[ως]. 
Add P Oxy I. τ4015, P Lond 113} ( =I. p. 209), P Grenf 
T. 5776 and 16. 584 (all vi/A.D.) : also P Giss I. 56! (vi/a.p.) 
where the editor cites similar expressions, such as ἀκατα- 
φρονήτως, ἀναμφιβόλως. Nageli (p. 47) compares εὐκατά- 
γνωστος in P Tor I. 1%4i 1 (ji/B.c.). 


This word has hitherto been found only in Ac 16%7, 2235, 
and though ‘‘uncondemned” (AV, RV) is its natural 
meaning, this does not suit the context. Accordingly 
Blass thinks that it may there = Attic ἄκριτος, which can be 
used of a cause not yet tried. See also Ramsay St Paul, 
p- 225, where it is pointed out that Paul in claiming his 
rights would probably use the Roman phrase ve zzcognztta, 
“‘without investigating our case,” and that this was 
inadequately rendered by the Lucan ἀκατάκριτος. 


For the genitive construction after this neuter adjective in 
2 Pet 214 ἀκαταπάστους ἁμαρτίας, cf. such examples from 
the papyri as P Tebt I. 1248 (c. B.c. 118) ἀσυκοφαντή- 
(τους) καὶ ἀδιστάστους ὄντος πάσης αἰ[τ]ίας, BGU III. 
9707! (A.D. 177) τῆς εἰς ἅπαντας εὐεργεσίας... ἀβοήθητος: 
see Proleg. p. 235. In view of the common vulgar change of 
av to ἃ (as in “Ayovoros, ἀτός, etc.—see /roleg. p. 47) 
it is not improbable that ἀκατάπαυστος may be the word 
intended, so that the mass of the MSS. have glossed cor- 
rectly. Prof. Thumb suggests that the influence of ἐπάην 
may have affected the form. For this word cf. PSI 2882 
(ili/iv A.D.—magic) ἔρωτι ἀκαταπαύστῳ. 


A literary citation for this Stoic word may be made from 
P Grenf I. 14 (ii/B.c.), the Erotic fragment, where the faith- 
less lover is called ἀκαταστασίης εὑρέτης. See also the 
astrolegical papyrus published in Archiv i. p. 493 f. τῆς 
συ[μβ]ίου σῆς ἀκαταστασί[αν] (1. 25 f.). It occurs nearly 
a dozen times in Vettius Valens, coupled with πλάνη καὶ 
ἀλητεία (p. 418), ἀνωμαλία (p. 4418—one MS.), στάσις, 
ἔχθρα, συνοχή, κρίσις, ταραχή, etc.: it several times has 
οἰκείων dependent on it. The verb ἀκαταστατέω also occurs 
three times. That the astrologers had so thoroughly domestic- 
ated it does not prove that Paul, James and Luke were 
using a word of the higher culture. 


Auaollent no. 4 (6)}}3 (a curse on a leaden tablet from 
Cnidus) ἀνατίθημι Δάματρι kal Κόραι τὸν τὴν οἰκία(ν) μου 
ἀκατά[σ]τατον ποιοῦ(ν)τα. The date (af. zt. p. 5) is given 
as B.C. 300-100, though the series may be later (Newton). 


4 ἢ 


Syll 210! (iii/B.c.) τὴν χώραν ἀκέραιον. 
(A.D. 232) (= Chrest. I. p. 64) .. .] αὐτῷ τὸ πρᾶγμα 
ἀκέραιον ὡς ἦλ[θεν . .. In PSI 865 (A.p. 367-75) a man 
named Aurelius Sneus is bailed out of prison on certain 
conditions, ἀκέραιον Kal ékro[s] φυϊλακῆς ἀ]ναδοθέντα. 
Much earlier comes an instance of the adverb, in BGU IV. 
120847 (B.c. 27-6) ἐξηγήϊσατό μοι ἀκεραίως an outrage 
(ὕβρις) set forth in the petition which these words close. It 
is associated with downs in 7G III. 1418 (ii/A.p.), and in a 
Delphian inscr. of ii/B.c. (BCH xxvii. p. 109%) πρᾶγμα a. = 
οὐ κεκριμένον. Cronert, to whom these two passages are 
due, cites also 7G XIV. 9517! (Rome, B.C. 78) els ἀκέραιον 
ἀποκαθιστάναι = 77 tnlegrum restituere. In P Lips 1. 13" 
(A.D. 366) ἀἸκεραίων ὄντων καὶ ἀκινδύνων is applied to a 
loan, in the promise to pay interest. (MGr ἀκέριος.) 

P Par 6giil 28 


This NT ἅπ. εἰρ. (Heb 108) occurs in a petition (v/A.D.) 
of stilted style but far from accurate: P Oxy VI. 904° ταῖς 
ἀκλεινεῖς (/. -ἐσιν) ἀκοαῖς τῆς ὑμετέρας ἐξουσίας, ‘‘ the 
impartial ears of your highness.” 


In his famous speech at Corinth, announcing freedom to 
the Greeks, Nero expresses regret that it had not been in 
his power to offer it ἀκμαζούσης τῆς “Εἰλλάδος, so that more 
might have shared in his bounty (Sy// 376"). The more 
literal sense appears in P Lond 46”° (a magical papyrus, 
iv/A.D.) (=I. p. 72) ὅσα ἀκμάζει τῶν ὀπωρῶν. According 
to Moeris (‘‘qBav’Art., dxpatev”EAX.”). Nero’s composi- 
tion-master must have allowed a vernacular word to sully the 
purity of the oration. 


In OG/S 201 (vi/A.D.) οὐκ ἀπῆλθον ὅλως ὀπίσω τῶν 
ἄλλων βασιλέων, ἀλλὰ ἀκμὴν ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν, the adverb 
seems to have the meaning ‘‘valde, magnopere, longe,” 
in accordance with the original meaning of ἀκμή (see Ditten- 
Cf. νὼ 3261 (i/A.D.) παραλαβὼν τοὺς ἐν 
ἀκμᾶι τῶν πολιτᾶν : similarly P Oxy IIT. 473° (A.D. 138-60) 
παρὰ τὴν πρώτην ἀκμήν. A compound adjective ἴσακμον, 
“*with an even edge,”’ is applied to a weaver’s instrument in 
P Oxy VII. 103514 (A.D. 143). See on the later history of this 
word (MGr ἀκόμα = ἔτι) K, Krumbacher’s important article 
in Kuhn’s Zeitschrift xxvii. pp. 498-521. 

berger’s note). 

The noun was in 
Hellenistic use, according to Moeris: “ὡραία γάμων ᾽Αττ., 
ἐν ἀκμῇ yapou" HA.” 
the same grammarian in favour of ἔτι : so also Phrynichus 
(Rutherford VP, p. 203). In the NT, however, except for 
Mt 152%, all writers conspired to Atticize here: ἔτι was 
clearly quite good ‘‘ bad Greek,” as well as ἀκμήν ! 

The adverbial accus. was banned by 


The word is sometimes concrete, denoting ‘the ear”: 
so in the late document cited above under ἀκλινής, and in 
P Oxy I. 1294 (vi/A bp.) εἰς ἀκοὰς ἐμὰς ἦλθεν. Much earlier 
is Wiinsch 4 12? (ΠῚ A.D.) where ἀκοάς stands between 
ἐνκέφαλον [πρόσωϊπον and ὀφρ[ ῦ9] μυκτῆρας. Its more 
normal sense of ‘‘ hearing”? appears in a would-be cultured 
letter, BGU IV. 10808 (iii/A.D.) (= Chrest. I. p. 564) καὶ 
ἡμεῖς δὲ ἀκοῇ ἀπόντες ὡς παρόντες διαθέσι ηὐφράνθημεν : 


᾿ , 

the writer is able to quote Homer. It is joined with 
ὄσφρησις (as in 1 Cor 1217) in the quasi-literary P Ryl II. 
63° (iii/A.D.—an astrological dialogue). 


is still the word for ‘‘ following,” in MGr (ἀκλουθῶ) : it 
is noteworthy that in a large batch of petitions in P Ryl II. 
124-152, from Euhemeria (A.D. 28-42) we find the MGr form 
anticipated four times (ἐπηκλούθησε or -ηκότος). In the 
papyri the verb takes the place of ἕπομαι, which is also 
wanting in the NT, and in the LXX is confined to 3 
In the most literal sense we have such 
passages as P Lond 131 recfo®® (a.p. 78-9) (=I. p. 171) 
παιδ(ῶν) B ἀκολουθούντων τοῖς ὄνοις. P Lille I. 1 verso™8 
(B.C. 259) has an inanimate object: ἀκολουθήσουσι δὲ 
τοῖς προὐπάρχουσι χώμασι, “they will follow up, continue, 
the existing banks.” For the thought of “ following” to 
get a favour see BGU IV. 1079*° (A.D. 41) (= Selections, 
Ρ. 39), ἀκολούθει δὲ Ττολλαρίωνι πᾶσαν ὥραν, “stick to 
Ptollarion constantly”: cf. 1. 38 μᾶλλον ἀκολουθῶν αὐτῷ 
δύνῃ φιλιάσαι αὐτῷ, “rather stick to him, and so you 
may become his friend.” In P Petr III. 1281 the verb 
is used of journey-money assigned to an official, ἐφόδοις 
τοῖς ἀκολουθοῦσι τῶι [ἐπιστά]τηι. A striking parallel to 
the language of Mt 1057, and parallels, is to be found 
in an early papyrus Latin letter of recommendation dis- 
covered at Oxyrhynchus, P Oxy I. 321° ff. (ii/a.p.), “‘reliquit 
enim sufo]s [e]t rem suam et actum et me secutus est.” 
If the letter can be regarded as a Christian letter, its 
value, in view of its age, would be unique: see Deissmann 
LAE, p. 182. For the adjective, see P Tebt II. 29614 
(A.D. 123) &kdAov0(dv) éorrt, “it is consequently right ” (Edd.), 
and for the adverb, see P Tebt I. 33? (Β σ. 112) (= Selections, 
p. 30) φρόν]τισον οὖν ἵνα γενήίται) ἀκολούθως, ‘take care 
therefore that action is taken in accordance with it,’ P Oxy 
I. 3818 (A.D. 49-50) ἀκολούθως τοῖς ὑπὸ σοῦ, “ in accordance 
with what had been enacted by you” :—the word is very 
common. The verb normally takes the dative. P Amh II. 
622 (ii/p.c.) shows it absolute: εἰσὶν of ἀκολουθοῦντες 
μαχαιρο(φόροι) Δίδυμος Λυσίμαχος κτὰ. In P Lille I. 
26% (iii/B.c.) we have an adverbial accus., εἰ μὴ ἀκολουθεῖς 
ἅπαντα. Note P Par p. 411 (Ptol.) ᾿Αμ]μώνιον ἀκολου- 
θοῦντά σοι ὀφθαλ[μοῖς. For ἀκ. pera cf. Rutherford VP, 
p. 458 f., where the construction is shown to be Attic. 



The verb is of course common enough, and needs little 
or no illustration, having few peculiarities. Its use for a 
judicial hearing (as Ac 2523) may be paralleled with P Tand 
οἷ (ii/A.p.) Kal [pé]x [pr] τούτου οὔπο ἠκούσθ[ημ]εν, and 
P Oxy VII. 1032 (A.p. 162), where the epistrategus endorses 
a petition with ἀκουσθήσεται. So in BGU IL. 511i? 
(= Chrest. 1. p. 26), an account written about A.D. 200 of 
a trial before Claudius, we have ἀκούει Κλαύδιος Καῖσα[ρ 
Σέβαστος ᾿Ισιδώρου] γυμνασιάρχου πόλεως ᾿Α[λεξανδρέων] 
κατὰ ᾿Αγρίππου βασιλέω[ς]. The last example will illustrate 
ἀκούειν with normal gen. of person: P Par 485 (B.C. 153) 
(= Witkowski*® p. 91) ἀκούσαντες . . τὰ περὶ σοῦ συνβε- 
βηκότα will serve for accus. vez, and will also illustrate the 
common use with περί, since the phrase is a mixture of 
ἀκ. περὶ σοῦ and ἀκ. τά σοι συνβεβηκότα (Witk.). The 


same papyrus shows us the participial object clause, 1. ¥* 
ἀκούσαντες δὲ ἐν TO μεγάλω Σαραπιείου ὄντα oe. In 
P Amb IT. 378 (ii/B.c.) ἐκούομεν δὲ μὴ παραγεγονέϊναι . . . 
we have apparently the infin. construction, and so in 
P Grenf II. 36% (8.6. 95), ἠκούσαμεν τὸν μῦν καταβε- 
Bpwxévat τὸν omdpov—Witkowski (? p. 120, cf. p. xiv.) 
allows the writer to be ‘‘ modice eruditus.” For ἀκούειν 
ὡς cf. CPHerm 225: for the commoner ὅτι, P Tebt II. 
4168 (iii/A.D.) μὴ οὖν ἀκούσῃς ἀνθρώπων ὅτι μέλλω μένιν 
ἐνθάδε. With the introductory imper., asin Mk 45, cf. the 
dialogue in P Ryl II. 63% (iii/a.p.) where ἄκουε precedes an 


in the sense of “impotent” is found in Sy// 802, 803 
(iii/B.c.), inscriptions from Asclepios’ temple, e.g. 802%? 
ἀνὴρ τοὺς Tas χηρὸς δακτύλους ἀκρατεῖς ἔχων. Vettius 
Valens (p. 3033) associates ἀστάτους ταῖς γνώμαις καὶ 


P Oxy II. 237%ii- 0 (a.p. 186) παρ᾽ ols ἄκρατός ἐστιν 7 
τῶν νόμων amotop[{ja, ‘Samongst whom the severity of 
the law is untempered’”’ (Edd.). It is said to mean “ un- 
diluted’ in MGr: cf. Od. ix. 297 ἄκρητον γάλα. 


P Par 63% 4 (ii/B.c.) μετὰ πάσης ἀκριβείας, τὴν ἐκτί εἼνε- 
[σ]τάτην [ποι]ήσασθαι πρόνοιαν combines some character- 
istic Lucan and Pauline words. P Lond 12184! (iii/a.p.) 
(=I. p. 111), has ἐπ᾿ ἀκριβίας, an adverbial phrase like ἐπ᾿ 
ἀληθείας. A rather literary document, an advocate’s speech 
for prosecution—suspected by the editors of being a rhetorical 
exercise—contains the sentence ἄμεινον δ᾽ αὗται kal cadé- 
στερον τὴν περὶ τοῦτο ἀκρείβειαν kal τὴν ἐπιμέλειαν Μαξίμ[ο]υ 
δηλώσουσιν (P Oxy III. 471" *, ii/a.p.), which the editors 
translate, ‘‘ These letters will still better and more clearly 

exhibit Maximus’ exactness and care in this matter.” Near 
the end of the petition of Dionysia (P Oxy II. 237}. 9, 

A.D. 186) we have μετὰ πάσης ἀκρειβείας φυλασσέσθωσαν 
(sc. at ἀπογραφαῦῇ ; and in P Petr III. 36 (a) verso “8 ἢ ἃ 
prisoner complains to the Epimeletes that it was on account 
of the ‘* pinctiliousness ” of his predecessor in office that he 
had been confined—[a]kpiBelas ἕνεκεν ἀπήχθην. The verb 
ἀκριβεύειν, “to get exact instructions,” appears in P Amh 
11. 1547 (vi/vii A.D.) ἐὰν μὴ ἀκριβεύσωμαι ad’ ὑμῶν περὶ 
ἑκάστου πράγματος : Cronert’s earliest citation for this verb 
is *‘ Barnabas” 215. It may be formed by association with 
ἀκρίβεια, by the influence of the close relation of -ea and 


In P Oxy VI. p. 226 part of a document is given which 
forms the first column of no. 899 (A.D. 200): ὅπως ἐξετά- 
σαντίες) κατὰ Td ἀκρειβέστερον τῷ (a gap follows). This 
is a good example of an elative comparative (Pro/eg. pp. 78 

and 236), for the meaning is clearly ‘‘ having mos? carefully | 
A late iv/a.p. in- | 

examined”: cf. also P Petr II. 168. 
scription, Sy// 42315, has βρέβιον ( = dreve, a précis) τῶν 

εἰρημένων ἁπάντων ἀκρειβῆ διδασκαλίαν ἐπέχον. The | 
neuter as ἃ noun occurs in the Magnesian inscr. Sy// 929%" 



(1i/B.C.) τῶι μὲν ἀκριβεῖ τῆς ψήφου βραβευθῆναι τὴν κρίσιν 
οὐκ ἠβουλόμεθα, of counting a vote exactly; and P Tebt II. 
2871} (A.D. 161-9) Td ἀκρειβὲς μάθῃς. The adverb is treated 
separately below. 


This fairly common classical and Hellenistic verb does not 
happen to occur in the papyri, so far as we have noticed 
We might add to the literary record Veitius Valens p. 265? 
τούτων οὕτως κατ᾽ ἐξέτασιν ἠκριβωμένων, which has exactly 
the same sense as in Mt 218, ‘ 


For ἀ. with οἶδα, as 1 Th 5%, cf. P Goodsp Cairo 35: 
(i1i/B.C.) ὅπως ἀκριβῶς εἰδῆις, P Petr 11. 15 (1)! (iii/.c.) 
εἰδῆσαι ἀκριβῶς : cf. P Hib I. 4o8*. (iii/B.c.) ἐπίστασο μέντοι 
ἀκριβῶς, P Par 447 (B.C. 153) (= Witkowski 2.22.2 p. 83) 
διασάφηϊ]σόν μοι. . . τὰ περὶ σαυτὸν ἀκριβῶς, P Lond 
354 (c. B.C. 10) ( -- 1. p. 165) ἐπιγνόντα ἀκρειβῶς ἕκαστα. 
The comparative is used very much as in Ac 2315, 30 jn 
P Oxy VIII. 1102" (c. A.D. 146), the strategus ἀκρειβέστερον 
ἥξει “Αρπαλος καὶ thera σθήσεται περὶ τούτου axpeBéo[T]e- 
pov: the combination was evidently a formula. With 
πυνθάνεσθαι (as in Ac 23°) cf. P Petr II. 16! (iii/p.c.) 
πευσόμεσθα ἀκριβέστερον. The superlative occurs in P Hib 
I. 27%. 84 (early iii/B.C.) ὡς οὖν ἠδυνάμην ἀκριβέστατα. 

The verb occurs in the magic papyrus P Lond I. 46177 
(iv/A.D.) (=I. p. 70) φρικτὸς μὲν ἰδεῖν, φρικτὸς δὲ 



We have (naturally enough) no citations to illustrate this 
technical word of Jewish ritual, but a note on its formation 
might be given (from J. H. Moulton’s forthcoming Grammar 
of NT Greek, vol. 11.}: ““᾿Ακροποσθϑία, a normal descriptive 
cpd. from ἄκρος and πόσθη with a fresh suffix, is found in 
Hippocrates, and is obviously the original of the LXX word. 
When a word containing a vox obscaena was taken from 
medical vocabulary into popular religious speech, it was 
natural to disguise it: a rare word βύστρα = βύσμα may 
supply the model.” 


may very well have been coined by the LXX (Isa 2818). 
The Attic word was γωνιαῖος : see inscriptional citations in 
J. A. Robinson Aphesians, p. 164. Cronert (p. 
several other compounds of ἄκρος, some of which may be in 
the same category. W. W. Lloyd in CA iii. p. 419a (1889) 
among some architectural notes on Eph 259-59, says: ‘* The 
acrogoniaios here is the primary foundation-stone at the angle 
of the structure by which the architect fixes a standard for 
the bearings of the walls and cross-walls throughout.” 

233) has 

The word is doubtfully restored in Sy// 633 (ii/aA-D.) 
where it is prescribed that the worshippers shall bring 

| among other offerings κολλύβων χοίνικες δύο καὶ akpo- 

[θίνιον 3]. Cf. GD/ 25614 4? (Delphi, c. B.c. 395) τὠπόλλωνι 
τὰ ἀκρόθινα (pointed out by Prof. Thumb). 



P Tebt II. 38017 (i/A.p.) οὐλὴ ὀφρύει δεξίᾳ ἄκρᾳ, ‘oa scar 
at the tip of the right eyebrow,” P Oxy I. 43 (verso) 1. 11 
(iii/A.D) ἐπ᾽ ἄκρῳ ῥύμης Σεύθου. In P Oxy I. τοϑί- 8 (a.p. 
183 or 215), the meat bill of a cook, ἄκρα B are translated 
by the editors ‘‘ two trotters.” Cf. Pretsighe 3585 (iii/B.c.) 
τὸ ἄκρον τῆς σκιᾶς, of the shadows ona sundial, and Sy// 
804° (?ii/A.D.) κιτρίου προλαμβάνειν (= ‘‘eat,” see s.v.) τὰ 
ἄκρα : 20. 42579 (ili/B.c.) κατὰ τῶν ἄκρων, ‘‘down the 
heights” (as often). 


Thayer's doubts regarding the existence ot the genitive of 
this proper name may be set at rest by its occurrence in the 
papyri, where it is found in two forms—AktdAov (BGU II. 
4848, A.D. 201-2) and ᾿Ακύλα (26. I. 71%, a.p. 189, P 
Strass 229, iii/A.p., Σουβατιανοῦ *A.). Much earlier is 
Talov ᾿Ιουλίου ᾿Ακύλα, on the inscr. of Augustus in 
Pretsigke 401, A.D. 10-1. See Deissmann &S, p. 187, 
where the doubling of the A in certain manuscripts of Ac 
183 and Rom 168 is further illustrated by the occurrence 
of both ᾿Ακύλας and ᾿Ακύλλας in duplicate documents 
of the end of ii/A.p. with reference to the veteran C. 
Longinus Aquila (BGU I. 326). An Aquila of Pontus 
occurs on an inscription of Sinope, Φλ]αμιν[(1ου ᾿Ακύλα, 
as noted by D. M. Robinson in the Prosopographia to 
his monograph on Sinope, Am. Journ. of Philology xxvii. 
Ρ- 269 (1906). 


The adjective ἄκυρος is common in legal phraseology 
(e.g. it comes ygzvafer in the Ptolemaic Hibeh papyri). It 
occurs in the new Median parchment, P Safd Khan 14-28 
(B.c. 88) ὃς ἂν δὲ ἐγβάλῃ κτλ. [ἔστω ἄκυρος applied 
to a person, whose action is voided by illegality, a classical 
use. In the second parchment (B.C. 22) τήν Te ἀθβέτησιν εἶναι 
αὐτὴν ἄκυρον, it has its normal Hellenistic force. ᾿Ακύρωσις 
goes with ἀθέτησις (see 5.v.), or is used by itself, especially in 
the phrase els ἀκύρωσιν of a will or an I.0.U. received back 
to be cancelled: so P Oxy I. 1074! (A.D. 123) ἀνέλαβον 
παρὰ σοῦ els ἀκύρωσιν, 73. III. 400 8 (A.D. 124) πρὸς 
ἀκύρωσιν ἄγειν τήνδε τὴν διαθήκην, ‘to revoke this will.” 
The verb occurs in the same sense P Oxy III. 491° (a.. 
126), 4944 (A.D. 156), 4953 (A.D. 181-9), etc.: cf. Sy// 
329°° (i/B.c.) ἠκυρῶσθαι τὰς κ[α]τ᾽ αὐτῶν ἐκγραφὰς Kal 


The adjective occurs rarely B.c., and one citation from 
Plato stands in Cronert as warrant for classical antiquity. 
The adverb becomes very common from ii/A.D. It is of 
constant occurrence in legal documents, e.g. P Oxy IIT. 5024 
(A.D. 164) ὡς πρόκειται ἐπὶ τὸν χρόνον ἀκωλύτως, “as afore- 
said for the appointed time without hindrance” of the lease of 
a house, 26. VI. 912'® (A.D. 235), 2. VIII. 112716 (a.p. 183) 
and VII. 1036*7 (A.D. 273) : see exx. of this combination in 
the note to P Giss I. 4957 (p. 74). So P Lips I. 26! (begin- 
ning iv/A.D.) P Gen 1118 (A.D. 350), and the Edmonstone 
papyrus, P Oxy IV. p. 203 (A.D. 354), νέμεσθε εἰς ods ἐὰν 
βούλητε τόπους ἀκωλύτως Kal ἀνεπιλήμπτως. Add the 
sixth century P Lond οο115ὅ {(-- 11]. p. 258) ἀκολύτως καὶ 

0 ἅλας 

βεβα[(ως] : the word is legal to the last. For the triumph- 
ant note on which it brings the Acts of the Apostles to a 
close, see Harnack Lukas der Arat p. 116, Eng. Tr. p. 163 ἢ, 
and cf. Milligan Documents, p. 168. 


This common Greek word, which in the NT is found only 
1 Cor 9%’, occurs several times in the long petition of 
Dionysia, P Oxy II. 237¥i- 18, vii. δ, 12, 22 (4,5, 186), : cf. the 
fourth century Christian letter P Oxy VI. 939% (= Se/ections, 
p- 129) ἐς τηλικαύτην σε [ἀγωνία]ν ἄκων ἐνέβαλον, ‘un- 
willingly I cast you into such grief.” Add from the inscrip- 
tions, Sy// 356°° (time of Augustus) εἴτε ἑκόντα εἴτε ἄκοντα, 
26. 4158 (iii/A.D.), etc. 


The word is found with μύρου, as in Mk 143, in OG/S 
629%° (A.D. 137) μύρου [ἐν GAaBao]}rpois, according to the 
editor’s restoration. In P Petr II. 47°8 the words ἐν 
᾿Αλαβάστρων πόλει, “in Alabastropolis,” occur in the 
subscription to a contract for a loan. From v/B.c. may 
be quoted Sy// 445, ἀλά[β]αστίοι], according to the 
Attic form: cf. A/ichel 8231! (B.c. 220), 7. 833° (B.C. 
279), σὺν τοῖς ἀλαβάστροις, in an inventory of temple 
treasures. From a much later period we have mention 
of a quarry near Alexandria, or at any rate belonging to 
Alexandria—P Théad 36% (A.D. 327) ἐπιμελητὴς τεχνιτῶν 
ἀποστελλομένων ἐν ἀλαβαστρίῳ ᾿Αλεξανδρίας, 2%. 35% 
(A.D. 325) ἐπιμελητὴς ἐργατῶν τῶν [κατ]ὰ τὴν ἀλαβαστρίνην 
μεγάλ(ην), 22. 345 and editor’s note (p. 182). Earlier than 
for employment εἰς ἀλαβάστρινα, and other works The 
alabaster quarry may also be recognized in P Petr 11. 9 (2) 
(B.C. 241-39) μετα[πορεύ]εσθαι els ἀλαβα[στί]θιδα : see the 
editor's note, p. [23], as to the locality. Finally, there is an 
inventory in P Lond 402 verso (ii/B.c.) (= IJ. p. 12) which 
includes among a good many utensils and articles known and 
unknown ἀλαβαστρουθῆκαι : we may infer that the writer 
first meant to coin a compound, and then changed his mind 
and wrote the genitive. (See also under ἀσκός.) 


To its later literary record may be added Zest. xit. patr., 
Jos. 17 οὐχ ὕψωσα ἐμαυτὸν ἐν ἀλαζονείᾳ διὰ τὴν κοσμικὴν 
δόξαν μου, ἀλλ᾽ ἤμην ἐν αὐτοῖς ὡς εἷς τῶν ἐλαχίστων (cited 
by Mayor on Jas 45). 


As early as iii/B.C. the neuter form is proved to have been 
in existence, e.g. P Petr III. 140 (a)? ἔλαιον  &Aas νὶ ξύλα, 
and may therefore be acknowledged in P Hib 1. 152 
(B.c. 250) ἐμβαλοῦ els τὸ πλοῖον ἅλας Kal λωτόν, though 
there the editors treat the word as accusative plural. A clear 
example seems to be quotable from P Par 55 ézs i 29 (ii/B.c.) 
kal ἄρτοι kal ἅλας. From later times we can quote P Leid 
X ὁ 8 (iii/iv A.D.) ἅλας Καππαδοκικόν, P Oxy IX. 12222 
(iv/a.D.) τὸ ἅλας. The ambiguity of earlier exx. attaches 
itself even to P Leid C τιον. ὃ (p. 93 of part i.), where 
ἅλας may as well be acc. pl., since the itenis are acc. as 
well as nom. in this λόγος of provisions supplied to the 
Twins of the Serapeum (ii/B.c.). Mayser (Gr. p. 286) 


quotes a conjectural reading ἅλατος for dros in the same 
document; but the Petrie and the Paris papyri cited give 
us our only certain exx. from Ptolemaic times, to set beside 
2 Esd 722, Sir 39°% Cf MGr ἁλάτι. Mr Thackeray 
(in a letter) would now regard ἅλας in LXX as probably 
neuter: ‘the only indubitable cases of the plural are in 
the local plural phrases ἡ θάλασσα (etc.) τῶν ἁλῶν. This 
looks as if the plural was the regular form for salt-aveas.” 
In the fourteen LXX instances of ἅλα and ἅλας the article 
is absent, and we are free to assume that a new neuter noun 
was already developing, perhaps under analogy of other 
food names like γάλα and κρέας. “Adds lived on in the 
papyri as late as A.D. 258-9, P Lond 1170 verso4 (= III. 
p- 196). By σταθμίον adts in P Tebt 11. 3317 (¢. a-p. 131) 
we are apparently to understand ἁλός, ‘a quantity of salt.” 
BGU III. 731 #8 (a.p. 180) ἁλὸς πλεῖστον will serve as a 
further instance. Note ἁλική, “‘ salt tax,” common in early 
papyri: see ἁλυκός below. 


Passim in papyri, e.g. P Fay 1215 (c. A.D. 100) ὃ καὶ 
ἀλείψεις ἐπιμελῶς, “ which you will carefully grease,” of a 
yoke-band. We find statues (ἀνδριάντες) the objects in 
BGU 11. 362% 16 x 17 (Α.1). 215). In P Oxy III. 52810 t 
(ii/A.D.) a man, whose wife had gone away, writes to her 
that since they had bathed together a month before, he had 
never bathed nor anointed himself—otK ἐλουσάμην οὐκ 
ἤλιμε (Δ ἤλειμμαι). A curiously spelt perfect ἐνήλεπα from 
ἐναλείφω is found in a somewhat similar connexion in 
P Oxy II. 29415 (A.D. 22). Cf. also a third-century in- 
scription in honour of a gymnasiarch, φιλοτίμως ἀλείφοντι 
(Milne /#S 1901, p. 284), noted by the editors on P Oxy 
III. 473° (A.D. 138-60), where we find the substantive 
ἄλειμμα. Cf. also OG/S 591° (iii/B.c.) ὅπως ἔχωσιν els τε 
τὰς θυσίας kal τὸ ἄλειμμα δαπανᾶν. For the phrase “‘ free 
from erasure” cf. BGU II. 6662 (a.p. 177) ἐστὶν δὲ καθα- 
pov ἀπὸ ἀλείφατος καὶ ἐπιγραφῆς : cf. P Ryl II. 16317 
(A.D. 139). As against the contention that ἀλείφω is the 
“*mundane and profane” and χρίω the “sacred and re- 
ligious” word (Trench), see P Petr II. 25 (a)!*, where 
xplow is used of the lotion for a sick horse. 


See Rutherford WP p. 307 for the history of this word 
(MGr ἀλόχτερας) in classical Greek. It is found in P 
Tebt I. 140 (B.c. 72) τι[μὴ]ν ἀλέκτορος καὶ ἀρτοπίνακος. 
Add P Ryl 11. 166% (A.p. 26) ἀ. ἕνα (which, as in 16718, is 
promised as a yearly offering, in the proposal to take upa 
lease), P Fay 119®® (c. A.D. 100) ἀλέκτορας δέκα, BGU 1. 
From a later time (iii/iv A.D., according to Leemans) comes 
P Leid Vix. 31,52, x.1, where we have (τὸν) ἀλέκτορα dis, 
and then ἀλεκτόρου: so Wiinsch AF 315 (imperial) ὁ 
ἀλέκτωρ. It was clearly the normal Kowy form; but 
ἀλεκτρυόνων may still be seen in P Oxy IX. 12078 (a.p. 
175-6?) ἀ. τελείων τεσσάρων, in the same phrase as 
BGU IV. 1067 Zc. It is noteworthy that ἀλεκτρύων occurs 
in the well-known Gospel fragment (A/2¢tez/angen of the 
Rainer Papyri I. i. 54) © ἀλεκτρύων Sis κοκ[κύξει]. Cf. 
Michel 692° (i/A.D.) ἀλεκτρύονα, but in 1]. 27 of the same 
inscription ἀλέκτορας. 



The word (MGr ἀλεύρι) is found in the long magical 
papyrus P Lond 121°*® (iii/A.p.) (= I. p. 101): ef. 26. 1170 
verso 450 (Α.Ὁ. 258-9) (= III. p. 204) σάκκον adevpfolv, 
and 26. 98818 (=TIII. p. 244) (iv/A.D.) αὐτὸς yap τὰ ἑαυτοῦ 
ἔχι ἄλευρα. 


The noun occurs requently in prepositional phrases, μετὰ 
πάσης ἀληθείας, etc. “Em ἀληθείας is found in P Amh II. 
68% (late i/A.D.) ὀμνύομεν . . . εἶ μὴν ἐξ ὑγειοῦς Kal ἐπ᾽ 
ἀληθείας ἐπιδεδωκ[ςέ]ναι : so P Oxy III. 4809 (A.p. 132), and 
Syli 2261 (iii/B.c.) οὐ γεγενημένου τούτου ἐπ᾽ ἀληθείας, etc. 
This NT phrase is thoroughly idiomatic, we see, and not 
“translation Greek” in Mark. Other combinations are 
ἐξ a., P Oxy VII. 103253 (A.p. 162) ἐ[κ] τῆς a., P Flor I. 
3214 (A.D. 298) ἐξόμνυμι. . . ἐξ ἀ. kal πίστεως. (For this 
collocation of nouns, cf. P Oxy I. 70° (iii/A.p.) πίστιν καὶ 
ἀλήθ[ειαν Exe, “is credited and accepted,” of a contract 
(Edd.).) With 2 Jn1, 3 Jnt ὃν ἐγὼ ἀγαπῶ ἐν ἀληθείᾳ, cf. 
the Gemellus letters, P Fay 11826 (A.D. 110) ἀσπάζου τοὺς 
φιλοῦντές σε πάντες πρὸς ἀλήθιαν, and 20. 11928 (c. A.D. 100) 
τοὺς φιλοῦντες ἡμᾶς πρὸς ἀλήθιαν. In much the same sense 
we find ταῖς ἀληθ(είαις), P Kyl 11. 1ο535 (Α.Ὁ. 136). For 
the noun without prepositions we may quote P Oxy II. 
283 151. (a.v. 45) ἐξ οὗ δεήσει γνωσθῆναι πᾶσαν τὴν περὶ 
τῶν προγεγραμμένων ἀλήθειαν, P Giss I. 8415 (ii/a.p.) 
φι]λοῦφι νῦν οὗτοι τὴν ἀλήθ[ε]ιαν εἰπεῖν, P Lond 4125 
(A.D. 351) = (II. p. 280) εἰ μὴ ὑπῆρχεν ἡμεῖν ἡ τῶν νόμων 
ἀλήθει[α], 25. 8979 (A.D. 84) (ΞΞ 1ΠΠ. p. 206) νυνεὶ δὲ ὑμεῖς 
τὴν ἀλήθειαν γράψαται, etc. From v/vi A.D. comes an 
interesting Christian prayer in P Oxy VI. 925° φανέρωσόν 
μοι τὴν παρὰ col ἀλήθιαν εἰ βούλῃ pe ἀπελθεῖν cis Χιούτ. 
The form of the petition closely follows those of paganism. 

We have noticed no early occurrence, but cf. P. Amh II. 
142! (iv/A.D.) a]AnBevovt . . ., before a gap. 


The adjective is common in formule: thus in the 42 docu- 
ments (Ptolemaic) of the P Magd there are 17 instances, all 
like 178 kal ἐὰν ἧι ἃ γράφω ἀληθῆ, or to the same purport. 
So P Strass I. 4118 (c. A.D. 250) Set yap τὰ ἀληθῆ λέγειν, 
etc. It seems always to bear the normal meaning of 
“true in fact”; so ὅρκος, Wilcken Os¢v 1150 (Ptol.). In 
P Tebt II. 285% (A.D. 239) it is applied to ‘‘ legitimate” 
children: cf. 26. 29317 (c. a.D. 187), where, with reference 
to an application to circumcise a boy, it is declared ἀληθῆ 
εἶναι αὐτὸν ἱερατικοῦ [yé]vous, ‘that heis in truth of priestly 
family.” In BGU IV. 1024%-17 (iv/v A.D.) οὐκ ἀληθής is 
applied to a person. For the adverb we need cite only 
P Gen I. 555 (iii/A-D.) καλοκαγαθίαν ὡς ἀληθὸς ἀσύνκριτον 


is less common still than ἀληθής, but is found in MGr. 
In P Petr II. 19 (1a)® (iii/B.c.) it is used in a petition 
by a prisoner who affirms that he has said nothing μηδέποτε 
ἄτοπον, ὅπερ καὶ ἀληθινόν ἐστι, and again (s¢ vera Jectio) 

ε ὔ 

26. 2 (3) (B.C. 260), where the writer assures his father εἰ 
ἐν ἄϊλλοις ἀλύπως ἀπαλλάσσεις εἴη ἂν ὡς ἐγὼ τοῖς θεοῖς 
ἔσχομεν [χάριν ἀληθ]ινόν, ““1Γ in other matters you are 
getting on without annoyances, there will be, as we have 
given, true gratitude to the gods”: cf. Sy// 316 (ii/B.c.) 
πα]ρασχομένων τῶν κατηγόρων ἀληθινὰς ἀποδείξεις, and 
the same phrase in BGU IV. 11417 (time of Augustus). 
Caracalla’s edict, P Giss I. 40 4-27, speaks of οἱ ἀληθινοὶ 
Αἰγύπτιοι as ‘easily distinguished by their speech.” The 
word is also found in the fragmentary BGU III. 742%-1f 
(A.D. 122) εἰ ταῖς ἀληθ[ι]Ἱναῖς ἀντὶ φερνῆς ἡ παραχώρησις 
ἐγένετο. In an obscure letter concerning redemption of 
garments etc. in pawn, P Oxy I. 114? (ii/ili a.D.), we 
have ἀληθινοπόρφυρον translated by the editors “‘ with a 
real purple (border?).” In OG/S 223!" (iii/B.c.) the 
Seleucid Antiochus Soter writes ἀπλάστως Kal ἀληθινῶς 
ἐμ πᾶσι προσφερομένους. In Wiinsch 4/ 44 (iii/A.D.) we 
find εἴπω σοι kal τὸ ἀληθινὸν ὄνομα ὃ τρέμει Τάρταρα κτλ. 
For Christian examples of ἀληθινός from the papyri, see 
P Oxy VI. 925? (v/vi A.D.) (=Selections, p. 131) “O θ(εὸὴς ..« 
ὁ ἀληθινός, and the Christian amulet of vi/A.p. edited by 
Wilcken in 47chiv i. p. 431 ff. (= BGU III. 954, Selections, 
p. 132), where at 1. 28 ff. we find—o φῶς ἐκ φωτός, θ(εὸ)ς 
ἀληθινὸς χάρισον ἐμὲ κτλ. 


The word is too common in itself to need illustrating, 
unless we recorded the appearance of the epithet ποτάμιος 
to indicate a fisherman who exercised his calling on the Nile. 
It is, however, a good example of the rule by which in 
Hellenistic of the second period (ἡ e. A.D.) two z-sounds are 
not allowed to come together: see Pro/eg.* p. 44 f. In this 
one case, in the nom. and accus. pl. of ἁλιεύς, dissimilation 
instead of contraction has taken place: aAeets occurs in NT 
and in P Flor I. 127} (a.p. 256), but note 119? aAt[ets and 
275°, from the same correspondence, and BGU IV. 1035° 
(v/a.D.). Of course P Petr III. 59ii-§ belongs to a period 
when the phonetic difficulty was not felt. Another expedient 
was ἁλιέας, P Flor II. 2018 (iii/A.p.). T1ellenistic does not 
follow the Attic contractions (Awpias, -@v): cf. ἁλιέων 
BGU III. 756% (aA.p. 199), ᾿Εἰριέως P Petr IIL. 59 (a). 
We find ἁλιείων in P Amh II. 30% (ii/B.c.). 

The verb occurs in P Flor II. 2755", from the Heroninus 
correspondence (middle iii/A.D.). 


The closeness οἱ ἀλλά to πλήν appears in more uses than 
one. Armitage Robinson, Zp/estans, p. 205, has a note 
on a quasi-resumpltive use of ἀλλά in Eph 524 which is 
closely paralleled by that of πλήν in ver. 33. Then there are 
instances of ἀλλά = ‘‘except.” ‘This is clear where we have 
ἀλλ᾽ ἤ (as in 2 Cor 13%): thus P Petr 11. 9 (3)® (B.c. 241- 
39) ὥστε μηθένα εἶναι ἐνταῦθα ἀλλ᾽ ἢ ἡμᾶς, ‘ There is no one 
left here except ourselves” (Ed.), 2d. 46 (α)" (B.C. 209) καὶ 
μὴ ὑποκεῖσθαι πρὸς ἄλλο μηδὲν add’ ἢ τὴν mpoyeypap- 
[μέν]ην ἐγγύην, “has not been pledged for any other purpose 
than the aforesaid security” (1α.), P Lond 89738 (a.p. 84) 
(=TIII. p. 207) ὃ μέντοιγε οὐ θέλων. ἀλλὰ ἢ ἀνάγκηι. In 

P Tebt I. το 419 (B.c. 92) μὴ ἐξέστω Φιλίσκωι γυναῖκα ἄλλην. 
μ γυ 7 


ἐπ[α]γ αἹγέφθαν ἀλλὰ ᾿Απολλωνίαν, “any other wife but 
A.” (Edd.), shows the same use for ἀλλά alone. See 
Proleg.* p. 241 (with some additional remarks in the German 
ed., p. 269). G. C. Richards (/7S x. p. 288) observes 
on the note in Prodeg., ““In Mk 433 ἐὰν μή and ἀλλά are 
parallel, a usage which Aramaic explains but Greek does 
not.” (Cf. the variants in Mk 98.) Without doubting that 
an Aramaic background makes the usage all the easier, we 
can assert that Hellenistic Greek does admit this use of 
ἀλλά. For ἀλλὰ μήν (not in NT) cf. P Oxy III. 47297 
(¢ A.D. 130) & phy. vtev πίστεως περὶ τούτων οὔσης, P 
Flor I. 89! (iii/A.D.) @. μ. Kal πρὸς τὴν παρακομι- 
[δὴν τ]ούτων [π͵]λοῖον παρασχεῖν σπούδασον. It is hardly 
necessary to illustrate the conjunction further. 


As so often happens, the simple verb (MGr ἀλλάζω) is 
outnumbered greatly by its compounds. We may cite Sy/ 
1784. (iv/B.c.) κεκτῆσθαι kal ἀλλάσσεσθαι καὶ ἀποδόσθαι, 
P Oxy IV. γ29 58 (A.D. 137) ἐὰν δὲ αἱρώμεθα ἀλλάσσειν κτήνη 
ἢ πωλεῖν ἔξεσται ἡμεῖν, Ρ Lips 1. 107% (middle iii/A.p.) 
ἀλλάξας τὸν λόγον, BGU IV. 11414) 44 (Augustus), where 
a πορφυρᾶ has been “ bartered,” P Oxy IV. 729" (A.D. 137) 
in association with πωλεῖν. In P Tebt I. 124} (c. B.c. 118) 
“εἠλλαγμένοι scems to be equivalent to ἀπηλλαγμένοι rather 
than to have the meaning ‘exchange’” (Edd.). An illiterate 
papyrus of A.D. 75 may be cited for the construction: BGU 
Il. 597'° ἀλλαξέτω σε αὐτὸν (sc. a sack of wheat) Πασίων 
καλοῖς σπέρμασει. Σέ here is we suppose for σοί: the 
dative σπέρμασι reminds us of the NT ἐν ὁμοιώματι 
(Rom 123, from LXX), since the addition of ἐν to a dative 
is nothing out of the way. (Of course we are not questioning 
the influence of literal translation here.) 

The verb is also found in the fragment of the uncanonical 
Gospel, P Oxy V. 840!" ff τοῦτο τὸ ἱερὸν τόπον ὄν]τα 
καθαρόν, dv οὐδεὶς ἄΐλλος εἰ μὴ] λουσάμενος Kal ἀλλά[ξας 
τὰ ἐνδύματα πατεῖ. For the substantive, see P Eleph 14” 
(late iii/B.C.) τὴν εἰθισμένην ἀλλαγήν : it is fairly common. 


P Oxy 11. 237% 15 (A.D. 186) οὐκ ἀλλαχόθεν ἡγήσατο τὴν 
ἐξέτασιν ἔσεσθαι serves to support Jn το]. The word is 
classical, though assailed by Atticists (Thayer). 


For this form (= ἄλλοσε or ἀλλαχόσε), which is found in 
the NT only in Mk 1°, cf. Sy/7 418*8 (iii/A.D.) ἀλλαχοῦ 
πεμπόμενοι. In P Lips I. 104?9 (i/ii A.D.) Wilcken (Archiv 
iv. p. 484) proposes now to read εἰ kal ἐφ᾽ ἀλλαχῇ βαδίζετε, 
where ἀλλαχῇ is treated like an adjective (= ἄλλῃ) with 
ὁδῷ supplied. If the reading is accepted, we should place it 
with ἐκ τότε, ἀπὸ πέρυσι, etc. 


For this word which is generally used as a title in the 
Psalms, but occurs at the end of Ps 150, cf. the closing 
words of a strophe in a liturgical fragment of v/vi A.D., 
P Ryl I. 9 εὐλογήσω τ[ὸν] λαόν μου εἰς τὸν ἀῶνα 
ἁλ(ληλούϊα ?) with the editor’s note. 

It is also found at the end of an amulet (P Berol 6096) : 
τὸ σῶμα Kal τὸ δέμα (?aipa) τοῦ Χ(ριστο)ῦ, φεῖσαι τοῦ 


δούλου σου τὸν φοροῦντα τὸ φυλακτήριον τοῦτο. ἀμήν, 
ἁλληλούϊα ta Τωτ (Schaefer in P Iand I. p. 29). 


This word, frequent in the LXX and once in the NT 
(Lk 1738), is, according to Grimm, found ‘‘ nowhere in pro- 
fane writers.” But note should be taken of the famous 
inscription on the Temple barrier, OGZS 598 (i/A.D.), be- 
ginning μηθένα ἀλλογενῆ εἰσπορεύεσθαι ἐντὸς τοῦ περὶ τὸ 
ἱερὸν τρυφάκτου καὶ περιβόλου, “let no foreigner enter 
within the screen and enclosure surrounding the sanctuary.” 
Josephus, in his description of the tablet (Be//. Jud. v. 193) 
substitutes μηδένα ἀλλόφυλον παριέναι, a good example of 
his methods of mending the vernacular Greek he heard and 
read. Mommsen argued that the inscription was cut by the 
Romans. We might readily allow the word to be a Jewish 
coinage, without compromising the principle that Jewish 
Greek was essentially one with vernacular Greek elsewhere. 
The word is correctly formed, and local coined words must 
be expected in every language that is spoken over a wide 


The verb is used in P Ryl 11. 13815 (a.p. 34) of a thiefs 
incursion, just as εἰσπηδάω : κατέλαβα τοῦτον διὰ νυκτὸς 
ἡλμένον εἰς KTA. “41 detected him when under cover of 
night he had sprung into the farmstead” (Edd.). It is 
recurrent in the curious document P Ryl I. 28 (iv/a.p.), on 
divination by ‘‘quivering”’ of various parts of the body. 


The differentia of ἄλλος as distinguished from ἕτερος may 
be left to the latter article. With ἡ ἄλλη Μαρία in Mt 27% 
cf. P Petr III. 59 (c) (Ptol.), where a great many names 
appear as Θάησις ἄλλη, Κόνρηις ἄλλος, even where no 
duplicate appears in the document itself—its fragmentary 
character presumably accounts for this. (Grimm’s article on 
Μαρία (3) suggests the remark that the repetition of the same 
name within a family is paralleled in papyri: thus P 
Petr III. 117 (9) 4-17 £ ΓΜΠάνρης μικρὸς Τεῶτος kal Μάνρης 
ἀδελφὸς ὡσαύτως .---τνε quote without prejudicing the discus- 
sion as to the Maries!) The form τἄλλα with crasis is 
frequent: see Witkowski? (Index) p. 162 for several instances. 
For ἄλλος used = alter, see Proleg. p. 80 n.1, where an ex. is 
quoted from a Doric inscr. as early as B.C. 91. An idiomatic 
use of ἄλλος may be quoted from P Oxy VII. ro70% 
py... , ὃ μὴ εἴη, GN ἐξ ἄλλων γένηται, “lest... , 
what heaven forbid, we find ourselves at sixes and sevens” 
(Edd.) : the note is, “ ἄλλ᾽ ἐξ ἄλλων, if the letters are rightly 
so interpreted, seems to be a phrase meaning out of har- 
mony, one person doing one thing and another another.” 


For the formation of this rare word (in NT only 1 Pet 
415) cf. μελλοέφηβος P Oxy IX. 1202" (A.D. 217), Serypa- 
τοάρτ(ην) and χωματοεπιμ(ελητής) P Lond 115997 and 39 
(A.D. 145-7) (=III. p. 113), the former also P Oxy I. 638 
(ii/ili A.D.) τοὺς δειγματοάρτας καθ᾽ αὑτὸν ἀναπέμψαι πρὸς 
ζυγοστα[σ]ίαν, ‘‘send up the inspectors yourself to the 
examination” (Edd.). For the meaning of & Deissmann 
(BS p. 224) cites a synonymous phrase from BGU II. 


" , 

531ii.22 (ii/a.p.) οὔτε εἰμὶ ἄδικος οὔτε ἀ[λ]λοτρίων ἐπιθυ- 
μητής, and see further Zeller Stésungsherichte der Berliner 
Akademie, 1893, p. 129 ἢν, where the word is explained 
from parallels out of the popular philosophy of the day, e. g. 
Epict. iii. 22, 97 οὐ yap τὰ ἀλλότρια πολυπραγμονεῖ, ὅταν 
τὰ ἀνθρώπινα ἐπισκοπῇ, ἀλλὰ τὰ ἴδια. See also ZVTIV 
vii. p. 271 ff. On the possible bearing of the word on the 
date of 1 Pet, see Jiilicher Zytroduction to the NT, p. 213. 


P Oxy VII. 1067 ὁ (a very ungrammatical letter of iii/A.D.), 
μάθε οὖν ὅτι ἀλλοτρίαν γυναῖκαν (/. ἀλλοτρία γυνή) ἐκληρο- 
νόμησεν αὐτόν, ““Κπονν then that a strange woman is made 
his heir” (Ed.): The adjective is common in the sense 
of alzenus, “belonging to others”: one or two special 
applications may be cited. A rescript of Gordian (P Tebt 
Il. 285°), which Wilcken marks as suffering from trans- 
lation out of Latin, uses τοὺς ἀλλοτρίους for * outsiders,” as 
against legitimate children. P Giss I. 6γ15 (ii/a.p.) τὸ yap 
ἀλλ[ότ]ριον ἐποίησα Ev[. . . seems to imply ‘‘I did what 
was foreign to me,” but the lost context may change this 
entirely. 6. 995 (ii/iii 
Αἰγυπτίων ἀλλότρια ταῦτα ἣν], ἐδρᾶτο δὲ ὅμως. P Tor 
I. 141-3 (Ptol. Euergetes) προέφερετο ἀλλότριον εἶναι τὸ 
παρεισαγόμενον ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ. P Oxy II 2829 (4.p. 30-5) 
ἡ δὲ ἀλλότρια φρονήσασα THs κοινῆς συμβιώϊσεως], “ be- 
came dissatisfied with our union” (Ε44.) : so P Ryl II. 12819 
(c. A.D. 30) ἀλλότρια φρονήσασα, ‘changed her mind,” 
of a mill-hand leaving her work. BGU II 4os5}% (a.p. 
348), ξένον pe εἶναι καὶ ἀλλότριον αὐτῆς, gives the genitive 
dependent on it, and 2. IV. 11217? (B.c. 5) μήτε ἴδια 
μήτ᾽ ἀλλότρια has the antithesis which characterizes best 
its meaning. 


P Tebt I. 105%8 (B.c. 103) καὶ μὴ ἐξέστω αὐτ[ῶι] ἀλλο- 
τρ[ιοῦν . . .7 τὴν μίσθωσιν. BGU IV. τογαῖν- 10 (ν )ν a.p.) 
σὺ δὲ ἐπεβούλευσας σῶμα (/. σώματι) ἀλλοτρ[ι]ωθέντι ὑπὸ 
τοῦ [γ]ένους τῶν ἀνθρώπων. This last has the sense which in 
NT is expressed more strongly by the perfective compound 


For this classical word (Ac 1078) cf. BGU I. 3qii- 8 11, 
zb. 11. 411? (A.D. 314) Αὐρηλίῳ ᾿Ατρῇ ἀλλοφύλου γεοργῷ 
χαίρε[ι]ν, 2. 4197 (A.D. 276--7) Α[ὐρ]ήλιος . . . ἀλλόφυλος 
ἀπὸ κώμης Φ[ι]λαδελφίας, and 26. IIT. 8ς82 δ (a.p. 294). 
Preisighe 3441 (from Elephantine) τὸ προσκύνημα τ(ῶ)ν 
ἀλλοφύλ(ω)ν. See also the citation from Josephus (5.2. 


was common, though it curiously occurs only once in NT. 
Thus P Tebt 11. 4597 (B.c. 5) καὶ μὴ ἄλ[λ]ως ποήσῃς--ἃ 
frequent phrase in letters conveying an urgent request. P 
Flor 11. 151'° (A.D. 267) μὴ ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς στρατιώτης ἀπο- 
σταλῇ καὶ ἄλλως ἐφόδιον βλαβῶσιν, etc. 

With the substantive ἀλοητός, which is found as a variant 
in LXX Lev 265, Amos 915, may be compared P Tebt I. 


48151. (6. B.C. 113) ὄντων πρὸς τῆι παραδόσει τῶν ἐκφορίων 
καὶ τοῦ ἀλοητοῦ, where however from its dependence on 
arapaSdoe, the editors understand ἀ, to refer to a payment 
of some kind, probably to various minor taxes at the ἅλως. 
See also BGU IV. 1031” (ii/A.D.) ὅρα μὴ ἀμελήσῃς τὸν 
ἀλοητὸν τῆς νησοῦ. (It is better with Cronert s.7. to write 
the word with smooth breathing, instead of following the 
abnormal a. of the Attic cognate ἅλως.) 


The adverb occurs in the curious acrostic papyrus of early 
i/A.D., P Tebt. 11. 278%, where the story of the loss of a 
garment is told in short lines, beginning with the successive 
letters of the alphabet— 

ἵζητῶι Kal οὐχ εὑρίσκωι. 
ἧρτε ἀλόγως. 

(1 seek, but do not find it. It was taken without cause.’ 
In P Fay 192 (Hadrian’s letter) the writer asserts that his 
death took place oltre ἀω[ρεὶ οὔτ]ε ἀλόγως οὔτε οἰκτρῶς 
οὔτε ἀπίροσ]δοκήτω[ς οὔτε ἀνοήτως, the sense of “un- 
reasonably” seems clear, ἀλόγως being emphasized by 
ἀνοήτως, as ἀωρεί is by ἀπροσδοκήτως. So BGU I. 74° 
(a.D. 167) Kal γὰρ ἂν ἄλογον εἴη κτὰλ., P Lond 973 6111. 
(iii/A.p.) (=III. p. 213) μὴ δόξῃς με ἀλόγῳς [- - ., P Tebt 
II. 4205 (iii/A.p.) ἀλόγος (1. -ws) ἐξήλθατε ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ. Later 
examples are P Lips I. ττ139 (iv/A.p.) and P Amh II. 
145)6 (iv/v A.D.) ἐλυπήθην διότι ἀπεδήμησας ἀλόγως, “I 
am grieved because you went away without cause.” There 
is a curious use of a derived verb in P Tebt I. 138 (late 
ii/s.c.), where an assailant σπασάμενος ταύτην (sc. μάχαιραν) 
βουλόμενός pe ἀλογῆσαι κατήνεγκε [πλ]ηγαῖς τρισὶ KTA.— 
a rather aggressive ‘“‘neglect” or ‘‘contempt”! Cf. BGU 
I. 2214f. (a.p. 114) (= Selections, p. 75) ἄλογόν por ἀηδίαν 
συνεστήσατο, ‘picked a senseless quarrel against me,” and 
similarly P Ryl 11. 1445 (A.p. 38), P Lond 342° (A.p. 185) 
(=II. p. 174), 7. 2148 (A.D. 270-5) (ΞΞ 11. p. 161), χθὲς 
ἀλόγως γενόμενος εἰς ἀμπελικὸν χωρίον, “entered vio- 
lently” or ‘‘without authorisation.” Similarly P Flor I. 
587 (iii/A.D.) ἀλόγως ἐπελθ[όϊντες δίχα παντὸς νόμου, a 
“brutal” assault. We shall see a similar activity developed 
in καταφρονεῖν. On the other hand BGU IV. 1024-36 

(iv/v A.D.) ἔδοξεν τῷ Ζ. ἄλογον εἶναι τὴν ἀξίωσιν shows the Ι 

sense ‘‘unreasonable.” P Grenf II. 77° (iii/iv A.D.) ἀλόγως 
ἀπέστητε μὴ ἄραντες [τὸ σ]ῶμα τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ ἡμῶν is not 
far from ‘‘unfeelingly.” Ρ Oxy III. 5264 (ii/A.p.) οὐκ 
ἤμην ἀπαθὴς ἀλόγως σε καταλείπιν, “50. unfeeling as to 
leave you without reason” (Edd.). And so on, always with 
a sense going decidedly beyond “‘unreasonably” and 
shading into “brutally.” Hence the noun use of the 
modern Greek ἄλογο, ‘‘horse’’; it is nearly approached in 
P Oxy I. 138% (early vii/A.p.), χορηγῆσαι ἄλογα εἰς τὰς 
γεουχικὰς χρείας, where animals in harness are meant, if 
not horses exclusively. Prof. Thumb remarks that as early 
as Dion Cassius the word = “" animal”: cf. Hatzidakis Zzz/., 
Ρ. 34 f. Ps 329 supplies the line of development. 


BGU I. τ4ῖν. 2 (iii/a.p.) τυρῶν ἁλυκῶν, 7. IV. 1069 
versol.9 τιμὴ ζύτου εὐπρατικ[οὔ] καὶ ἁλυκῆς : the last 
two words are interlinear, and their relation is not clear— 


the writer is illiterate enough to mean ‘cheap and salted 
beer,” no doubt a popular beverage then as now. But 
query? Mayser Gr. p. 102 shows that ἁλικός, really a 
distinct word, supplants the earlier ἁλυκός in Hellenistic. 


For this common Greek word, which in the NT is con- 
fined to Phil 258, cf. P Petr II. 131% (B.c. 258-3) πᾶν é[pol 
ἔστ]αι πεφροντισμένον τοῦ σε γενέσθαι ἄλυπον [πάντως ᾽]. 
“‘T have used every forethought to keep you free from 
trouble” (Ed.): so BGU I. 2461 (ii/iii A.D.) πῶς ἄλνπος 
ἦν. For this adverb see P Petr II 2 (3)!* (iii/B.c.) (= Wit- 
kowski, 2/2 p. 22) εἰ ἔρρωσαι καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἄλλοις ἀλύπως 
ἀπαλλάσσεις, εἴη ἄν, ὡς ἐγὼ τοῖς θεοῖς εὐχόμεν[ος διατελῶ]. 


Syl κ8685 (iv/B.c.), 588%? (ii/B.c.) α΄. P Leid Wi. 32 πᾶσα 
ἅλυσις ἀνυχθήτω. Two diminutives may be quoted ᾿Αλυσί- 
διον (MGr ἁλυσίδα) occurs in P Oxy III. 496% (A.D. 127) 
and 528° (ii/a.p.). A simpler form appears in P Hib I. 
121° (B.C. 250) ἁλύσιον. 

P Tebt I. 6851 (B.c. 117-6) τῶ[ν] ἀλυσιτελῶν γενῶν of 
inferior crops, ‘unprofitable’ by comparison with wheat. 


The old form ἅλως, in the ‘ Attic” declension, is still 
very much more common in papyri, e.g. P Fay 11218 (a.p. 
99) μὴ σπουδασέτωσαν ἅλω, ‘do not let them be in a hurry 
with the threshing-floor,” P Lond 31417 (a.p. 149) (=II. 
Ῥ- 190) ἐφ᾽ ἅλῳ τῶν ἐδαφῶν, 7. 6. as soon as the corn is 
threshed; but the NT third declension form is found in 
P Tebt I. 848 (8.6. 118) ἁλώνωι (= wv, see Proleg. p. 49), 
PSI 371 (A.D. 82) ἐφ᾽ ἁλώνων, BGU 11. 651° (ii/a.p.), 2. 
IIT. 7591 (ii/a.p.), P Strass 1. 10° (jii/a-p.), P Lond 1239% 
(a.p. 278-81) (= III. p. 52), and 7. 9767 (A.D. 315) 
(=TII. p. 231). See further Crénert Jem. Herc., p- ix. 
The derivative ἡ GAwvia, the space reserved for a threshing- 
floor, occurs P Tebt II. 3465 (early i/a.b.), BGU I. 146% 
(ii/iii a.p.), P Lond, 1170 verso**4 (A.D. 258-9) (= III. p. 
202), and P Oxy X. 12558 (A.D. 292). 


The adverbial use seen in Mt 20! may be illustrated by 
P Flor I. 36° (c. iv/a.D., init.) μνηστευσαμένου pov... τὴν 
... [θ]υγατέρα ... [ἅ]μα ex νηπίας ἡλικίας, P Oxy VII. 
1025}6 (late iii/A.D.) τῶν θεωριῶν ἅμ᾽ αὔ[ρ]ιον ἥτις ἐστὶν τ 
ἀγομ[έν]ων. For ἅμα = ‘at the same time,” see P Giss I. 
138 (ii/A.D.) πέμψεις ἅμα τὰς Y ἐπιστολάς, P Oxy IV. 798 
(probably B.C. 183) ds δ᾽ ἂν παραγένωνται οἱ σιτολόγοι ἐπὶ 
τὴν παράληψιν τῶν σιτικῶν ἀπομετρήσομεν ἅμα καὶ ταῦτα, 
αἰ. With ἅμα ς. dat. ‘together with,” cf. P Oxy IV. 658}8 
(A.D. 250) τῶν ἱερῶν ἐγευσάμην ἅμα τῷ υἱῷ pov, so with a 
dat. Rein 26!4 (8.6. 104) ἅμα τῆι συγγραφῆι ταύτηι 
ἀναφερομένηι, P Oxy VI. 975 (i/A-D-) a loan to be repaid 
ἅμα τῇ ᾿μῇ τρύ[γ]ῃ», P Petr 1. 24 (3) ((. B.C. 249) ἅμα 
τῆι λοιπῆι ἀγορᾶι ἧι εἰλήφασι ἐγ βασιλικοῦ, P Flor I. 61° 
(A.D. 210) ἐχειροτονήθην ἅμ᾽ ἄλλοις, 16. 2115 (A.D. 239) ἅμα 
τοῖς τῆς κώμης δημοσίοις (neuter) πᾶσι. The use of ἅμα 
therefore as an ‘‘improper” preposition was not unusual. 

ἀμαθῆής Ξ 

Paul however prefers to keep it as an adverb, adding 
σύν (ι Th 417, 519) : for the preposition only Mt 13% is 
quotable from NT, and even there D adds σύν. We may 
compare ὁμόσε c. dat. in P Lips Inv 266 (ii/a.D.—Archiv v. 
245) ὁμόσε ταῖς ἄλλαις εὐεργεσίαις. Thayer's note that “ἅμα 
is temporal and ὁμοῦ local, in the main” (from Ammonius), 
has support from most of our examples. Both usages are 
illustrated in the Ptolemaic Pathyris papyrus (Archiv il. 
p» 515 f.) ἐπεὶ γέγρᾳφεν ὁ πατὴρ συνμίσγειν ἄγων τοὺς 
Κροκοδιλοπολίτας καὶ ὑμᾶς ἅμα, ὀρθῶς ποιήσετε καὶ κε- 
χαρισμένως ἑτοίμους γενέσθαι ὡς ἅμα ἡμῖν συνεξορμήσητε. 


From the Hellenistic period, but in the local dialect, is the 
well-known Epidaurus inscription, Sy// 802 (ili/B.c.) : here 
in 1.39 we have trépvapa τᾶς ἀμαθίας, of a votive silver pig 
offered in the shrine. The adj. (2 Pet 315) might from its 
NT record be literary. J. B. Mayor (ἦε Joc.) remarks, 
“Tt is strange that so common a word as ἀμαθής should not 
be found elsewhere in the NT or LXX, its place being 
taken by such words as ἰδιώτης (Ac 415, 1 Cor 1416 35), or 
ἀγράμματος (Ac 41%), or ὁ ἀγνοῶν (Heb 5?).” But our failure 
to find exx. from Hellenistic sources agrees with this absence. 


With the use of this adjective in 1 Pet 14 κληρονομίαν . - - 
ἀμάραντον may be compared a passage in the Apocaly)se of 
Peter 5, καὶ ὁ κύριος ἔδειξέ μοι... τὴν γῆν αὐτὴν ἀνθοῦσαν 
ἀμαράντοις ἄνθεσι. See also a poem engraved on ἃ sepul- 
chral monument erected by Euergetes II. (B.c. 145-16), in 
honour of his wife Aphrodisia, where the following words 
occur, μένοιτ᾽ ἐπὶ γῆς ἀμάραντοι, ὅσσον ἐγὼ vatwr δώματα 
Φερσεφόνης (Archiv i. 220). Wisd 6™ reinforces this rare 
Petrine word (cf. ἀμαράντινος 5%) : for its outside record see 
Thayer, who quotes C/G II. 2942 (c)4, a iii/iv A.D. inscription 
ona gladiator’s tomb, ending ἔσχ[α] té[Aos] βιότου χερσὶν 
φονίαις ἀμάραντον]. It isa proper name in P Ryl II. 166” 
(A.D. 26) Datos ᾿Ιούλιος ᾿Αμαρ[ά]ντου. 


It will be convenient to give (non-Christian) citations for 
this important word fully. In a private letter of the time of 
Augustus the writer complains—éy@ μὲν οὐ δοκῶι ἄξιος εἶναι 
ὑβρίζεσθαι .. . οὐδὲ γὰρ ἡμάρτηκά τι εἰς σέ (cf. Ac 25%, etc.), 
BGU IV. 11414: cf. 1. δ ἐν τῇ πρώτῃ μου ἐπιστολῇ οὐθὲν 
ἁμάρτημα ever (1. ἔνι -- ἔνεστι).. BGU III. 846 (i/a.p.) 
(= Selections, p. 93, Documents, p. 259) is an illiterate 
appeal from Antonius Longus to his mother entreating her to 
be reconciled to him. He makes his daily prayer to Serapis 
for her, etc.—Aouroy οἶδα τί αἰμαυτῷ παρέσχημαι, παιπαίδ- 
δευμαι καθ᾽ ὃν δὴ (corrected from δὶ) τρόπον, οἶδα, ὅτι 
ἡμάρτηκα (1. ro ff.), ““ But I know I have been punished with 
what I have brought upon myself, in a way that I know, for 
I have sinned”: cf. Lk 1518 #1 In the interesting rescript 
of an Emperor to the Jews, P Par 685°f-, we read, καὶ yap 
τοὺς εἰς ἡμᾶς] ἁμαρτάνοντας δεζόντως κολάζεσθαι) εἰκός. 
In P Oxy I. 34% 4 (a.p. 127) a Roman prefect uses some 
strong language about infringement of his instructions regard- 
ing certain archives : ἄδειαν ἑαυτοῖς ὧν ἁμαρτάνουσι ἔσεσθ[α]. 
γομίζοντες, ‘imagining that they will not be punished for | 

their illegal acts’’ (Edd.). 
Part I, 

> ‘ 


In P Oxy I. 3418. (cf. under ἁμαρτάνω) we read τοὺς 
παραβάντας kal Tov[s] διὰ ἀπειθίαν κ[αὶ] ὡς ἀφορμὴν ζητοῦν- 
τας ἁμαρτημάτων] τειμωρήσομαι, “any persons who violate 
it, whether from mere disobedience or to serve their own 
nefarious purposes, will receive condign punishment.” The 
substantive is also found in conjunction with ἀγνόημα (see s.v.) 
in P Tebt I. 5% (B.c. 118) and BU IV. 1185? (late i/p.c.) : 
cf. P Par 63*1-2f, a letter of Ptolemy Euergetes II. (s.c. 
165), ἀπολελυκότες πάντας τοὺς ἐνεσχημένους ἔν τισιν 
ἀγνοήμασιν ἢ ἁμαρτήμασιν κτὰ. See also BGU IV. 11418, 
quoted under ἁμαρτάνω, and P Flor II. 162° (midd. iii/a.p.) 
τὰ παλαιά cov ἁμαρ[τ]ήματα éretehevoe[w|s τεύξεται. 


In an inscription of Cyzicus territory (JAS xxvii. (1907) 
p- 63), which F. ΝΥ. Hasluck supposes to belong to iii/B.c., 
we find ἁμαρτίαν μετανόει, and the word is also found in 
the interesting Sy// 633 151 (ii/a.p.) which illustrates so 
many NT words, ὃς ἂν [sic /eg.] δὲ πολυπραγμονήσῃ τὰ 
τοῦ θεοῦ ἢ περιεργάσηται, ἁμαρτίαν ὀφιλέτω Μηνὶ 
Τυράννωι, ἣν οὐ μὴ δύνηται ἐξειλάσασθαι. See also P 
Lips I. 119 vecfo® (A.D. 274) - - - τ]ῶν ἁμαρτιῶ[ν] τὰς 
πονηρίας συνεχῶς ἀ]νορθουμένων, P Oxy VIII. 1110}} (A.p. 
254) αὐτὸς ὑπέσχετο ἀντὶ τῆς ἁμα]ρτίας, ἀγνοίας πρίόϊφασιν 
ὑποτειμησάμενος, ὑποστήσεσθαι τὸ [με]τὰ τοῦτο τὰς 
λειτουργίας. On the Greek conception of ἁμαρτία see CX 
XXV. pp. 195-7, and xxiv. pp. 88, 234. 


P Flor I. 5915 (A.D. 225 or 241) ἵνα μὴ ἀμάρτυρον ἧ. To 
its literary record may be added Callimachus rag. 442 
ἀμάρτυρον οὐδὲν ἀείδω. 


appears in OGZS 55°° (B.c. 240) ἐὰν [δὲ] μὴ συντελῆι ὁ 
ἄρχων καὶ οἱ πολῖται τὴν [θυσί]αν κατ᾽ ἐνιαυτόν, ἁμαρτωλοὶ 
ἔστωσαν [θεῶ]ν πάντων, “sinners against all the gods.” Cf. 
also the common phrase in sepulchral epitaphs in the south- 
west of Asia Minor containing a threat against any one 
who shall desecrate the tomb, ἁμαρτωλὸς ἔστω θεοῖς (κατα)- 
χθονίοις, “‘let him be as a sinner before the (sub)terranean 
gods”: see Deissmann ZAZ p. 115, who regards the 
genitive after ἁμαρτωλός as a possible ‘‘ provincialism of 
S.W. Asia Minor.” (See under @voxos.) He cites another 
occurrence, from the same locality, with the formula as in 
OG/S 55 (p. 116n.). Schlageter p. 24 adds /G III. 461 α. 
These instances are sufficient to prove the ‘‘ profane” use of 
the word, as Cremer (af. Deissmann x s.) admitted in his 


Cos 3255 ἄμαχος ἄζηλος χρόνος πᾶς ἦν ὃν εἶπον, οὐδ᾽ 
ἐχω[ρ]ίσθημέν ποτε---ἃ sepulchral inscription by a husband 
in memory of his wife—illustrates the non-military use of the 
word found twice in the Pastorals (1 Tim 35, Tit 32. So 
also an epitaph from Apameia (c. iii/A.D.) in Kazbe/ 387, 
ἄμαχος ἐβίωσα peta φίλων Kt συνγενῶν. 

The word is almost entirely poetical in earlier Greek, 
though found in Herodotus. Plutarch has it, and P Hib I. 



4715 (an uneducated letter of B.c. 256), θερίζειν δὲ καὶ ἀμᾶν, 
“to mow and to reap,” which indicates its place in the 


This common vernacular word is used absolutely in P Tebt 
1. 37°°" (B.c. 73) ἐὰν δὲ ἀμελήσῃς ἀναγκασθήσομαι ἐγὼ 
€[AGet]y αὔριοίν, P Oxy IV. 7421" (B.c. 2) μὴ ἀμελήσῃς, 
P Giss I. 1322: ἐὰν ἐξετάσῃς περὶ τῶν ἔργω[ν], οὐκ ἀμελῶ, 
al, For the construction with the genitive, see P Fay 1129 
(A.D. 99) ἠμέληκας αὐτοῦ, 16. 1255 (1i/A D.) μὴ ἀμελήσας 
το[ῦ] κλήρου τοῦ στρατηγικοῦ, ‘do not neglect the ballot 
for the strategus,” P Oxy I. 113% (ii/A.p.) μὴ δόξῃς pe 
ἠμεληκότα τῆς κλειδός, ‘do not think that I took no trouble 
about the key” (Edd.), P Tebt 11. 2898 (A.D. 23) ὡς ἀ[με]- 
λοῦντα τῆς elompaltews, 16. 42119 (iii/A.D.), etc., and 
even with the dative in the illiterate P Par 184 μὴ ἀμελήσις 
(Δ ἀμελήσῃς) τῷ υἱῷ pov. For the passive may be quoted 
P Giss I. 41?" (time of Hadrian) ὑπὸ τῆς μακρᾶς ἀποδη- 
plas τὰ ἡμέτερα] πα[ντ]άπασιν ἀμεληθέντα τυγχίάνει, 
and P Lond uw. Wr. 1885 Υ- 12 (in Archiv vi. p. 102) (A.D. 
103) tv οὖν τὰ βιβλία ἀνανκεώτατα ὄντα μὴ ἀμεληθῇ. 
᾿Αμελέω is followed by the ini:itive in P Grenf II. 384 
(B.c. 81) μὴ ἀμελήσ[α]ς al. . ἀγο]ράσαι. For the sub- 
stantive, see P Oxy I. 62° (iii/A.D.) ἐκ τῆς σῆς ἀμελείας, 
“through any neglect of yours”; and for the adj. a letter 
from Hermopolis γεν. Vr. 74 (quoted P Giss I. 137% note) 
Eradpddetos ἕως τούτου οὐδὲν ἀμελέστερον ποιεῖ, ἀλλὰ 
προσκαρτερεῖ ἡμῖν καὶ πᾶσι τοῖς πράγμασί σου. 

In a private letter of the time of Augustus the writer 

ν θέλων 

remarks κἀγὼ Ti[s] φιλίαν σου [θέλωι} ἄμεμπτ[ον)] ἐματὸν 
ἐτήρησα (BGU IV. 114135). For the adjective in a marri- 
age contract see CPR I. 27% (A.D. 190) αὐτῆς δὲ τῆς O. 
ἄμεμπτον καὶ ἀκατηγόρηϊτον ἑαυτὴν παρ]εχομένην (szc) 
It is common in sepulchral epitaphs in conjunction with 
χρηστός. OG/S 443° (i/B.c.) has τήν τε TOV... νεανίσκων 
ἐνδημίαν εὔτ[ακτ]ον mlapéxerar καὶ dpepm)|rov—Dittenber- 
ger’s supplement is at least plausible. For the adverb see 
P Giss I 98° (ii/A.n.) τὰ τέσσερα οὖν κολοφώνια τὰ ἐπιβάλ.- 
λοντά μοι δότε αὐτῇ ἀμέμπτως, ἀλλ᾽ ἐν τάχει, P Lond 9245 
(Α.Ὁ. 187-8) (Ξ: 1ΠΠ|. p. 134) & mAnpovpévmv—little more 
than ‘‘duly paid,” P Oxy III. 473" (a.p. 138-60), 26. 4968 
(A.D. 127) συμβιούτωσαν οὖν ἀλλήϊλο]ις ἀμέμπτωϊς of γ]α- 
μοῦντες, and IV. 724} (A.D. 155), a contract of apprenticeship 
to a shorthand writer, where provision is made that the pupil 
shall be taught not only to write fluently, but to read what 
he has written ἀμέμπτως, From the inscriptions cf. OG/S 
4851 τὰς λοιπὰς δὲ φιλοτειμίας τελιάσαντα ἁγνῶς καὶ 


BGU Il. 372. 16. (a.p. 154), ““1εῖ them come down 
ἀμ[έ]ριμνοι." The same papyrus 1. 7 shows the subst. 
ἀμεριμνία united with ἀσφάλεια as frequentiy in the papyri. 
For the adjective see also P Fay 117** (Α.Ὁ. 108) ἐκτίνᾳξον 
τὸ διειρον (?) εἵνα ἀμέριμνος ἧς, P Oxy VI. 9331%% (late 
ii/A.D.) kal περὶ τοῦ οἴκου ἀμέριμνος γείνου ὡς σοῦ παρόντος, 
“have no more anxiety about your household than you 
would if you were present” (Edd.), and P Flor 11. 157 

26 ἀμετανόητος 

(iii/A.D.), where instructions are given to supply certain 
workmen with provisions, in order that they may be able 
to work heartily—€xovtes τὸ ἀμέριμνον τῶν τρόφων. For 
the adverb cf. P Iand 8 (ii/a.p.) διαπέμψίομαι διὰ το]ῦ 
ὀνολάτου ἀμερίμνως, ‘‘miltam secure” (Ed.). P Lips I. 
105*° (i/ii A.D.) has ἵνα μέντοι ἀμεριμνότερον ἔχῃς, γράφω 
σοι, Cf. 26. 1101 (iii/iv A.D.) ἵνα ἀμέριμνος dpe (= dpar, 
with slight variations, iscommon. An adjective ἀμεριμνικός 
is found P Fay 130° (iii/a.p.). P Amb IL. 136 (iii/A.D.) has 
both [ἀμ]ε[ρήμνως and the derived verb ἀμεριμνῶ in the sense 
““free from anxiety”: οἵ. P Oxy VI. 9308 (ii/iii a.p.) 
ἠμερίμνουν yap περὶ αὐτοῦ εἰδυῖα ὅτι κατὰ δύν[α]μιν μέλλει 
σοι προσέχειν, ‘for I had no anxiety about him, knowing 
that he intended to look after you to the best of his ability.” 
᾿Αμεριμνία also occurs in an almost unintelligible sentence 
at the beginning of P Oxy I. 34:3 (a.p. 127): cf. BGU 
IV. 10827 (iv/A.D.) ὑπὲρ ἀμερ(ιμνίας). It will be seen that 
the NT meaning alone is attested from the vernacular docu- 
ments. Its tone in them suggests that ‘‘anxiety” rather 
exaggerates the word. So in Mt 28! we might paraphrase 
“we will put it right with the Procurator, so that you 
need not trouble”; and in 1 Cor 73? the verb that follows 
clearly does not suggest amzxzous care. 


In OG/S 331° (ii/B.c.) King Attalus II of Pergamon, 
writing to the Pergamenes, orders his rescript to be placed 
in the temples, ὅπως ἂν εἰς τὸν ἅπαντα χρόνον ἀκίνητα καὶ 
ἀμετάθετα μένηι : cf. 25. 3357 (an Aeolic inscription, ii/i B.c.) 
[τὰ δὲ κρίθεντα ὑ]π[ά)ρξοισι κύρια καὶ ἀμετάθετα. A letter 
from Sulenas Verus in Lafoscade, no. 10511 (A.D. 131) has 
βεβαιῶ ἐπί τε τῷ ἀσάλευτον [sc. τὴν δωρεὰν] Kal ἀμετάθετον 
εἰς τὸν ἀεὶ χρόνον εἶναι καὶ κτλ. P Oxy Ι. 751" (A.D. 129) ἐφ᾽ 
ἡ Loe. διαθήκῃ] ἀμεταθέτῳ ἀμφότεροι ἐτελεύτησαν, and zd. IIT. 
4825 (A.D. 109) διαθήκῃ, ἐφ᾽ ἢ καὶ ἀμεταθέτῳ ἐτελεύτα (‘which 
will was unchanged at his death”’), show that the word was 
used as a technical term in connexion with wills. The 
connotation adds considerably to the force of Heb 617%. 


The adjective ἀκίνητος occurs P Gen I. 118 (A.D. 350) ἐκ 
δικαίου καὶ ἀκινήτου κλήρου, and in OG/S 33158, cited 
under ἀμετάθετος. 


P Lips I. 265 7. is late (beginning of iv/a.D.), but ὅμολο- 
yotpey [ἑκο]υσίᾳ καὶ α[ὐ]θαιρέτῳ kal ἀμεϊτα]νοήτῳ γνώμῃ 
seems to bea legal formula, such as would presumably suffer 
little change with time: it occurs a little earlier (A.D. 289) 
in P Strass I. 2051, the same three words (adverb form) in 
the same order. Its active force agrees with that in Rom 25. 
(Norden Agnostos Theos p. 135 translates the word here 
κε unbussfertig,” and refers to Bonhoffer Zpiktet u. das NT 
Ῥ- 106 f., who claims that in this word (as in μετάνοια, -νοεῖν) 
τε gewissermassen der Gegensatz des antiken und des christ- 
lichen Denkens spiegle.”) But in CPR I. 2168 (i/ii a.p.) 
κυρίαν καὶ βεβαίαν kal ἀμετανόητον, P Grenf II. 68, 70 
(iii/A.D.) —duplicate deeds of gift—opodoy@ χαρίζεσθαί cor 
χάριτι ἀναφαιρέτῳ kal dperavonTw . . . μέρος τέταρτον κτλ. 
there is a passive sense ‘‘not affected by change of mind,” 


like ἀμεταμέλητος in Rom 117°. So P Lond 1164 (ἀ)" 
(A.D. 212) (=III. p. 166) κυρίως καὶ ἀναφαιρέτως καὶ 


The form ἀμέτρητος occurs in a touching sepulchral in- 
scription regarding a husband and wife from Khodes /A/de 
149 (ii/B.c.): ταὐτὰ λέγοντες ταὐτὰ φρονοῦντες ἤλθομεν 
τὰν ἀμέτρητον ὁδὸν εἰς “Alday. 


49 is ἃ common symbol in the Christian papyri for ἀμήν, 
99 being the sum of the numerical equivalents of the letters 
(1 + 40 + 8 + 50): see e.g. P Oxy VI. 9257 (v/vi A.D.), 
where a prayer for guidance regarding a certain journey 
concludes—yévotro, g@, ‘‘so be it; Amen,” and P Iand I. 
618 (a Christian amulet—v/vi A.D.) with the editor’s note. 
In P Oxy VII. 1058 (iv/v A.D.) the word is written out in 
full, ὃ θ(εδ)ς τῶν παρακειμένων σταυρῶν, βοήθησον τὸν 
δοῦλόν σου ᾿Απφουᾶν. ἀμήν, “Ὁ God of the crosses that are 
laid upon us, help thy servant Apphouas. Amen.” (Ed.) 


does not happen to occur in our documents. For its con- 
notation in Heb 7° see ἀπάτωρ, and note Grimm’s citations 
from Philo: the evidence is quite sufficient to dispose of 
Grimm’s own note that the signification is ‘‘ unused by the 
Greeks.” For the word cf. also the line from Euripides 
(drama unknown) cited by Wilamowitz Sz¢z. d. Bert, Ak., 
1907, p. 7—Adibve, γαίας vit τῆς ἀμήτορος. 


The use of the word in the NT is probably to be traced 
to the LXX, rather than to the influence of the mystery 
religions as Perdelwitz (Die Alysterienreligion und das 
Problem des I. Petrusbriefes, Giessen, 1911, pp. 45-50) 
ingeniously suggests, contrasting the ἀμίαντος inheritance 
of the Christian with the blood-stained Aimme/lsklerd, with 
which the initiate is robed as he ascends from the grave in 
the Taurobolium. 

A new literary citation for this word may be given from 
the Bacchylides papyrus, ili. 86, βαθὺς μὲν αἰθὴρ ἀμίαντος, 
where Jebb translates ‘‘ the depths of air receive no taint.” 


P Petr II. 4 (9)° (iii/B.c.) ὥστε ἀνακαθᾶραι τὴν ἄμμον, 
26. III. 43 (2) recto ti. 15 (2nd year of Euergetes I.) ἐργάσασθαι 
τὴν ἄμμον τοῦ ὑδραγωγοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς κατὰ ᾿Ηφαιστιάδα 
διώρυγος, “to clear out the sand from the water-course of 
the canal near Hephaistias,’ BGU II. 530% (i/a.p.) 
(= Selections, p. 61) ὃ ὑδραγωγὸς συνεχώσθη ὑπὸ τῆς 
ἄμμου, ‘‘ the water-course was choked with sand,” P Tebt II. 
34277 (late ii/a.D.) els ἐκσκαφὴν xods... kal ἄμμου, P Flor 
Il. 157° (iii/A.D.) els t[0] ἔργον ἐκεῖνο Td τῆς Θεω[ξ]ενίδος, 
τούτεστιν Td τῆς ἄμμου. From the inscriptions it is sufficient 
to cite Sy// 587187 (iv/B.c.) ἄμμον ἀγωγαὶ πέντε. In 
BGU I. 108! (a.p. 203-4) (= Chrest. 1. 227) Wilcken reads 
ἀμμόχοστος (/. ἀμμόχωστος), ‘covered with sand,” with 
reference to a plot of land, and compares the similar use of 
ὕφαμμος in P Amh II. 85}8 (a.p. 78). 

> Ἢ 


Syil 615° (iii/A.D.) ἀμνὸς λευκὸς ἐνόρχης. Herwerden 
(s.v. ἀρήν) quotes an inscription from Cos 405, ἀμνὰν 
καὶ ἀμνόν. The noun (etymologically identical with Lat. 
agnus, our year) is only four times found in NT, always 
with the sacrificial connotation which is abundant in LXX. 
See under ἀρήν. 


The phrase in 1 Tim 54 ἀμοιβὰς ἀποδιδόναι τοῖς προγό- 
vots, ““ἴο make a fitting requital to one’s parents,” is well 
illustrated by Przene 11217, where a certain Zosimus having 
received the title of citizen ‘‘has made no fruitless return 
for the honour”—[ovk ἄκαρπον τὴν τῆς τιμῆς] δέδειχεν 
ἀμοιβήν : cf. Cagvat IV, 293". 39 (ii/B.c.) κομιζόμενος τῶν 
εὐεργεσιῶν ἀξίας τὰς ἀμοιβάς, Sy// 3655 (i/A.D.) βασιλέων 
κἂν πάνυ ἐπινοῶσιν εἰς εὐχαριστίαν τηλικούτου θεοῦ εὑρεῖν 
ἴσας ἀμοιβὰς οἷς εὐηργέτηνται μὴ δυναμένων. In P Oxy IV. 
705% (A.D. 200-2) the Emperors Septimius Severus and Cara- 
calla reply to a certain Aurelius Horion who desired to 
confer benefactions on Oxyrhynchus—daroSexdpeba σε καὶ 
ταύτης τῆς ἐπιδόσεως ἣν ἀξιοῖς ἐπιδοῦναι ταῖς κώμαις τῶν 
᾿Οξυρυγχειτῶν ἀποδιδοὺς ἀμοιβὴν ἐνκτήσεως, “we approve 
of this benefaction also which you request leave to confer 
upon the villages of the Oxyrhynchite nome, giving (to 
different persons) a succession in the enjoyment of it (?)” 
(Edd.). Ρ Giss I. 228 (ii/a.D.) νῦν ὄντως ἀμοιβ[ὴ]ν [. . .] 
τῆς εὐσεβείας pov ἀϊναλ]αμβανούσης σε ἀπρόσίκοπ]ον Kal 


is amply vouched for in the papyri, as in BGU IV. 
1119), 1123? (both time of Augustus), and P Lond 9218 
(late ii/iii A.D.) (=TIII. p. 134) ἦσαν ἐν ἀμπέλῳ, ‘planted 
with vines.” InP Petr I. 294 (iii/B.c.) πεφύτευται δὲ Kal 
ἡ ἄμπελος πᾶσα, d. is used in a collective sense: cf. P Flor 
I. κοῦ (A.D. 268) ἐξ ἴσον ti[s ἀμπέϊλου μεριζομένης. This 
use of ἄμπελος (so ΜΟΥ ἀμπέλι) which makes it equivalent 
to ἀμπελών, occurs also in the Median parchments, P Said 
Khan (B.c. 88 and 22), deeds concerning the transfer of a 
**vineyard,” which is never called ἀμπελών in the docu- 
ments. We may probably apply this use in Rev 1418.19, 
and perhaps in Didache 9%, 

Syll 535}7 (B.C. 46-5) ἀμπελουργὸν 8’ ἐπάγειν Αἰξωνέας 
τοῖς ἔτεσι τοῖς τελευταίοις πέντε may serve to illustrate this 

NT ἅπ. εἰρ. (Lk 137). 


Nothing earlier than Diodorus (i/B.c.) in ‘‘ profane” 
Greek is cited for this word by Grimm. It occurs in five 
documents of P Tebt I., three of them ii/B.c.,and two a 
little later: cf. also the Ptolemaic P Eleph 14? τῶν μὲν 
ἀμπελώνων τοὺς καθήκοντας ἀργυρικοὺς φόρους. Its appear- 
ance in P Hib I. 151 (c. B.C. 250) is presumably coeval with 
the LXX; nor does the language (. . . μὴ παραγίνεσθαι 
«ον τρυγήσοντα Toy ἀμπελῶνα, from a fragment of a letter) 
suggest that the word was new. It occurs indeed frequently 
in Rev L, a few years older still. For an instance con- 
temporary with its NT appearances, see PSI 82° (A.D. 65) 

᾿Αμπλίας 28 

τῶι ὑπάρχοντι ἡμῖν... ἀμπελῶνι: cf. P Tebt II. 357%® 
(A.D. 197) τέλ(η) . . . ἀμπελῶνο(ς) κατοικ(ικοῦ) (ἀρούρας) 
a, ‘‘taxes upon I aroura of catcecic vine-land.” The 
suffix -dy (like -é¢z in Latin) denoting plantations of trees 
was productive in Hellenistic: see under ἐλαιών. 


As showing the widespread occurrence of this name in its 
longer form’ ApmAvaros, and the impossibility therefore of 
connecting it specially with the Imperial household at Rome 
(cf. Lightfoot, Phzdippians, p. 172), Rouffiac Recherches sur 
les caractéres du Grec dans le NT p. 90 gives the following 
instances of its use—at Rome, C7Z VI. 14918, 15509, but 
also at Pompeii C/Z IV. 1182, 1183, and 24. Suppl. I. Index, 
Ῥ- 747; in Spain C/7Z 11. 3771; at Athens /G III. 11618, 
1892 ; and at Ephesus C/Z III. 436. See further Milligan 
Documents, p. 183. 


Syll 356°° (rescript of Augustus) καὶ [ὅτε ἠμύνοντο. The 
word may have almost fallen out of the colloquial language, 
to judge from its rarity in LXX and NT, and the absence of 
occurrences in papyri. 

See under ἀμφιέννυμι. 


This word, which is used absolutely in Mk 118, is 
construed with an accusative in the Bacchylides papyrus 
xvii. 5 ff. ἢ τις ἁμετέρας χθονὸς δυσμενὴς ὅρι ἀμφιβάλλει 
στραταγέτας ἀνήρ ; ““ [5 the leader of a hostile army beset- 
ting the borders of our land?” (Jebb). From non-literary 
papyri we have a citation two centuries after Mark— 
P Flor 11. 119% (A.D. 254) ἐπέδωκάν μοι οἱ ἁλι[εῖς of περὶ 
Stara γὴν ἀμφιβάλλουσι. The supplement is wholly 
conjectural, but the verb must mean ‘‘to fish” as in Mark, 
and may be used absolutely. 


The full form in Mt 689 is a survival of the literary lan- 
guage, and must have been nearly obsolete even in cultivated 
colloquial. It is clear therefore that Luke (1238) represents 
Q, whether we read ἀμφιάζει with B or -ἔζει with the rest : 
as elsewhere (cf. Cambridge Biblical Essays, p. 485 f.), 
Luke faithfully preserves a vernacular form which he would 
not have used in his own writing. For the form with a 
cf. Vettius Valens p. 64° (ἀμφιάσαι), and OG/S 20074 
(Aethiopia, iv/A.D.) ἀμφιάσαντες : Blass (Ktihner Grarm.* 
ii. p. 366) quotes several instances from post-classical liter- 
ature, including Plutarch (ἀπημφίαζε) and even Lucian 
(μεταμφιάσομαι). So ἠμφιασμένον Mt τι D. The 
classical aorist appears in Sy// 197*4 (iii/B.c ) ἀμφιέσας. 
The back-formation ἀμφιέζω is an obvious first step towards 
ἀμφιάζω, which shows the influence of the large class of 
τάζω verbs (so W. Schmid af. Schweizer Pevg., p. 37). 
But though ε forms are predominantly attested in NT (with 
significant revolts on the part of B and D—see above), it 
seems doubtful whether ἀμφιέζω can be confidently claimed 
for the Κ οινή, unless as a local survival. A grammarian in 
Cramer Anecd. Ox. 11. 338 says τὸ μὲν ἀμφιέζω ἐστὶ κοινῶς, 
τὸ δὲ ἀμφιάζω δωρικόν, ὥσπερ τὸ ὑποπιέζω καὶ ὑποπιάζω. 


This may be true for πιάζω (7. v.), but the other record is 
too scanty for much assurance. See Radermacher Gramm., 
p- 35, and references in Brugmann-Thumb‘, p. 78. 


This word is quoted by LS from Aristophanes and 
Hyperides, in both cases only as cited by later writers. Its 
appearance in Mark (114) and the 8-text of Acts (1928 D etc.) 
is in accord with its frequency in the papyri of the Roman 
age, e.g. PST 35° (a. Ὁ. 101) ἀἸναγίραφό(μενος) ἐ]π᾽ ἀμφόδ(ου) 
pol vpiov], P Fay 284 (a.p. 150-1) (= Selections, p. 81) 
Tacovxaplov τῆς Avda ἀπὸ ἀἸμφόδου “Eppovdaxfs. Gren- 
fell and Hunt translate the word ‘‘ quarter,” vicus. A large 
number of these are named, and residents are registered 
in the ἀπογραφαί as ἀπ᾽ ἀμφόδου ᾿Απολλωνίου Ἱερακίου 
and the like, or ἀπὸ Μακεδόνων with ἀμφόδου omitted. 
Cf. νὼ 528, τοὺς ἐν τῶι ἀνφόδωι τετάχ(θ)αι ἀπὸ τοῦ 
πύργου τοῦ τῆς ᾿Αγαθῆς Τύχης ἕως τοῦ τῆς Εἰὐετηρίας, 
where Dittenberger defines & as ‘‘ pars oppidi domibus 
inter se contingentibus exaedificata, quae undique viis 
circumdatur.” On its gender cf. Mayser Gr. p. 261 n. 


On P Lond 336% (Α.Ὁ. 167) (=II. p. 221) Kenyon 
observes, ‘‘ ἀμφότεροι = πάντες in late Byzantine Greek... 
and it is possible that colloquially the use existed earlier.” 
The text here has the names of five men—apdrepor ἱερεῖς 
θεοῦ κώμης Σοκνοπαίου Νήσου. In P Théad 264 (A,p. 296) 
Αὐρήλιοι [H]pwvivos καὶ ᾿Αθανάσιος κ[α]ὶ Φιλάδελφος καὶ 
Σερηνίων ἀμφότεροι ἐξηγ(ητεύσαντες) makes ἀμφ. apply to 
three persons, if with the Ed. (and πο. 277) we read ὁ καὶ 
᾿Αθανάσιος : in no. 27 we find the first two characterized 
as having been exegetae, while Serenion is κοσμ(ητεύσας), 
two years later. Prof. Thumb refers to BZ xi. p. 111 for 
apd. = ‘alle zusammen.” In the London papyrus, despite 
Bury’s paper on this late usage (C/ xi. p. 393), it is hard 
to disagree with Kenyon’s suspicion that it was not only 
the last two of these five who were priests: cf. P Lond 
353” (A.D. 221) (ΞΞ 11. p. 112) where again we find five 
representatives of the πενταφυλία of Socnopaei Nesus. 

This usage is further strengthened by P Gen I. 675 
(A.D. 382), and 26. 69% (A.D. 386) where ἀμφότεροι is used 
of four men. A similar extension of the word to the seven 
sons of Sceva in Ac 1915 undoubtedly simplifies the narrative. 
See further Moulton CR xv. p. 440, and Proleg. p. 80, 
where other exx. are noted. Radermacher (Gramm. p. 64) 
is in favour of making ἀμφ. mean ‘‘all” in Acts. 


only found in 2 Pet 344 and in literary Hellenistic (Antho- 
logy), may be quoted from an Alexandrian epitaph in 
Pretsigke 332, ΠΙ. . . .Jouk[. . ἀμ]ώμητε, εὐψύχι, (ἐτῶν) 
Ὑ: so the word is used here of a little child. In 26. 367, 
Κλέοβι ἀμώμητε, εὐψύχι, (ἐτῶν) Ke, it belongs to a young 
man, dying prematurely. Add the *‘ Apocrypha Moisis,” 
P Leid Wii. ὁ ἧκε κύριε ἀμώμητος καὶ ἀπήμαντος. 


The word is found in a sepulchral epitaph from Thessa- 
lonica C/G 1974, also in the sepulchral poem referred to 
under apapavros—Sikvis σέλας αἰὲν ἄμωμον. Nageli(p. 25) 


further cites the Paris magical papyrus, 1. 1311. For the 
use of "Apwpos as a proper name, see Fick-Bechtel Dee 
griechischen Personennamen, Ὁ. 213. 

Hort (on 1 Pet. 119) points out that the Biblical use of 
ἄμωμος, properly ‘‘ without blame,” was affected by the 
Hebrew D4 ‘*blemish,” for rendering which the LXX 
translators caught at the curiously similar μῶμος. 


For the rapid decay of this particle in Hellenistic verna- 
cular, reference may be made to Pro/eg. pp. 165-9, 197-201 : 
a few additional points may be brought in. First comes the 
use with relatives and conjunctions, normally but by no 
means universally taking the subjunctive. Here in i/ and 
ii/A.D. ἐάν greatly predominated over ἄν, except with ὅπως, 
ὡς and ἕως. Thackeray (Gr. p. 68), collecting statistics from 
more extensive material than had been available in Pro/eg. 
Ῥ- 43, sums up the results to the same purpose : about B.C. 133 
“8s [etc.] ἐάν begins to come to the front, and from i/B.c. 
onwards the latter is always the predominant form: the 
figures in both columns decrease in iii/—iv/A.D., when the use 
of the indefinite relative in any form was going out of use.” 
The ultimate result of this process is seenin MGr, where the 

2) (( 

only traces left of ἄν are inthe compounds σάν “as,” ““assoon 

as,” and ἄν “if,” with kav (= κἄν) “even.” av is from 
ὡς ἄν, which in papyri is used in the same senses: thus 
BGU IV. 1098*4 (end of i/B.c.) ὡς ἂν ἐπὶ το[ῦ κα]ιροῦ κοι- 
vas κρίνωσι (according as), 73. 1209! (B.C. 23) ὡς ἂν λάβῃς 
τὸ γράμμα (as soon as), P Hib I. 664 (B.c. 228-7), dfs 
δ᾽] ἂν παραγένωμαι (do.). Several instances are collected 
by Witkowski (? p. 87), and Phil 2533, 1 Cor 1134, Rom 1524 
noted as parallel, as in Pro/eg. p. 167. _The MGr ἄν inherits 
the uses of ἐάν. The latter in vernacular Hlellenistic is 
stable, or even reverts to εἰάν by re-composition ; but the 
form ἄν is found in many illiterate documents of the Kowy 
and may be the direct ancestor of the MGr. See Pro/eg. 
Ρ. 43 π.2. On ἄν with opt., or 72d. zrvealis, see Proleg. pp. 197- 
201. A reference should be added to Goodspeed’s convine- 
ing suggestion (xf 7’ xx. 471 f.) that in Mk 7! we should 
read ὃ ἂν (so D) ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφελήθης, indic., “ what you would 
have gained from me.” Two or three additional instances 
of ἄν in “unreal” clauses may be given from the papyri :— 
P Tor I. rit 358. (B.C, 116) (== Chrest. 11. p. 39), καὶ εἴπερ 
γε δὴ ἐνόμιζεν ἔχειν τι δίκαιον κτὰ., οὐκ ἄν ποτε προαχθῆναι 
(depending on ὥστ᾽ εὔδηλον εἶναι in 1. 31), Ρ. Giss 1. 4717 
fearly ii/A.D.) τὸ ὀνάριον τὸ χαλκοῦν εἰ ἐπωλεῖτο δραχμῶν 
RB, ἔκτοτε ἂν ἔπεμψά σοι, id. γοἷϊ- ὃ (same period) εἰ δυνατόν 
μίοῳ ἣν KTA., οὐκ ἂν ἀ[κ]νήκειν, BGU IV. 114127f (end of 
i/B.c.) ἠ (λ εἰ) ἣν δάκρυά σοι γράφειν, γεγραφήκειν ἂν ἀπὸ 
τῶν δακρύων, CPHerm I. 77! εἰ μὲν δὴ χορηγία τις [ἣ]ν κτλ. 
(a gap of 21 letters included), οὐδὲν ἂν ἡμᾶς ἔδει πε]ρὶ τού- 
[των δεῖσθαι. To the papyrus exx. of ἄν dropped (Prodeg.* 
Ῥ- 200 n.*), add PSI 719! (vi/a.p.) et μὴ ἡ θεία πρόνοια ἐβοή- 
θησεν κτλ., εἶχαν ἀλλήλ[ους) ἀναιλῖν (/. ἀνελεῖν). The 
fewness of our exx. shows that the NT omissions of ἄν, 
practically confined to Jn, are not normal Kow grammar, 
except in clauses where omission was classical: the con- 
struction itself was dying out, but the ἄν was preserved 
while the locution lasted. MGr uses a periphrastic con- 
ditional mood (Thumb Handbook, p. 195). 

9 αναβαίνω 


survives almost exclusively in the limited uses seen in NT. 
The new ‘‘improper preposition” ἀνὰ μέσον is common : 
cf. MGr ἀνάμεσα. Thus P Magd 2° (p.c. 221) ἀνὰ μέσον 
τοῦ te Ἰ]οώριος [sc. τοίχου] καὶ τοῦ τοῦ ἀνδρός pov, Sy// 
929% (ii/B.c.) τῆς κειμένης ἀνὰ μέσον ᾿Ιτανίων τε καὶ Ἵερα- 
πυτνίων, P Petr I. r1® (iii/B.c.) οὐλὴ ἀνὰ μέσον ὀφρύων, zd. 
IIT. 37(a)". 15. (B.c. 257) χώματος τοῦ ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ κλήρου, 
OG/S 56% (iii/B.c.) ὧν ἀνὰ μέσον ἔσται ἡ ἀσπιδοειδὴς 
βασιλεία (a crown adorned with serpents), P Oxy I. 999 
(A.D. 55) ava μέσον οὔσης τυφλῆς ῥύμης, etc. In Sy// 3344 
(B.C. 73) περὶ ἀντιλογιῶν τῶν ἀνάμ{εσον] θεῶι ᾿Αμφιαράωι 
καὶ τῶν δημοσιωνῶν γεγονότων Dittenberger (who here 
prints as one word) comments on the barbarous grammar, 
the preposition taking dative and genitive together. "Ava 
λόγον “in proportion” is not rare : e.g. P Ryl II. 96!4(a.p. 
117-8) (ἀρούρας) δή (= 8) ἀνὰ λόγον τῆς ἀρούρας ‘ata rate 
per aroura.”’ Note 20. 5851 (A.D. 156) οὐδὲν δέ μοι ὀφείλεται 
ὑπὲρ τ]ῶν ἀνὰ χεῖρα χρόνων, “the current period” 
(Edd., who cite 75. 997, BGU I. 15518 and IV. 104923). 
The distributive use of ἀνά is often found in papyri: thus 
P Oxy IV. 819 (ς. a.p. 1) τὰ δὲ προκείμενα (das) ὃ 
πεπρᾶσσθαι Sv ἐμοῦ ava δραχ(μὰς) πέντε. Radermacher 
(Gr. p. 16) remarks on its appearance in doctors’ prescriptions 
to mark the dose, and gives some other vernacular instances, 
noting that it began to figure in colloquial Attic in the 
classical age. It serves to express multiplication, as in P 
Petr IT. 30(4)?° (iii/B.c.) β(ασιλικοῦ) τ addpov κΙλ ava YZ 
pe “1ὸ of Crown land - 20 of unproductive = 30 Χ 34 
= 105.” Cf. a papyrus cited by Wilcken in 47chiv v. p. 245. 
Note P Ryl II. 1687 (A.p. 120) ἀνὰ λαχάνου μέτρωι 
ἐλαιουργικῶι ἀρτάβας τρεῖς. “Ava méo[v occurs in P Tebt 
II. 344?° (ii/A.D). On the possibly corrupt solecism in 
1 Cor 6° see Proleg. p. 99. Nachmanson Bertriige, p. 67 
cites an inscription in which distrib. ἀνά c. acc. has the 
same sense as a simple acc. with kat’ ἄνδρα. δόντα ἐπὶ δὶς 
τοῖς μὲν πολείταις Kat’ ἄνδρα δην(άρια) ὃ, τοῖς δὲ λοιποῖς 
ἐλευθέροις ἀν[ὰ] δην(άρια) B (/G iv. 597°!f.—Argos, 
« spit”). 


Syll 587398 (iv/B.c.) ἀναβαΐζμ[ο]ύς (ἡ. ἐ. -σμούς), apparently 
parts of ἃ τροχιλεία, on which see Dittenberger’s note. For 
examples of a. in late Greek, cf. Aelian vi. 61, xi. 31; Dion 
Cass. Ixv. 21, Ixviii. 5 (Lobeck Pkryx., p. 324). Rutherford 
(WP, p. 372) adds the note of Moeris, βασμὸς ᾿Αττικῶς, 
βαθμὸς “Ἑλληνικῶς, in confirmation of Phrynichus, who tells 
us that the @ is Ionic: for the relation of the -σμός and -θμός 
suffixes see Brugmann-Thumb! p. 218 f. 


Wilcken (Archiv v. p. 268), commenting on POxy VI. 
898% !8 (A.D. 123) eis "Oacw καταβῆναι--ἀναβάντα εἰς τὸν 
᾿Οξυρυγχείτην, notes that this may either be literal or refer 
to Oxyrhynchus as the county town: ἀναβαίνειν εἰς πόλιν, 
καταβαίνειν εἰς κώμην. P Par 49 (B.c. 164-58) gives us 
instances of the verb as used in NT for ‘‘ going up” to the 
Temple : 1. 53 otk ἔχω σχολὴν ἀναβῆναι πρὸς ὑμᾶς (sc. the 
recluses in the Serapeum), 26. *4 ἐὰν ἀναβῶ κἀγὼ προσκυ- 
νῆσαι. So P Par 4719f (c. B.C. 153) 6 στρατηγὸς ava- 
βαίνει αὔριον εἰς τὸ Σαραπιῆν. Witkowski (2 p. 72) remarks 


that the Serapeum was situated above the town, so that 
the verb was appropriate, as in Lk 18%. The common 
phrase @. εἰς Ιεροσόλυμα, etc., may be illustrated from P 
Lond 1170 verso (A.D. 258-9), (=III. p. 194), where an 
account of labourers ‘‘ off work” (ἀργησάντων) describes 
one as ἀναβὰς els τὴν πόλιν and another ἀναβὰς ἐπὶ τῆς 
πόλ, The same meaning, or something near it, may be seen 
recurring in P Oxy VIII. 1157 (late iii/a.p.), as "5 ἀντί- 
γραψον κἀγὼ ἀναβαίνω καὶ ἀπογράφομαι, 75. 7 ἐπιδὴ οὖν 
οὐ δύναμαι ἀναβῆναι ἴδε ἠ (/. εἰ) δύνῃ ἡμᾶς ἀπογράψε : we 
should use ‘‘ come up” in the same connotation. So 20. VI. 
93519 \iii/A.D.) ἔμελλον 8[8] καὶ αἰὐτὸ]ς ἀναβῆναι, BGU IV. 
1097® (i/A.D.) Hav δὲ ὁ ἀντίδικος ἀναβῇ, περίβλεπε αὐτόν. 
In zd. 1141 (late i/B.c.) ἡμέρας δὲ ἐν αἷς ἀναβαίνωι, εὑρί- 
σκωι αὐτὸν καθήμενο(ν) it perhaps means ‘‘go upstairs.” In 
P Petr 11. 9 (3)8 (iii/B.c.) πλήρωμα ἀναβέβηκεν is ‘the gang 
has gone away.” Cf. MGr ἀνεβαίνω. 

For the substantive cf. P Grenf II. 67 (a.D. 237) 
(= Selections, p. 109) where three asses are provided 
imp καταβάσεως Kal ἀναβάσεως, ‘for the conveyance 
down and up again” of dancing girls for a village festival. 
᾿Ανάβασις is common in the papyri and the inscriptions of 
the “rising” of the Nile, e.g. BGU 1. 124 (A.D. 181-2) 
[τῆς τοῦ] ἱερωτάτου Νείλου ἐπ᾿ ἀγαθῷ ἀναβάσεως, Οὐ 15 
666 (c. A.D. 55) ἡ Αἴγυπτος, τὰς τοῦ Νείλου δωρεὰς ἐπαυ- 
ξομένας κατ᾽ ἔτος θεωροῦσα, νῦν μᾶλλον ἀπέλαυσε τῆς 
δικαίας ἀναβάσεως τοῦ θεοῦ, where Dittenberger draws 
attention to the fact that δικαία ἀνάβασις is a ‘solenne 
yocabulum” in this connexion. So in the papyri, BGU lV. 
1208)? (p.c. 27) τ][ῃν ἀποτομίαν (see s.v.) τῆς ἀναβάσεως, 
There are some other instances in Meyer’s note on P Giss 
I. 37, intro. n°, In Cagnat 111. 975 (? i/a.p.) &. is part of a 
house: τὴν ἀ. ταύτην σὺν τῇ ἁψεῖδι. 


in something like the forensic sense ‘‘defer’”’ a case, 
occurs in P Tebt I. 22 (8.6. 112) ἀναβαλλόμενος εἰς 
τὸν φυλακίτην, ‘referring the matter to the inspector”: 
cf. P Par 667 (i/B.c.) ὧν τὰ ἔργα ἀναβάλουσιν (/. -λλ-), 
‘whose work is postponed.” Elsewhere it is generally = 
“cast up” or “send back”: in Ostr 1154 (Rom.) ava- 
βαλεῖν τὰ ἱμάτιά σου appears to be used of the ‘setting 
up” of a weaver’s warp. Cf. P Giss I. 2018 (ii/A.p.) εἰ 
θέλεις ἀναβληθῆναί σίου τ]ὴν ἰσχνὴν [λε]υκὴν στολήν, 
φρόντισον τῆς πορφύρας. In Ost 1399 (A.D. 67-8) ἀνε- 
βί(άλετε) εἰς τὸ κενὸν (1. καινὸν) χῶ(μα) ναύβ(ια) δέκα πέντε, 
1567 (A.D. 105) ἀναβίεβλήκατε) εἰς χῶ(μα) ᾿Αθην(αίων) 
viavBrov) (ἥμισυ), it may mean “throw up,” of a measure 
of earth excavated (cf. Mahaffy Petrie Papyri, III. p. 344): 
this is a return to its most primitive sense—cf. Sy// 5871® 
(B.C. 329-8) τέκτοσιν τοῖς ἀναβαλοῦσιν τὰς πλίνθους. 
Another physical sense appears in P Flor II. 2335 (a.v. 
263), where Comparetti renders tva ... [ἀϊναβληθῶσι ** ‘vi 
si adattino’ (le spalliere).”” The verb is MGr. The ex- 
pressive compd. διαναβάλλομαι ““ procrastinate” occurs 
P Tebt I. 507? (B.c. 112-1). 


P Oxy IIL. 51327 (a.p. 184) ἀναβεβίσθαι (7. -βιβάσθαι) 
els δραχμὰς χειλίας [ὀκ]τακοσίας, ‘raised the price to 
eighteen hundred drachmas.” (MGr dveBatw.) 




Syll 80 717 (ii/A.D.) καὶ ἀνέβλεψεν καὶ ἐλήλυθεν καὶ ηὐχα- 
ρίστησεν δημοσίᾳ τῷ θεῷ, of a blind man ‘recovering 
sight ” in the temple of Asclepios, as in Tn 911,15 (cf. Docu- 

ments, p. 154). So at the beginning of the same inscr., 
καὶ ὀρθὸν ἀνέβλεψε. 


In the interview between Marcus Aurelius (Ὁ) and a con- 
demned criminal, P Oxy I. 33-7 (= Chres¢. 1. p. 35), we 
read of the latter that ἀνεβόησεν [μ]έσης Ρώμης, summon- 
ing the Romans to see him led off to death. Beyond this 
rather ou¢ré document, we have no other evidence of the 
ἸΚοινή use of the word, an interesting confirmation of WH’s 
rejection of it in Mt 274*—unless indeed the more literary 
Matthew was emending Mark (15%*) ! 


The word is used with a large variety of meanings. Thus 
P Amh II. 34 (α)5 (c. B.c. 157) ἐκθεῖναι τὴν κατάστασιν els 
μηδεμίαν ἀναβολὴν (‘‘without delay”) ποησαμένους : cf. 
Syl/ 425" (iii/B.c.) ἀναβολὰν λαβόντες ἔτη τρία. In P Oxy 
IV. 7297 (A.D. 137) τὴν δὲ ἀν[α]βολὴν ποιήσονται ἀπὸ τῶν 
ἐθίμων ἀναβολῶν, and P Goodsp Cairo 15 (A.D. 362) τὴν 
ἀναβολὴν πεποίημαι, we have the same phrase as in Ac 2517 
(pius the article), but in a wholly different sense, ‘‘ to make 
an embankment.” In P Tebt 11. 3752 (a.p. 265) τοὺς 
[δι]ωρύγων τε κ[αὶ ὑδ]ραγωγῶν [ἀ]ναβολάς is rendered by 
the editors ‘‘banking up of canals and conduits,” and 
probably a similar rendering, rather than “‘ dredging,” should 
be given to P Amh 11. 911} (a.b. 159) ἀναβολὰς διωρύγω(ν) : 
cf. CPHerm 41 χώμασι καὶ ἀναβολαῖς, and P Lond 1171% 
(B.c. 8) (=IIL. p. 179) ἀναβολῆς ναυβίων (see on ἀναβάλλω, 
and Kenyon’s note here). In P Oxy VI. 909° (A.D. 225) τὴν 
προκειμένων ἀκανθῶν ἀναβολήν, the word is used in the 
unusual sense of digging up or uprooting (see the editors’ 
τέρα ἀνβολὰ (/. τέσσαρας ἀναβολάς), “" 4 bags,” and com- 
pare P Oxy IV. 74174 (ii/a.p.) where ἀναβολή, in the sense 
of ἀναβολίδιον, occurs next before προχείρια in a list of 
articles. Further in a legal document P Petr III. 21 (g)?* 
(iii/B.c.) we have τῆς ἀναβολῆς Tod ἱματίου with hiatus 
before and after, so that we cannot certainly join the words. 
In P Théad Iny. 15, a receipt of Constantine’s time, those 
who grant the receipt name themselves ἀποδέκται λίνου τοῦ 
ἱεροῦ ἀναβολικοῦ, where Jouguet finds a reference to the 
linen fora military mantle “(ἀναβολικοῦ ae ἀναβολή --ἀμβολή 
= abolla, etc.) : but see Wilcken Archiv, iv. p. 185. 


This form of the word is supported by κατάγί(ε)ιον, 
P Oxy I. 75} (a.p. 129), and VI. 91118 (iii/A.D.), 912% 
(zd.) ; καταγαίῳ, P Lond 1164 (e)® (A.D. 212) (=III. 
p- 160), κατάγαια, P Oxy VI. 903% (iv/A.D.), κατάκεον, 
P Rein 43° (A.D. 102, illiterate). Τῶν avwyatwy occurs at 
the end of vi/A.p., P Par 21%, and ἀνώγιον in CPR 2815 
(A.D. 110), after a lacuna: cf. MGr ἀνώγι “* upper storey.” 

which in Hellenistic Greek is found much in the sense of 
the Attic ἀπαγγέλλω, is illustrated by P Petr IIT. 42 H (8f)? 

" , 

(iii/B.c.) τὰ γεγενημέϊνα σοι ἐμοὶ ἀνήνγελλον, 2. 56 (6)}5 

(Ptol.) ἀναγγέλειν σοι αὐθήμερον : cf. Sy/Z 2637 (c. B.C. 
200) ἐντέταλμαι αὐτῶι ἀναγγεῖλαι ὑμῖν ἃ ἠβουλόμην ὑμᾶς 
εἰδῆσαι. Further instances in P Eleph 135 (B.c. 223-2, = 
Witkowski? p. 43), P Petr II. 11, 25 (iii/B.c.—7é. p. 7) see 
also Sy// Index (III. p. 249). For the use of the word in the 
LXX, see Anz Sudbsrdia, p. 283. 


The word, as well as the thought, is found in the Hermetic 
writings, e.g. Reitzenstein Pozmandres p. 3391} ἀγνοῶ, ὦ 
τρισμέγιστε, ἐξ οἵας μήτρας ἀνεγεννήθης, σπορᾶς δὲ ποίας : 
cf. Bauer on Jn 38 (in HZN7) and Reitzenstein Die he//. 
Mysterienreligionen pp. 26, 31. 


For this word = ‘‘read aloud,” as generally in classical 
Greek, cf. P Grenf I. 3715 (late ii/B.c.) ἐπιλέγματος ἀναγνω- 
σθέντος, of the reading aloud ofa petition, and P Goodsp Cairo 
2g iii) (¢, A.D. 150) ἧς ἀναγνωσθείσης, of a will. So P Oxy 
I. 598 (A.D. 292) ἐπίσταλμα ἐν ἡμῖν ἀνεγνώσ[θη], “at a 
meeting of our body a despatch was read,” and J/ichel 699° 
(end of iii/B.c.) τό τε ψήφισμα ἀνέγνωσαν. The word is 
used absolutely in P Amh II. 64? (A.D. 107) ἀναγνωσθέντος, 
‘a report was read.’’ On the other hand it must mean 
simply ‘‘read” in P Eleph 9% (B.C. 222) ὡς ἂν οὖν ἀναγνῶις 
[τὴ]ν ἐπιστολήν, and similarly 24. 13°, also BGU IV. 1079°* 
(a private letter —i/a.D.) λοιπὸν οὖν ἔλαβον παρὰ τοί(ῦ) 
ApaBos τὴν ἐπιστολὴν καὶ ἀνέγνων καὶ ἐλυπήθην, and 
P Fay 20° (iii/iv A.D.) where it refers to copies of an edict 
set up in public places σύνοπτα τοῖς ἀναγιγνώσκουσιν, ‘in 
full view of those who wish to read.” ᾿Ανέγνων is a common 
formula for an authenticating signature, like the Legimzs 
of the Roman Emperors: see e.g. P Par 69%: 1% 14 (B.c. 233). 
The play on two compounds of γινώσκω in 2 Cor 14 may be 
paralleled by P Oxy VII. 106278 (ii/a.b.) αὐ[τ]ὴν δέ σοι τὴν 
ἐπιστολὴν πέμψω διὰ Σύρου ἵνα αὐτὴν avayvois νήφων kal 
σαυτοῦ καταγνοῖς. It is interesting to note from the literary 
record of the verb that the meaning ‘‘read” is essentially 
Attic, Tonic (Herod.) using ἐπιλέγεσθαι: see LS and 
Schlageter p. 24. In Pretsigke 1019, 1020, 1022, 1023, 
all προσκυνήματα from the same Egyptian temple (Kalab- 
schah), also 1065 (Abydos)—we find the record of the 
adoration of a number of persons from one family, to which 
is appended καὶ τοῦ ἀναγινώσκοντος, in one case following 
καὶ τοῦ γράψαντος. This inclusion of the reader, whoever 
he may be, distantly reminds us of Rev 1°. 


P Oxy IV. 71714 (late i/B.c.) ἠν]άγκασμαι βοᾶν αὐτῶι. 
A somewhat weakened sense is seen in P Fay r1of (A.D. 94) 
εὖ ποιήσεις. . ἀναγκάσας ἐκχωσθῆναι τὸ ἐν αὐτῶι κόπριον, 
‘*please have the manure there banked up” (Edd.): cf. the 
use in Lk 1428, where ἀνάγκασον describes the ‘‘ constraint” 
of hospitality which will not be denied. Other occurrences 
are BGU IV. 1042°.® (iii/A.D.) ἐ[ν]έτυχ[ε τ]ῷ δικαιοδότῃ 
kal ἀ[ν]ή[γκ]αζέ pe προσκαρτερεῖν τῷ βήμ[ατ]ι αὐτοῦ: 
so we venture to restore the text, in accordance with the 
meaning clearly needed—the augment will be a blunder like 
that which secured permanent footing in διηκόνουν, etc. A 
similar aor. is apparently intended in P Amh II. 133!” (early 


, , 
αναγ Κἢ 

ii/A.D.) καὶ μετὰ πολλῶν κόπων ἀνηκάσαμεν (1. ἀνηγκ-) 
αὐτῶν (for αὐτούς) ἀντασχέσθαι κτὰ. ““ἀπὰ with great 
difficulty I made them set to work” (Edd.). The con- 
tracted future occurs in an edict of Germanicus on a Berlin 
papyrus (Archiv vi. p. 286) ἐάμ. μοι μὴ πεισθῆτε, ἀναγκᾶτέ 
μεκτὰ. BGU IV. 11417 (end of i/B.C.) ἀναγκάζομαι μηκέτι 
σοὶ μηδὲν γράψαι, [ἵνα] vohoys. Ρ Lond 951 vers * (late 

iii/a.D) (=IIL. p. 213) ἤκουσ[α)] ὅ[τ|. θηλάζειν αὐτὴν 
ἀναγκάζεις. The verb is MGr, 

P Fay τοῦ (early i/A.D.) πρὸς ἀναγκαῖν (= -αἴον). 
Ordinary uses may be seen in P Tor I. 14+ (p.c. 116) κατὰ 
τὸ ἀναγκαῖον ‘necessitate coactus,” P Leid B-3 (ii/B.c.) 
εἰς τὸ μηθὲν τῶν ἀναγκαίων ἡμᾶς ὑστερεῖν, P Flor II. 1324 
(A.D. 257) ὅπερ ἀναγκαῖόν σε ἣν γνῶναι (as Ac 1345), 24. 1708 
(A.D. 255) εἰ περὶ τῶν οὐθαμινῶν ἀμελεῖτε, πόσῳ μᾶλλον 
τῶν ἀναγκαιοτέρων. In combination with φίλος, meaning 
“intimate,” as in Ac τοῦδ, we have P Flor 11. 142? (A.D. 
264) ἐπειδήπερ ἐντολικὸν ἔχω ἀναγκαίου φίλου : cf. Sy// 
737° (ii/A.D.) (εἰ) σφόδρα ἀναγκαῖός τις ἢν. For the Pauline 
phrase ἀναγκαῖον ἡγεῖσθαι, as 2 Cor 9°, Phil 255, cf. P Fay 
111! (a.p. 95-6) (= Sedections, Ὁ. 67) [a]vavKaiv ἡγήσα[5], 
‘‘considering that it is essential,” Sy/7 656° (ii/A.D.) ὅθεν 
ἀναγκαῖον ἡγησάμην (c. inf): cf. ὑπολαμβάνομεν a. εἶναι, 
ih. 79074. The RV margin at Tit 3! εἰς τὰς ἀναγκαίας 
χρείας, “‘for necessary wants,” that is ‘‘for the necessities 
of life,” is supported by P Oxy VII. 106818 (iii/A.p.) χάριν 
ἀναγκέας xpias, and by Prieve 108° (c. B.C. 129), where 
Moschion is thanked for having given a certain sum εἰς 
χρείας ἀναγκαίας. Cf. P Grenf II. 14 (ce) f. (iii/B.c.) 
χρείαν ἔχομεν ἀναγκαίαν Τιμοξένου ὥστε ἀποστεῖλαι αὐτὸν 
εἰς τὴν πόλιν. The superlative is found P Par 467 (B.C 153) 
ἐν τοῖς ἀναγκαιοτάτοις καιροῖς, and P Giss I. 23° (1i/A.D.) 
πάντων τῶν εὐχῶν μου ἀναγκαιοτάτην ἔχω τὴν τῆς ὑγείας 
σου. αἰὄ. Cf. the elative in P Lond 4231 (B.c. 168) (=I. p. 30) 
εἴπερ μὴ ἀναγκαιότερόν σε] περισπᾶι, ‘‘ unless urgent busi- 
ness detains you,” P Flor I. 6115 (Α.0. 86-8) ἐντυγχάνει σοι 
τὸ πρῶτον κ[α]ὶ ἀναγκαιότατον. For the adverb, cf. P Flor 
II. 138° (A.D. 264) ἐπεὶ ἀναγκαίως σου χρήζω, OCIS 6698 
(i/a.D.) προέγραψα ἀναγκαίως περὶ ἑκάστου τῶν ἐπιζητου- 
μένων, P Giss I. 688 (early ii/A.D.) ἀναγκαίως γράφω σοί" 
οὐδένα ᾽χω (1 ἔχω) [μ]ετὰ τὸν θεὸν εἰ μή σε, etc. 

The derived adj. ἀναγκαστικός occur eight times in Vettius 
Valens, with the meaning ‘‘fotens,” “‘ efficax”” (Ed.). 


For ἔχειν ἀνάγκην followed by the infinitive, as Lk τ415, 
ef. P Oxy VII. 10614 (B.C. 22) ἀνάγκην ἔσχον παρακαλέσαι, 
“61 have been obliged to urge,” P Flor II. 278'¥-% (iii/a.v.) 
ἀνάγκην ἔσχον ἐ[ντ]υχεῖν. The converse appears in BGU 
IV. 114147 (B.C. 14) διὸ ἀνάγκη pe ἔσχηκε ἐνφανίσαι. The 
word = “calamity” occurs in Sy// 2555) (iii/B.c.) ἐν 
ἀνάγκαις καὶ κακοπαθίαις yévnrat—cf. 2 Cor 6%, etc. In 
a leaden tablet found at Carthage, Wiinsch 4F 4§ (iii/a.D.) 
ἔϊξορκί[ζω oe] τὸν θεὸν τῆς ἀνάγκης τὸν μέγαν ᾿Αρουρο- 
Baaptaypav, we have, as Wiinsch thinks, the Orphic con- 
ception surviving: he compares P Lond 121848 (iii/A.D.) 
(=I. p. 105) θεὸς ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς ἀνάγκης τεταγμένος ᾿Ιακοὺβ 
Ἰαιβω (ἢ -- ΠῚΠ") Σαβαώθ “ASwvat—in neither of these 

ἀναγνωσις 32 

however can we speak exactly of ‘‘the great goddess of 
Necessity.” She figures in Vettius Valens, p. 173 (top), 
αὐτήν τε τὴν πρόνοιαν Kal τὴν ἱερὰν ᾿Ανάγκην. For the 
ordinary use of the word we may quote Os¢r 1153 (Rom.) 
μὴ ἄλλως ποιήσητ(ε) εἰδότ(ες) τὴν ἀνάγκην, P Hlor Il. 171° 
(A.D. 257) ἐπεὶ δὲ οἶδα ὅτι καὶ ἀνάγκης καὶ ὑπομνήσεως 
χρήζεται, ““γοιι need compulsion and reminder,” 76. 186° 
(A.D. 259), Sta τὴν ἀνάνκην τῶν ἀναιλωμάτων, ‘the pres- 
sure of expenses,” 7. 2229 (A.D. 256) els τὰ ἀναλώματά pov 
τῆς φροντίδος ἐν ἀνάγκῃ. etc. The word is MGr. 


Syil 55281 (Magnesia, late ii/B.c.) ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ποιήσωνται 
τὴν ἀνάγνωσιν [αὐ]τοῦ καθότι προστέτακται: several in- 
stances might be quoted from 11|Ὰ.1». in the normal sense of 
‘‘yeading.” In P Tebt I. 61 (4) (B.c. 118-7) we have the 
survival of an earlier meaning: ἐπὶ τῆς ἀναγνώ[σ]ε[ὡς] τῆς 
κα[τ]ὰ [pv]AAfov γε]ωμετρίας, ‘Sat the revision of the 
survey of the crops” (Edd.). 


The use of &. in Ac 12 finds a ready parallel in Sy// 36674 
(i/A.D.) ἀναχθέντα εἰς τὸν δῆμον ἐὰν μὲν πολείτης ἦ, ἀπο- 
ξενοῦσθαι. For the meaning ‘‘ restore,” ‘‘ bring back,” cf. P 
Par 10! τοῦτον ὃς dv ἀναγάγῃ, with reference to a runaway 
slave, and Wilcken’s restoration (Archiv iv. p. 548) of P 
πελον] of bringing back certain arouras to use as a vineyard. 
See the editor's note on P Oxy VII. 10328 (A.p. 162) 
ἀνήξαμεν κτλ. ‘we converted out of our own ancient plots 
. . . gg ofan aroura of vine-land,” and 24. IV. 70723 (c. A.D. 
136) γῆν ἀνάξαι ἀμπέλῳ. (On the vulgar Ist aor. see above 
under ἄγω.) P Flor II. 1345 (A.D. 260) ἵν[α] τὸ ἀναγόμενον ἐν 
Βουβάστῳ κτημάτιον ὑποσχισθῇ, is rendered by Comparetti 
““perche la terra aunessa in Bubasto venga dissodata.” 
Syil 936° καὶ καταβαλέτω Tap πεντηκοστὰν π[ρὶ]ν ἀνάγειν 
τι ἢ πωλεῖν seems to mean ‘‘ before he brings (the mer- 
chandise) into the town or sells it,” Δ δ. ‘* bring up” from 
the landing stage. The familiar use of ἀνάγειν for ‘ putting 
out to sea” is found in BGU IV. 1200! (B.c. 1) τοῦ 
τὴν πρόσοδον ἀνηγμένου εἰς ᾿Ιταλίαν, modified in a transitive 
direction. For its sacrificial use (as in Ac 74) cf. OGIS 
76447 (c. B.C. 127) ἀναγαγὼν ἐκ τοῦ ἰδίου ταύρους δύο καὶ 
καλλιερή[σας κτλ : so elsewhere in this inscr. (= Cagnat IV. 


Frequent in inscr., in a sacrificial sense, e.g. Sy// 55314 
(ili/ii B.c.) ἀναδεικνύωσι τῷ Διί (ταῦρον). Nearer to the 
sense of Ac 1 is the astrological phrase in Vettius Valens, 
Ρ. 119° ἐὰν δὲ Ζεὺς μαρτυρήσῃ Κρόνῳ, νόμιμος γάμος 
ἀναδειχθήσεται ἢ καί τινας ἐξευγενίσουσιν. Note Sy// 32912 
(B.C. 86) κέκρικεν ἀναδεῖξαι τὸν πρὸς Μιθραδάτην πόλεμον, 
which comes near our ‘‘ declare war”: so in OG/S 4414 

ex suppl.). 


There is a legal sense of this word which is not uncommon 
—P Oxy III. 513° (a.p. 184) ἐάν τις ζήτη[σις] περὶ 
τούτου γένηται πρὸς αὐτὸν. .. [ἐγὼ] αὐτὸς τοῦτο ava- 
δέξομαι, ‘if any action is brought against him in connexion 
with this, I will take the responsibility upon myself” (Edd.). 

ava nrew 

So P Tebt I. 98? (c. B.C. 112) dv ἀδεδέγμεθα (1. avad-), 
“*for whom we are security,” and the late P Grenf II 99 
(a)! (vi/vii A.p.) Aavelr ἀνεδέξατο Θαησίαν ὥστε αὐτὴν 
ἀπελθῖν els διαίτην καὶ τὰ ἀπὸ διαίτης ποιήσῃ, ‘ David has 
become surety for Thaesia on condition that she return to her 
home and busy herself with its duties.” The verb is followed 
by the infinitive, P Tebt I. 755 (B.c. 112) ἀναδέχομαι πόρον 
δώσιν τῆς (ἀρτάβης), ‘I undertake to provide for the artaba 
tax”; P Hib I. 58%ff (B.c. 245-4) ἀναδέδεκται yap 
ἡμῖν ἀπομετρήσειν σῖτον: cf. OG/S 339” (ii/B.c.) τάς τε 
πρεσβείας ἀνεδέχετο προθύμως, 20. 441° (i/B.C.) καὶ διὰ ταῦτα 
κινδύνους πολλοὺς [. . .] ὑπὲρ τῶν ἡμετέρων δημοσίων [. . - 
προθυμό]τατα ἀ[ν]αδεδεγμένους. Sy// 92959 (ii/B.c.) πᾶσαν 
ἀναδεχόμενοι κακοπαθίαν χάριν τοῦ μηθενὸς ὑστερῆσαι δικαί- 
ov μηθένα τῶν κρινομένων, of judges who say they have given 
not only the day but τὸ πλεῖον τῆς νυκτός to their work. 
Add Sy/Z 530° (late iv/B.c.) = ‘‘undertake””; so P Eleph 
291? (iii/B.c.), P Tebt 11. 329! (a.p. 139), and BGU I. 19414 
(A.D. 177), and P Ryl II. 778 (a.p. 192) ἀναδεξάμενος τὴν 
μείζονα ἀρχὴν οὐκ ὀφείλει τὴν ἐλάττον᾽ ἀποφεύγειν. The 
predominance of this meaning suggests its application in 
Heb 1117, The statement that Abraham had ‘‘under- 
taken,” ‘‘assumed the responsibility of’’ the promises, 
would not perhaps be alien to the thought. In Ac 2o? it 
is ‘‘ hospitio excepit”’ (Blass), Attic ὑποδέχεσθαι. 


On P Fay 2613 (a.p. 150) tv’ οὖν τοὺς συνοψιοῦντας 

. ἀναδῶτε, the editors remark that ‘‘ ἀναδιδόναι (or εἰσδι- 
ϑόναι) is the regular word for presenting a list of well-to-do 
persons (εὔποροι) from whom a certain number were to be 
selected for a λειτουργία,᾽᾽ and compare P Oxy I. 82? 
(middle iii/A.D.) Tas ἀναδόσεις τῶν λειτουργῶν, and BGU 
I; 19422 (τῷ. 177). See the note ὁπ PB) Ryl Il ΟἹ": 
See also P Flor I. 257 (A.D. 265) ot ἀναδοθέντες, men 
whose names had been ‘‘sent up”; 26. 25°° (ii/A.D.) 
ἣν καὶ ἀναδέδωκε εἰς ἀκύρωσιν, of a document; and so 
P Tebt II. 397% (a.p. 198). In Syl 2797 (ii/B.c.) 
we find τό τε ψήφισμα ἀνέδωκεν according to the best 
reading. P Tebt If. 448 (i1/ii 
ἐπιστόλιον = ‘‘the bearer’: cf. 7JGS/ 830% ἀνεγνώσθη 
ἐπιστολὴ Τυρίων στατιωναρίων ἀναδοθεῖσα ὑπὸ Λάχητος, 
ἑνὸς αὐτῶν. In P Oxy VIL. 1063" (ii/iii A.D.) τὸ πιττά[κ]ιον 
ἀναγνοὺς μὴ ἀναδῷς τῷ “Ηρώ[δ]ῃ we may render “ pass on.” 
Note in 74. 10338 (A.D. 392) the strange form ἀναδεδοιημένοι. 
In Vettius Valens p. 21! τὰς ἀναδοθείσας ὥρας = ‘‘ the given 
hours,” in a mathematical sense. 


For &, as in Rom 75, Nageli p. 47 cites C/G 2566 
(Crete, date?) ᾿Αρχονίκα Ζαύλω ... ἀναζῶσα ᾿Αρτέμιδι 
evak[6]w, where Archonica fulfils a vow to Artemis, ‘‘ being 
alive once more.’ Other instances of the verb from profane 
sources will be found in Deissmann LAZ p. 94 ff. 


The verb is capable of general use, as in P Oxy VII. 
106618 (iii/A.D.) ἀναζήτησον [ῥίνην] ‘look for a file.” But 
it is specially used of searching for human beings, with an 
implication of difficulty, as in the NT passages. So P Hib 
I. 71° (B.c. 245-4) τὴν πᾶσαν σπουδὴν ποίησαι ὅπίως 

᾽ , 

ἀνα]ζητηθέντες ἀποσταλῶσι, ‘make every effort to search 
for them” etc. with reference to certain slaves who had 
deserted. P Rein 1715 (B.c. 109) has nearly the same 
phrase: cf. Sy// 22018 (iii/B.c.) ex supp/., P Flor I. 83"? 
(ili/iv A.D.) ἀναζητηθέντα ἀναπεμφθήσεσθαι πρὸς τὸν 
κράτιστον ἐπίτροπον. P Tebt I. 138 (late ii/B.c.) avatn- 
Tovpevos ᾿Οννῶφρις οὐχ εὑρίσκεται, 20. 53°% (B.C. 110) of 
εὐθυνόμενοι ἀναζητηθ[έϊντες, ‘‘the culprits having been 
searched for.” For the noun ἀναζήτησις, cf. P Fay 107° 
(A.D. 133) ποήσασθαι τὴν καθήκουσαν ἀναζήτησιν, ‘to 
hold the due inquiry,” P. Tebt II. 42312 (early iii/a.D.) 
πρ[ὸς] ἀναζήτην (/. -ἡσιν)ὴ χόρτου, ‘‘to look for hay,” and 
P Ryl II. 78% (a.p. 157) περὶ ἀναζητήσεως Τ]Τάνθηρος. 


A characteristic compound of the Pastorals (2 Tim 15), 
but vouched for in the common speech of the day: P Leid 
W**t 48 (ii/iii A.D.)—an occult pamphlet—atrd γάρ ἐστιν τὸ 
ἀναζωπυροῦν τὰς πάσας βίβλους, cf. 7. V*-7 (iii/iv A.D.) δι᾽ 
οὗ ζωπυρεῖται πάντα πλάσματα. See further Anz Swé- 

sidia, p. 284 f., and cf. F. C. Conybeare in 2x VII. 
iv. p. 40. 


is one of the words that Nageli cites (p. 81) to prove that 
in Phil 4° ἀνεθάλετε τὸ ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ φρονεῖν, Paul has taken 
vocabulary from the more cultured Kow/7, through his later 
intercourse with Greeks. It should be noted, however, that 
the word is not rare in the LXX (especially in Sirach), five 
times in this rare tense and four times transitively. It is 
a curious problem whence the LXX derived it. The simplex 
occurs in BGU IV. r112'8 (B.C. 4) παρείληφεν δὲ καὶ ἡ 
Evyévera τὸ παιδίον θάλλουσαν. 


Deissmann’s discovery of ἀνάθεμα in the ‘‘ Biblical Greek” 
sense, in a source entirely independent of Jewish influence, 
is a remarkable confirmation of his general thesis. At the 
end of a heathen curse from Megara, belonging to i/ii A.D., 
there is a separate line of large letters ANEOEMA which 
he (LAE p. 92 f.) interprets as = ava0epa— curse !” 
The weakening of the accented a to ε is explained as a 
vulgar Greek extension of the augment to a derivative 
(cf. Nageli p. 49, following Wackernagel). See on this the 
plentiful material in Hatzidakis Zinettung, p. 64 f. The 
verb occurs three times in the same curse, 1. 5 ἀναθεματί- 
ἵζομ]εν αὐτούς, 1. 8 ἀναθεμα[τί]ζομεν, and on the back 1. 
8 f. ἀναθεματί[ {Ἰομὲεν τούτους]. For the complete text, 
as originally edited by Whinsch, see 7G III. 2, and 
also his Antzke Fluchtafein, p. 4 ff. Newton (Zssays in 
Archeology, p. 193 f.) describes a number of leaden 
tablets of about B.c. 150 discovered at Knidos, in a 
sacred precinct dedicated to Persephone and other deities, 
which were graven with similar azathemata. The person 
on whom the curse was to fall was always devoted to the 
vengeance of the two Infernal Goddesses, Demeter and her 
daughter, ‘‘ May he or she never find Persephone propitious !”” 
With 1 Cor 1674 may be compared the ending of a sepulchral 
inscription (iv/v A.D.) from Attica, where onany one’s inter- 
fering with the remains the curse is called ἀονη-- ἀνάθεμα 
ἤτω papav ἀθὰν (see Roberts-Gardner 387): the meaning 

Part I. 


» , 

of the Aramaic σύμβολον being wholly unknown, it could 
be used as a curse—like unknown words in later days! It 
should be ncted that the new meaning ‘‘curse” naturally 
attached itself to the late form ἀνάθεμα rather than to the 
older ἀνάθημα. Nouns in -pa tended to develop weak root- 
form by association with those in -ots, which always had it. 
The noun is MGr: thus ἀνάθεμα ἐσένα, “a curse on you”’ 
(Thumb, Handbook p. 38). 


For the meaning see under ἀνάθεμα. The form may be 
illustrated by ἐκθεματίζω in P Tebt I. 27:08. (8.6. 113) 
ἐκθεματισθῆι, “be proclaimed a defaulter.” There is also 
a simplex in BGU IV. 1127* (u.c. 18) ἐξῖναι τῷ Εἰὐαγγέλωι 
θεματίσαντι ἐπὶ τράπεζαν ἔνθεσμον. . . παραχώρησιν 
ποιεῖσθαι, Sy// 329% (i/B.c.), meaning ‘to deposit.” 


See Index to Sy// III. p. 206, which shows how the old 
form and the later ἀνάθεμα (like ἀνάδημα and ἀνάδεμα, etc.) 
lived on side by side. In his index to OG/S Dittenberger 
is content with ‘‘avé@npa, ἀναθήματα sass’. That the 
alternative lived on in Semitic districts as well as in Greece 
itself, in the same sense, is well shown in a trilingual inscr. 
—Latin, Greek and Punic—in G. A. Cooke’s North Semitic 
Inscriptions, p. 109 (ii/B.C.), ᾿Ασκληπίῷ Μηρρὴ ἀνάθεμα 
βωμὸν ἔστησε Κλέων. This answers to donwm dedit in the 
Latin, 17) in the Punic. 


OGTS 665} (A.D. 48-9 Ἰὑπὸ τῶν πλεονεκτικῶς καὶ ἀναιδῶς 
ταῖς ἐξουσίαις ἀποχρωμένων associates the original adj. from 
which ἀναίδεια comes with another which well illustrates 
its connotation—audacious “‘ desire to get”: cf. Lk 118 and 
for a slightly different connotation Sir 25°. In P Lond 342"4 
(A.D. 185) (ΞΞ 11. p. 174) the adj. is used of a man who 
proves himself ἀναιδὴς ἐν τῇ κώμῃ by levying contributions 
on the inhabitants etc. ; and for the verb see P Ryl II. 14119 
(A.D. 37) ἀναιδευόμενοι μὴ ἀποδῶναι, “shamelessly refusing 

to pay’ (Edd.). 


Field (oées, p. 116) remarks that ‘killing ” or “ἢ slaying” 
would be more adequate than ‘‘death” (AV, RV) asa 
rendering. Since even the AV of 2 Macc 51%, which he 
notes, does not make ‘‘unto the killing of him” English, we 
must either keep ‘* death ” or substitute ‘* murder,” which the 
tone of ἀναιρῶ would fairly justify: see sub voce. 


The commercial sense of ἀναιρέω seems the commonest. 
P Lond 1168®f- (a.p. 18) (=III. p. 136) ἀντὶ τοῦ τόκου 
[@]v ἀνείρηται, ‘‘the interest on what she has borrowed,” 
τὸ. 116417 (A.D. 212) (=TIII. p. 158) ἀνῃρῆσθαι τὸν πω- 
λοῦντα πίαρ]ὰ τοῦ ὠνουμένου τὴν συνπεφωνημένην πρὸς 
ἀλλ[ή]λους τιμήν, BGU IV. 1136? (c. B.C. 11): cf 26. 1135 
(do.) ἀνείλανίτο. P Fay roo!® 35. (4.p. 99) ἀνίρημαι, of 
“‘receiving ἢ money: so P Flor I. 1! (a.p. 153), 26. 815 
(A.D. 103). In the more general sense of ‘“‘take up,” P 
Tebt I. 138 (late ii/B.c.) ἀνελόμενος τὴν ἑαυτοῦ μάχαιραν, 
and the interesting imperial letter, now dated in the time of 


» , 

Hadrian (Hermes xxxvii. p. 84 ff.), BGU I. 14010 8. with 
reference to τ[ο]ύτους, c[d]s οἱ γονεῖς αὐτῶν τῷ τῆς στρα- 
τείας ἀνείλα[ν]το χρόνῳ. For the active cf. P Oxy I. 37° 
(A.D. 49) (= Selections, p. 49), ἀνεῖλεν ἀπὸ κοπρίας ἀρρενι- 
κὸν σωμάτιον, “picked up from the dung-heap a male 
foundling”’; the corresponding passive is used of the same 
transaction in 23. 38° (A.D. 49-50) (= Selections, p. 52), ὃ 
ἀνείρηται ἀπὸ κοπρίας. The recurrent formula δουλικὸν 
παιδίον ἀναίρετον ὑποτίτθιον (as BGU IV. 1107°—B.c. 13) 
shows how technical the term had become: cf. Ac 7?'. For 
the meaning ‘‘ kill,” cf. P Amh IT. 1428 (iv/a.D.) βουλόμενοι 
ἀναιρῇσαί pe: in «δγ 9294 of a city “destroyed.” So also, 
seemingly, in P Par 68° ὃ (Rom.) ἀναιρεθῆναι μέλλω[ν] : the 
context is fragmentary, but the general subject—an apology 
for the Jews—makes it probable. The compound ἀντα- 
vatpety (cf. ἀνταναπληροῦν) occurs frequently in P Tebt I., 
as 61(6)244 (B.c. 118-7) [ἀν]ταναιρεθείσης, ‘‘ subtracted.” 
So P Petr III. 76iii.1 (ii/p.c.), 26. 1044 τοῦ ἀνειλημμένου, of 
a farm-holding ‘‘ confiscated” to the state, BGU III. 776%? 


Syll 8167 ἐγχέαντας αὐτῆς τὸ ἀναίτιον αἷμα ἀδίκως, 2).}5 
ἵνα ἐγδικήσῃς τὸ αἷμα τὸ ἀναίτιον. This interesting in- 
scription, containing phrases from the LXX, is given by 
Dittenberger as of Jewish or Christian origin. The latter 
alternative has been rightly excluded, since there is no sign 
of the NT visible. The prayer is a Jewish prayer for ven- 
geance belonging to the end of the second, or the beginning 
of the first century B.c. See the full discussion in Deiss- 
mann LAE, p. 423 ff., and note the remarkably similar but 
pagan prayer from Alexandria in Preisigke 1323 (ii/A.D.). 


This term, common in medical writings (Lk 7!®, Ac 9°), 
is found in a Christian letter of iv/A.D., which is full of NT 
echoes—P Oxy VI. 93935 (= Selections, p. 130) okey. . . 
ἀνεκτότερον ἐσχηκέναι ἀνακαθεσθεῖσα, νοσηλότερον δὲ ὅμως 
τὸ σωμάτιον ἔχει, “she seems . . - to be in ἃ more tolerable 
state in that she has sat up, but nevertheless she is still in a 
somewhat sickly state of body.” See Hobart, p. 11 f. 

> ΄ὔ 
See s.v. ἀνακαινόω. 

avaxaw ow 

and its noun ἀνακαίνωσις have not been traced in any 
source earlier than Paul, who might very well coin a word of 
this sort—there is however no proof that he really did so. 
Nageli, p. 53, remarks on these and other “‘new words” of 
Paul that they answer in formation to that of other Κοινή 
words, going back to old Greek stems and only combining 
them afresh. Here the similar ἀνακαινίζειν (Heb 6%) exists 
in literature, as does ἀνακαίνισις. Did Paul not know them, 
so that he had to form words for his purpose, on such 
an analogy as dvavedw? Or were his words current in a 
limited district only? Thayer notes that Hermas used 
ἀνακαίνωσις (Vis. iii. 8°): ἡ ἀ, τῶν πνευμάτων ὑμῶν looks 
like a reminiscence of Rom 122, and is no warrant for 
independent use. 



Syll 803" (iii/B.C.) ἐδόκει αὐτοῦ [τὸ ἔσθος ὁ θε]ὸς (Asclepios) 
ἀγκαλύψαι. P Oxy X. 1297® (iv/a.D.) of a vessel of oil. 


In connexion with the metaphorical use in.Lk 108, we 
may quote BGU III. 896° (ii/a.D.) πάντα τὰ ἐμὰ ἀνα- 
κάμψει els τὴν προγεγραμμ[ένην θυγατέρα]. For the ordin- 
ary sense ‘‘ return,” cf. P Magd 81° (iii/B.c.), μετὰ δὲ ταῦτ᾽ 
ἀνακάμ[ψαντός μου]. See also Anz Szdsidia, p. 314 f. 


For the sense accumbere (Jn 611, etc.), which does not 
seem to be older than the Macedonian period, may be cited 
BGU I. 344 (ii/iii aA.b.), a list of names of of ἀνακίμενοι, 
and ending γίνονδαι ἄνδρες ἀναγείμενου (!) pf. The verb 
occurs in the more ordinary sense, as passive to ἀνατίθημι, 
in the great Ephesian inscr., Sy//7 6 5645 (ii/A.D.) ἀνακεῖσθαι 
τῇ θεῷ (‘be dedicated”), of the month Artemision (so also 
1. §), The same meaning appears in 2b 8274 καθιερωμένων 
kal ἀνακειμένων τῆι Οὐρανίαι ᾿Αφροδίτει (i/8.C.). 


naturally does not figure in our non-literary sources : it 
belongs to a more cultivated stratum of thought—see its 
recordin Grimm. But the commonness of κεφάλαιον, ‘‘sum,” 
total,’ would make the meaning obvious even to ordinary 


The NT writers use ἀνακλίνεσθαι, ““ἴο recline at a table,” 
instead of the classical mapa- and κατα-κλίνεσθαι, in a way 
which suggests that this usage was characteristic of the com- 
mon speech, though we are unable to illustrate it. Sir 
W. M. Ramsay has drawn our attention to the fact that in 
the anti-Christian Society of Tekmoreioi at Pisidian Antioch 
the President was πρωτανακλίτης, who sits in the chief 
place at table, and he takes this as an indication that the 
ritual feast was moulded on the Eucharist. For such imita- 
tions as marking the pagan reaction about A.D. 304-13, see 
his Pauline and other Studies, p. 103 ff. 


P Flor I. 36% (early iv/A.D.) crimes ὑφ᾽ οὐδενὸς ἄλλου 
ἀνακόπτεται, but by the punishment of the criminal; a 
similar connotation probably may be recognised in the frag- 
mentary P Giss I. 872° (ii/A.p.) . .] παραγγέλλειν ἀνα- 
κοπῆναι [- . , from what the scanty context suggests. So 
also in P Théad 19!8 (iv/A.D.) δέομαι τῆς σῆς ἀρε[ TH]s κελεῦ- 
σαι. . . τὴν παιδιὰν τῆς γυναικὸς ἀνακοπῆναι δι’ οὗ 
εὐδοκιμάσῃς. The word obviously does not encourage us 
to approve the few cursives that show it in Gal 5’. 


The vernacular character of this compound is sufficiently 
established by our one citation, BGU IV. 1201" (ii/A.D.) 
καὶ ἡμῶν ἀνακράξαντες (for -wy !) els τὴν κώμην πρὸς βοή- 
θηαν κατεπήδησεν ὁ γυμνασίαρχος KTA.: the temple of 
Serapis was on fire, so that the word on this occasion no 
doubt implies considerable vigour, as we should expect from 
its record elsewhere. 

» ΄ 


For the judicial sense “examine,” as in 1 Cor 9%, cf. 
Michel 4009 (beginning of iii/B.c.) τοὺς μὲν πλείστους 
τῶν διαφερομένων avalkpivapjevor πολλάκις ἐφ᾽ αὑτοὺς διέ- 
λυον συμφίερόντως], Sy// 5124 5 (ii/B.c.) ἀνακρινάντω δὲ καὶ 
το[ὺ]ς μάρτυρας. The substantive (g.v.) is found in the 
previous line of the latter inscription. 


See on ἀνακρίνω. In OG/S 374 (i/B.c.), which com- 
memorates a certain Papias, a privy councillor and chief 
physician of Mithradates Eupator, King of Pontus. we find 
him described as τεταγμένον δὲ Kal ἐπὶ τῶν ἀνακρίσεων. 
Dittenberger gives reasons for thinking that “‘non tam 
iudicem quam inquisitorem hoc significat,” one who pre- 
sided over the examination of men suspected of conspiracy : 
cf. Sy// 356°8 (B.c. 6), a rescript of Augustus, who says 
πέπονφα δὲ ὑμεῖν kal α[ὐτ]ὺς τὰς ἀνακρίσεις, the Arecis of a 
preliminary inquiry, cf. also Prezsigke 1568 ᾿Α. τὸν συγγενῆ 
καὶ κτλ. καὶ ἐπιστράτηγον καὶ πρὸς ταῖς ἀνακρίσεσι (reign 
of Euergetes II.). The noun occurs again in P Tebt I. 
861 (late ii/B.c.), where a man is described as ὁ πρὸς τα[ῖς 
ἀἹνακρίσεσει. In P Lips I. 415 (A.D. 293) the word follows 
ἀπογραφή, and Mitteis notes that it occurs in P Lond 251 
(A.D. 337-50) (=II. p. 317) likewise in connexion with the 
purchase of a slave: ‘‘since ἀνάκρισις means a preliminary 
examination (Voruntersuchung), one thinks of a trial made 
before the purchase of the slave.” Cf. the use of the word 
in Ac 2578. 


P Par 47 (ὦ. B.c. 153) (= Selections, p. 23), a very 
grandiloquent but ill-spelt letter, will illustrate Lk 21°: 
οὐκ ἔστι ἀνακύψα (/. -κύψαι) πόποτε ἐν τῇ Τρικομίαι ὑπὸ 
τῆς αἰσχύνης, ‘it is not possible ever to look up again in 
Tricomia for very shame.” It appears also in P Ryl I. 
28% (iv/A.D.), on omens drawn from twitching—one sort 
portends that the man ‘‘ will suffer loss fora time and will 
emerge again from his troubles” (Ed.—ék τῶν κακῶν 


Syll 329% (i/B.c.) ἀναλαβόντας τὰ ὅπλα, ‘taking up,” 
literally. P Tebt II. 2964 15 (a.p. 123) has the verb twice 
= ‘‘receive.” OG/S 383° (see under ἀνάλημψις) κόσμον 
Περσικῆς ἐσθῆτος ἀϊν]αλαμβάνων, uses it for the first in- 
vestiture (with the sacred thread of Parsism, presumably : 
cf. on this inscr. the Hibbert Lectures, 1912, pp. 106-8). 
PSI 74° (iii/A.D.) ἀξιῷ ἀναλαβόντας παρ᾽ ἐμοῦ τὴν 
ὁμολογίαν ὑπογεγραμμένην. In P Lille I. 14° (B.c. 243-2) 
ἀνάλαβε δ᾽ [οὖν αἸὐτοῦ τὸν κλῆρον els τὸ βασιλικόν, and P 
Oxy III. 471% (ii/A.p.) τὴν οὐσίαν αὐτοῦ... ἀναλημ- 
φθῆναι (pw erased) κελεύεις, the verb has the meaning “‘ con- 
fiscate”: so Perg I. 249% (af. Schweizer Δ ἐγ p. 203). 
In P Oxy VI. 899%? (A.D. 200) ᾧ ἀνείλημπται ἐπιστολὴ 
τοῦ κρα[τίστου] δι[ο]ικητοῦ, the editors translate ‘‘to which 
is joined a letter of his highness the dicecetes,” and quote 
τὸ. 985 and BGU 1. 168% τοῖς ὑπομνήμασι ἀνελήμφθη. 
The participle τὰ ἀνειλημμένα = ““ obligations” is found 
P Oxy IV. 70775. 85 (c. A Ὁ. 136). Cf. the phrase ἔρανον ἀ., 
in BGU IV. 1165%* (B.c. 19), dr ἀνίληφαν [κατὰ συν]γραφὴν 


ἐράνῳι. P Lond οος (ii/A.D.) (=IIT. p. 219) has ἀναλημπ- 
θῆναι and the noun ἀναλήμπτες in a very illiterate docu- 
ment. ‘‘ Repeat,” of an advocate setting forth his case, is 
the meaning in P Tor I. 1%? (B.c. 116) (= Chrest. 11. 
p- 36) ἀναλαβὼν ἐξ ὧν παρέκειτο ὁ “Epplas ‘‘ repetens quae 
Hermias protulit” (Peyron). The Biblical use of ‘‘take 
up” for an ascension into heaven is naturally not paralleled 
in our sources: for exx. in Jewish writings see Charles's 
note on Afoc. of Baruch, p. 73. 

avddn pis. 

P Tebt 11. 296! (A.p. 123) is the receipt for money paid 
for a priestly office, ἐξ ἀναλ(ήψεως) ἐν αὐτῷ ‘‘as payable by 
himself” (Edd.): cf. reference to this document under the 
verb. It means ‘‘entertainment” (sc. one form of ‘‘ recep- 
tion”) in Sy/Z 4186 (iii/A.pD.), ἀναγκάζουσιν ἡμᾶς ξενίας 
αὐτοῖς παρέχειν Kal ἕτερα πλεῖστα εἰς ἀνάλημψιν αὐτῶν 
ἄνευ ἀργυρίου χορηγεῖν. P Oxy VI. 9861. (early ii/a.D.) 
αὐλὴ δηλ(ωθεῖσα) ἐπικεκρατῆσθαι πρὸ τῆς ἀναλήμψεως ὑπὸ 
Πετεσούχου. OG/S 383!°—the inscription of Antiochus 
I. of Commagene (i/B.c.)—tmtp ἀναλήψεως διαδήματος, his 
coronation: see also the verb above. The substantive 
follows the verb’s wide range of meaning, which we have 
only partially illustrated, as needless for the NT. Dr Charles 
(Δ δ. above) quotes Ryle and James as claiming Pss. So/. 4° 
to be the earliest instance of its use (as in Lk 951) for 
‘ascension ” into heaven. 


P Flor II. 2124 (a.p. 254) εἰς τοσαύτην ἀτυχίαν ἦλθες 
τοσαῦτα λήμματα ἀναλίσκων ὡς μὴ ἔχειν σε ἀρτά[β]ην μίαν 
λωτίνου. P Eleph 5% οἴνου ἀνηλώθησαν κ(εραμία) fry, Ρ 
Par 4015 (B.c. 164-58) μηδὲ ἀναλίσκειν χαλκοῦς, etc. 
Notice ἀναλουμένων in the same sense, P Lond 1177}} 
(B.c. 113) (=III. p. 181). P Grenf II. 77%® (iii/iv a.p.) 
(= Selections, p. 121) φροντίσατε οὖν τὰ ἀναλωθέντα ἕτοι- 
μάσαι, ‘see to it therefore that you furnish the sums ex- 
pended.” P Oxy T. 587° (A.D. 288) τὰ μάταια ἀναλώματα 
πία]ύσεται, ‘‘ useless expense will be stopped,” with reference 
to a proposed reduction in the number of treasury officials. 
The noun ἀνάλωμα (often ἀνήλωμα), which does not happen 
to occur in NT, is exceedingly common. The verb is an 
early compound of Fadtokw, whose simplex survives in the 
passive ἁλίσκομαι : the ἃ is due to contraction of -aFa- after 
The meaning destroy is therefore parallel 

loss of digamma. 
with dvatpéw. 


A iii/a.D. citation may be made from P Flor I. 50%! κατὰ 
τὸ] ἥμισυ Kat ἀναλογίαν τῶν φοινίκων (once πρὸς a.), 
“proportionately.” The verb is found in P Amh II. 64:5 
(A.D. 107) μὴ avadoyotvras τὴν ἐ[π]ιμέλειαν, which the 
editors translate “‘incapable of doing their duties.” For 
adjective see P Amh 11. 85!7f+ (a.p. 78) παραδεχθήσεται 
ἡμῖν- ἀπὸ τοῦ προκειμένου φόρου κατὰ τὸ ἀνάλογον, “a 
proportionate allowance shall be made to us from the afore- 
said rent” (Edd.) : so in Sy// 329%! (B.c. 86), and (without 
τὸ) P Ryl II. 997 (iii/a.p.). Cf. Sy/7 3717? (i/a.D) ἀνάλογον 
πεποίηται τὴν ἐπιδημίαν τῇ . . σεμνότητι. It is open to 
us to write τὸ ἀνὰ λόγον (Aristotle, etc.), as the editors 
do in P Ryl II. 154%? (A.D. 66) κατὰ τὸ a. A. τ[ῶν μ]ηνῶν. 

: : 

The adjective is only in the first stages of evolution: see LS. 
The adverb is found in the modern sense ‘‘ analogously” in 
Wisd 13°. 

ἀναλογίζομαι. ͵ 

P Yor I. 1 τ. 39 (B.c. 116) (= Chrest. II. p. 35) καὶ ἔφη, 
ἀναλογιζομένων τῶν χρόνων, ἀπὸ μὲν τοῦ ᾿Εἰπιφάνους ἐτῶν 
κὃ κτλ., ‘told off,” ‘reckoned up.” This arithmetical sense 

cf. λόγος = ‘‘a/c”’—is the oldest for the whole group, and 
it would seem that the metaphor was conscious even when 
the use was widened. So in Heb 123 ἀναλογίσασθε immedi- 
ately follows the reference to the ‘‘ balancing,” as it were, 
of the προκειμένη χαρά against the tremendous cost. Cf. 
the simplex in Phil 48, where we are bidden to “count 
over” our spiritual treasure. 


For the intransitive meaning ‘‘depart” (Polybius and 
later), cf. P Tor I. 14-18 (8.6. 116) (= Chest. IL. p. 32) ἐγὼ 
δὲ ἐφ᾽ ἱκανὰς ἡμέρας καταφθαρεὶς ἠναγκάσθην, τῶν ἀνθρώπων 
μὴ ἐρχομένων εἰς τὰς χεῖρας, ἀναλῦσαι εἰς τὸ τεταγμένον, 
‘‘demandatam mihi stationem repetere” (Peyron, and so 
Mitteis). Closely parallel is the contemporary P Par 1555 
(#.c. 120) οἰομένων ἐφ᾽ ἱκανὸν χρόνον καταφθαρέντα pe 
ἐντεῦθεν ἀναλύσειν. So is, 2239 (ii/B.c.) ἀποσυλήσας ἡμᾶς 
ἀνέλυσε, P Lond 4417 (B.c. 161) (= I. p. 34) μετὰ κραυγῆς 
τε διαστελλομένου μεθ᾽ ἡσυχίας ἀναλύειν. In a Ptolemaic 
papyrus published by Grenfell-Hunt in Archiv i. p. 59 ff. we 
find λύσαντες ἐκχρήματα θ ἀνέλυσαν, where the editors note 
that ἀνέλυσαν may = ‘they returned” (cf. Lk 1238) or may 
refer to the preceding βασιλικὸν χῶμα, ‘they destroyed it.” 
For the meaning ‘‘die” Nageli, p. 34, cites the memorial 
inscription /GSZ 1794? (Rom.) kal πῶς μοι βεβίωται καὶ πῶς 
ἀνέλυσα μαθήσ(ῃ), cf 2. 159 ἀναλύειν τὸν βίον. 


For 4.=‘‘ sinless,” as in Jn 87, cf. Musonius, p. 618, where 
it is laid down—pnSéva ἀπαιτεῖσθαι εἶναι ἀναμάρτητον, 
ὅστις ἀρετὴν μὴ ἐξέμαθεν, ἐπείπερ ἀρετὴ μόνη ποιεῖ μὴ 
ἁμαρτάνειν ἐν βίῳ. See also Aristeas 252 (25). 


occurs several times in the Alexandrian papyri of the reign 
of Augustus, collected in BGU IV. Thus 1151°° (B.c. 13) 
μὴ ἀναμείναντας Tov μεμερισμί(ένον) αὐτοῖς χρό(νον) μέχρι 
τοῦ ἐκτῖσαι TO ὅλον κεφάλ(αιον), and in almost the same 
terms 1053! 33 (zd.), 1055 (2d.), 1156'® (B.c. 15), 116754 
(B.c. 12), of debtors who are to pay up without *‘ waiting 
for’ the time allowed them. The word is MGr. 


Syll 25635 (ii/B.C.) ἀναμιμ]νησκόμενοι πατρίων. Ρ Grenf 
I. 14-2 (ii/B.c.—literary) ὀδύνη με ἔχει ὅταν ἀναμνησθῶ ὡς 
κτὰ.: so also in }™ μαίνομ᾽ ὅταν ἀναμ[νη]σθῶμ᾽ εἰ μονο- 
κοιτήσω --ἰογ the form see Mayser G7. p. 383. 


In the Magnesian ἴπβου. Sy// 920}95 (ii/B.C.), unfortunately 
in this part exceedingly imperfect, we have . . .](o)las καὶ 
μέχρι τοῦ συστάντος ἐν Κρήτῃ πολέμου, ὧν ἀνά(μνησ)ιν 

.] (ἐπ)οι(οῦν)το [. . . 

> , 
36 αναπτϑαω 


occurs very frequently in Sy// and OG/S: its record as an 
Attic word is noted by Schlageter, p. 25. Nearest to 
Eph 455 is Sy// 7228 (later than B.C. 167—-from Cnosus, in 
dialect) ὁμοίως δὲ kal τὰν εὔνοιαν dv ἔχει πορτὶ (7. 6. πρὸς) 
τὰν πόλιν ἀνανεώμενος αὐτὼς (1. αὐτός Ed.) τὰν προγονικὰν 
ἀρετὰν δι᾽ ἐγγράφω ἐπ[έδειξ]ε. So 2. 481° (iii/ii B.c.) τά 
τε ἐξ ἀρχῆ[-ς] οἰκεῖα ὑπάρχοντα Σελευκεῦσι]ν ἐκ προγόνων 
ἀνε[νε]ώσατο, 7. 654°! (? ii/B.c.) διότι ἁ πόλις τῶν 
“Ἑρμιονέων ἀνανεοῦταί τε τὰν συγγένειαν καὶ φιλίαν κτλ., 
OGTS 90*® (Rosetta ξίοπε,Β. 6. 196) προσπυνθανόμενός τε τὰ 
τῶν ἱ[εἸρῶν τιμιώτατα ἀνανεοῦτο ἐπὶ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ βασιλείας 
ὡς καθήκει. The substantive may be quoted from papyri. 
Thus P Oxy II. 2747° (A.p. 89-97) Σαραπίων τέτακται 
Té[Aos] ἀνανεώ[σ]εως τῆς προκειμένης ὑποθήκης, the charge 
for a renewal of a mortgage, P Strass I. 527 (A.D. 151) μὴ 
προσδεομένοις ἀνανε[ώ]σεως, and similarly P Flor I. 1° 
(A.D. 153), and 26. 8111} (a.p. 103): cf. also P Magd 
317, 12 (B.c. 217). The word seems to be confined to legal 


So spelt in OG/S 335.58 (Pergamon, ii/i B.c.), with the 
meaning ‘‘ beyond possibility of dispute,” as in Ac 19%. 
Grimm notes that the word begins in Polybius, where the 
active sense of Ac 10? is also paralleled: so in xxiii. 8", 
where Schweighauser renders ‘* summo cunctorum consensu.” 

P Strass I. 58 (a.p. 262), ἀνάξια [τ]ῆς ὑπὸ σοῦ πᾶσιν 
ἡμῖν πρυτανευομένης εἰρήϊν]ης ὁ πρεσβύτης παθών. Cf. also 
Aristeas 217 ἠρώτα δέ, πῶς ἂν μηδὲν ἀνάξιον ἑαυτῶν 
πράσσοιμεν. The word survives in MGr = “" incapable.” 


In P Flor I. 5785 (A.p. 223--5) a septuagenarian pleads 
for “‘relief” (&vamavoews) from public duties (λειτουργίαι) ; 
χρόϊν]ον ἀνα[παύσε]ως accorded to veterans μετὰ τ[ὴν 
ἀπόλυσιν from military service. As will be seen from the 
record of the verb below, the essential idea is that of a 
respite, or /emporary rest as a preparation for future toil, 
which Lightfoot (on Philem?) finds in ἀναπαύω. This 
brings out all the better the differentia of κατάπαυσις in 
Heb 4, the Sabbath followed by no weekday. 


The verb is a technical term of agriculture in P Tebt I. 
105°8 (B.C. 103), to rest land by sowing light crops upon it. 
Cf P Lond 31415? (a.p. 149) (=II. p. 189 f.), σπείρων . . . 
ἀρ[οὐρ]ας δύο ἀπὸ νότου ἀναπαύμεσι γέϊνεϊ σι, P Amh II. 
gr? (A.D. 159) γένεσι ἀναπαύματος, ““ with light crops” 
(Edd.), and the full discussion by Wilcken Avc/zz i. p. 157 f- 
Land thus rested was ἐν ἀναπαύματι, P Tebt I. 7238% 
(B.c. 114-3), P Lond 12238 (a.p. 121) (=TIII. p. 139), or 
could be called ἀνάπαυμα itself, as P Fay 112* (A.D. 99) 
[ra] ἀναπαύματα ὑπόσχεισον, “‘hoe the fallows” (Edd.). 
A wider use may be seen in P Oxy VIII. 1121! (a.p. 295), 
with the “temporary” connotation gone: ταύτης mpd 
ὀλίγων τούτων ἡμερῶν Tov βίον ἀναπαυσαμένης ἀδιαθέτου, 
κα few days ago she died intestate” (Edd.) So in 

ἀναπείθω 37 

Preisigke 1205, upon a mummy, ἐν ᾿Αλεξανδρείᾳ ἀναπαυσά- 
μενος, and 74. 609, 611, two ‘‘R.I.P.” Christian gravestones 
—x(uptje, ἀνάπα[υ]σον [? τὴν ψυχὴν τοῦ δούλου σου, or the 
like], followed by date of death, and’ Αθ(α)νασία, ἀναπα[ὑ]ον. 
The date of these instances saves us from the necessity of 
reconsidering Lightfoot’s definition for NT times. 


This verb = ‘‘ persuadendo excitare, sollicitare,” which in 
the NT is found only in Ac 1813, is well illustrated by P 
Magd 1457: (B.c. 221) where a father lodges a complaint 
against a courtesan who had induced his son to sign a bill in 
her favour for 1000 drachmas—tapactyoapévyn yap τινας 
[τῶν παρ᾽] αὐτῆς, ἀνέπεισεν τὸν υἱόν μου... συγγράψασθαι 
The sense of 


αὐτῆι κτλ. 
evil persuasion equally underlies the use in ΤᾺΝ Jer 36 
(29)8, 1 Macc 14% In P Ryl II. 1148 (c. a.m. 280) the 
nuance is weaker, but survives in the complaining tone of 
the aggrieved widow who writes Συρίων . .. ἀναπίσας 
τὸν ἄνίδρα Γανίδα ὀνό]ματι ποιμένιν αὐτοῦ τὰ πρόβατα, 
“persuaded my husband G. to pasture his flock ” (Edd.). 


To Deissmann’s examples of this word (SS p. 229) = 
“‘remittere,” ‘to send up to a higher authority,” as in 
Lk 237, Ac 2521, add P Hib I. 571 (B.c. 247), Sy// 1775410" 
(end of iii/B.c.), OGZS 194% (i/p.c.), 76. 329°! (ii/B.c.). 
Priene 11147 (i/B.c.) περὶ ὧν ὁ στρατηγὸς Λεύκιος Λε[υκίλιος 
ἔγραψεν] καὶ ἀνέπεμψεν [πρὸς τὴν σ]ύγκλητον, P Tebt I. 77 
(B.C. 114), τό. II. 287° (A.D. 161-9) ἐνέτυχον τῷ ἡγεμόνι καὶ 
ἀνέπεμψεν αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ Κρασσὸν τὸν κράτιστον [ἐπιστράτη- 
Ὑ]ον, ‘‘they appealed to the prefect, who referred them to his 
highness the epistrategus Crassus” (Edd.), zd. 594 (iii/a.p ) 
a warrant for arrest, a/. Similarly the phrase ἐξ ἀναπομπῆς 
is used of the ‘‘ delegation” of a case from one authority to 
another, e. g. BGU I. 19? (a.D. 135), CPR 18? (A.D. 124) : 
see further drvchzzv iii. p. 74. For the alternative meaning 
“to send back” (Lk 2315, Philem™). Cf. P Par 137? 
(B.C. 157) οὐκ ἀναπέμψαντες τὴν φερνήν, P Oxy VII. 
1032°° (A.D. 162) ἀνέπεμψεν kal τοῦτο ἐπί σε. 


For the later meaning ‘‘ lie down, recline,” of which 
there is no instance in Attic Greek (Rutherford VP p. 294), 
see P Par 514 (B.c. 160) (= Selections p. 19), ἀναπίπτο- 
μαι ἐπ᾽ ἄχυρον . . . ἀναπίπτει καὶ αὐτός. (On the irregular 
voice, see Proveg. p. 159). Cf. LXX Gen 495 ἀναπεσὼν 
ἐκοιμήθης ὡς λέων : see Anz Swbsidia, p. 301 f. 

3) ςς 


OGIS 56% (n.c. 238) ὅπως ἅπαντες εἰδῶσιν διότι τὸ 
ἐνλεῖπον πρότερον (as to the calendar) διωρθῶσθαι καὶ 
ἀναπεπληρῶσθαι συμβέβηκεν διὰ τῶν Εἰὐεργετῶν θεῶν : the 
first word describes correction, the second zxtercalatzon. On 
P Par 627. (ii/B.c.) τοῖς 8 ἀναπληρώσουσιν τὰς ὠνὰς δο- 
θήσεται ὀψώνια, ἐάνπερ ἐκπληρώσουσιν κτλ., “those who 
complete the contracts,” see Wilcken Os¢r. i. p. 532f., who 
explains the ὀψώνια (against Grenfell) as a commission of 
10%. The noun occurs in P Lond 890 (Β. c. 6) (=III. p. 168) 
εἰς ἀναπλήρωσιν τιμῆς, and the verb in Sy// 510% (ii/B.C.) 
τὸ γενόμενον διάπτωμα ἀναπληρούτωσαν : cf. P Petr III. 


54 (a) (3)"} (Vhiladelphus) ἀναπληρούτωσα[ν], but with a 
hiatus both before and after. In P Lille I. 8514 (iii/B.c.) a 
petitioner demands the restoration of certain cattle that had 
been taken from him, that he may ‘‘make up” his rent— 
ὅϊπως δύνωμαι ἀναπληροῦν τὰ ἐ[κ]φόρια τῆς γῆς. P Giss I. 
48% (A.D. 203) tv’ εἰδῆτε καὶ ἕκαστος τὰ ἴδια μέρη ἀνα- 
πληρώσει seems from the context to have the same meaning 
(‘‘pay”’), though a more general sense is also possible. 
The same formula is found in Cfvest. I. 528 (A.D. 194). 
The meaning “‘ fulfil” may be seen in P Oxy VIII. 1 
(A.D. 295) οὐκ ἐπαυσάμην τὰ πρέποντα γείνεσθαι ὑπὸ τέκνων 
γονεῦσι ἀναπληροῦσα. 



P Giss I. 38 (meant to be literary—A.p. 117) τοιγαροῦν 
θύοντες τὰς ἑστίας ἀνάπτωμεν. P Leid W*Y-% (occult) 
ἀνάψας TH βομών (7. τὸν βωμόν). (MGr ἀνάφτω.) 


P Tebt I. 2830 (c. B.c. 114) ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν] τούτων ἀνασιόμενοι 
εὐμαρεστέρ[α]ν ἀσχολί[αν], ‘may be thereby incited to 
make easier for us the performance of our duty” (Edd.), 
z.¢. to the Government—a curious contrast to the normal 
connotation of the verb, as in Mk 15", Lk 23°. For the 
literal meaning see Sy// 789%° (iv/B.c.) ὁ 8 ἔπ[ι]σ[τ]ά[τη]ς 
[avacleloas τὴ]ν ὑδρίαν τὴν χαλκῆν ἑλκέτω τὸν καττ[()- 
τίεϊρον ἑκάτερον ἐμ. μέρει. 


P Oxy IV. 745° (c. A.p. 1) p[\]... πάλιν ἑατοὺς ἀνα- 
σκευάζωμε[ν] μὴ οὔσης χρήας, ‘and we go bankrupt again 
without any necessity” (Edd.). This really involves the 
meaning ‘‘subvert” found in Ac 15*4, drawn from the 
military sense, ‘‘to plunder,’ Vettius 
Valens has the word twice: p. 21279, ἐὰν δόξῃ τις ἐν αὐταῖς 
ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκπλοκήν τινα πεποιηκέναι πράγματός τινος, 
ἀνασκευασθήσεται καὶ ἐπιτάραχον γενήσεται καὶ ἐπιζήμιον 
ἢ εὐκαθαίρετον καὶ προσκοπτικόν, and 2833 τῷ δὲ AO ἔτει 

“dismantle ” a town. 

τοῦ πράγματος ἀνασκευασθέντος διὰ τὴν προύπάρχουσαν 
ἔχθραν εἰς νῆσον κατεδικάσθη. Kroll (Index s.v.) makes it 
here “τ. τ. iudiciorum,” the ‘‘ reversal” of a judgement 
presumably. The noun (p. 22877) ἀνασκευασμοὺς τηκτῶν 
πραγμάτων does not look technical—‘‘ upset’? would seem 
to represent it, as in the phrase ἀνασκευαὶ πραγμάτων (four 



In P Tebt II. 420% (ili/A.p.) ἀνασπασθῇ is used with 
regard to the ‘‘ pulling up” (?) of barley, with which the 
editors compare BGU IIT. 10418 (ii/A.p.) ἔτι δὲ καὶ ἀνεσπά- 
σθη σον ἡ κριθὴ ἀρτ[ά]β[αι] τε : we may add P Flor II. 
235° (A.D. 266) ἀνασπῶντι πυρόν. 


The verb is frequent in inscriptions with the sense ‘‘ erec- 
tion” of amonument, see Sy// 3248, 34248 (both i/B.c.), C. and 
8. ii. p. 637 (A.D. 70-80), 7A/Ae iii. 478, 479, 481 (all ii/a.p.), 
Magn 179% *, το 325, and for the verb Sy// 65674, 6864 (both 
ii/A.b.), αἱ. So still in A.p. 215, BGU I. 362 ¥ii- (=Chrest. 
I. p. 128) ὑπὲρ avalotacew|s the ““ 
of Severus, and probably 24. 1V. 10288 (ii/a D.) ὁλκῆς py lov 


setting up” of a statue 


ὃ πρὸς ἀϊνά]στασιν [. . ., but the context is not clear. The 
narrative of Ac 17 (see ν. **) prepares us for the total 
novelty of the meaning ‘‘resurrection”: it was a perfectly 
natural use of the word, but the idea itself was new. We 
find this meaning in C. and B. no. 232 (= Cagnat IV. 743, 
Alexander Severus), where an Epicurean Jew of Eumeneia 
in Phrygia begins to tell us what he thought of o]t δὴ 
δ[είλγαιοι πάντ[ες] εἰς d[valoraciw|{ . . . (βλέποντες or the 
like): see Ramsay’s interesting notes. 


“Nowhere in profane authors,” says Grinim. Its place 
in the vernacular is proved, however, with singular decisive- 
ness by a private letter almost contemporary with the Biblical 
citations. BGU IV. 10792 (a.p. 41) (= Selections, p. 40), 
μὴ ἵνα ἀναστατώσῃς ἡμᾶς, ‘do not drive us out,’ and later 
by the boy's letter, P Oxy I. 119! (ii/iii A.D.) (= Selections, 
p. 103) ἀναστατοῖ pe " dppov (1. dpov) αὐτόν, ‘he quite up- 
sets me—off with him”: cf. also P Strass I. 51° (a.p. 262) 
ἀν[άσήτατον τὸν πρί εἸἰσβύτην π[ε]ποίηντα[ι]7--α reversion 
to the classical locution. 



The old meaning ‘‘reverti” may be seen in P Tebt I. 2535 
(B.C. 117) ἀνεστραμμένῳς ϑαινεκθέντες (1 Sievex-), “* per- 
versely.” Deissmann (BS pp. 88, 194) has shown that for 
the meaning ‘‘behave,” which Grimm compared with the 
moral signification of 2) ‘‘walk,” it is unnecessary to 
postulate Semitic influence. As his examples are all from 
Pergamon, we may add others to show that it was no local 
peculiarity. OG/S 48° (iii/B.c.) ὁρῶντές τινας τῶν πολιτῶν 
[μ]ὴ ὀρθῶς ἀνα[στρ]εἰ φ]ομένους kal θόρυβον οὐ τὸν τυχόντα 
παρ[έχ]οντας is from Egypt, and Sy// 521° (B.c. 100) τοῖς 
καλῶς kal εὐσεβῶς ἀναστραφεῖσιν is from Athens. In 782 
xxvii. ii. p. 136 Hatch cites the following instances from 
the Proceedings of the American School of Classical Studies 
at Athens, iii. 73 (Dulgerler, ancient Artanada, in Cilicia, 
Imperial period) ἁγνῶς ἀναστραφέντα, iii. 423 (Kara Baulo 
in Pisidia, probaby Imperial) ἀναστραφέντας. . . μεγαλο- 
πρεπῶς kal εὐσχημόνως. Cf. also Prveve 108%" (after B.C. 
129) τῆι πόλε(ι) συμφερόντως ἀνεστράφη, 10. 115° (i/B.C.) 
ἀναστρεφόμενος ἐν πᾶσιν φιλανθρώπως). Ῥ Ambh II. 1311} 
(early ii/A.D.) has ἀ. περί in the sense ‘‘attend to”: cf. P 
Gen I. 68 (A.D. 146), ἀναστρ[αἸφέντος μου περὶ] τὴν τούτων 
ἀπαίτησιν. Τ Fay 127 (c. B.C. 103) τῶν. .. οὐ ἀπὸ τοῦ 
βελτίστου ἀναστρεφομένων, ““ being of the less reputable 
class” (Edd.). In P Oxy II. 237 τ}. 33 (a.p. 186) μεταπαθῶς 
ἀναστραφ[έν]τα is translated ‘‘ being sympathetically dis- 
posed,” 70. VI. 907!” (A.D. 276) πρεπόντως περὶ τὴν συμ- 
βίωσιν ἀναστραφείσῃ is ‘‘who has conducted herself be- 
comingly in our married life’ (Edd.), and 74. 1.71 11. 12. (a.p. 
303) μὴ ὀρθῶς ἀναατραφέντες is ‘behaved dishonestly,” 
P Lond 3581" (c. A.D. 150) (=II. p. 172) αὐθάδως ἀνα- 
στραφέντων. Instances can be multiplied. Vettius Valens 
(see Kroll’s Index) has the verb in this sense in the active, as 
well as in the middle. 


The somewhat formal use of ἀ,, with the meaning ‘‘he- 
haviour, conduct,” is not balanced by occurrences in colloquial 
papyri: an edict of Caracalla (A.D. 215) has the word—&tu τε 

> , 

καὶ ζω[ὴ] δεικνύει ἐναντία ἔθη ἀπὸ ἀναστροφῆς [πο]λειτικῆς 
εἶναι ἀγροίκους ΑΤΓἰ]γυπτίους (P Giss I. «οἱ! 28), Bp E. L. 
Hicks’s pioneer paper in CA’ i. (1887), p. 6, drew attention 
to the inscriptional use of the term: he noted the frequency 
of its association with words like πάροικοι and παρεπίδημοι, 
a curious parallel tor Pet 24" Kalker Quaest., p. 301 says 
‘“apud Polybium primum accipit notionem se gerendz,” quot- 
ing iv. 821 κατὰ τ. λοιπὴν a. τεθαυμασμένος, and referring to 
three inscrr. with a, ποιεῖσθαι. This last phrase however 
occurs in five Doric inscrr. of ii/B.c., to look no further than 
Syll (31424, 65.4.5, 663°, 7184, 9277), as well as in the Attic 
inscr. cited by Kalker (14) (C7A 477°) ; so that we may 
safely assume that the locution had become widely current in 
the Kow7 before Polybius used it. Apart from 4. ποιεῖσθαι 
as a periphrasis for ἀναστρέφεσθαι, we can quote Sy// 491° 
κατά Te τὰν ἐμπειρίαν καὶ τὰν ἄλλαν ἀνα[σ]τροφάν, and 66314 
ἀ. ἔχειν (as in 1 Pet 11)—both 8.6. The Index to OG/S 
has ‘‘avarrpody—fassim.”” In view of this frequency, and 
the plentiful record of ἀναστρέφεσθαι, the absence of the 
noun from papyri is rather marked. It may only mean that 
it was not current in Egypt. 


The only passage from profane literature which has as yet 
been cited for this verb, Plut. J/ora/. 968 cb, where an 
elephant is described as ‘‘ rehearsing” by moonlight certain 
tricks it had been taught (πρὸς τὴν σελήνην ἀναταττόμενος 
τὰ μαθήματα καὶ μελετῶν), makes it probable that it is to be 
understood = ‘‘ bring together,” ‘‘ repeat from memory” in 
Lk τὶ: see Blass Phzlology of the Gospels, p. 14 ff., and 
cf. ExpT xviii. p. 396. In OG/S 213% (iv/iii. B.c.) the 
hitherto unknown substantive ἀνατάκται is found as the 
designation of certain magistrates at Miletus, whom Ditten- 
berger gathers to have been charged with disbursements to 
the authorities for their several public works. 


Michel 466" (iii/B.c.) ἅμα τῶι ἡλίωι [ἀν]ατέλλοντι, “at 
daybreak.” It is curious that the astrologer Vettius Valens 
has no instance of the verb, though he uses its derivatives 
freely. It survives in MGr. The cpd ἐπανατέλλω occurs 
in some would-be verse on the wall of a sepulchral vault at 
Ramleh, age of the Antonines: Prersigke 2134— 

᾿Αστὴρ οὐράνιος ὁ ἐπὶ ἀστέρι ἐπανατέλλων 


Note the perfect active ἀνατέθηκα in Sy// 604! (Per- 
gamon, end of iii/B.c.). This is a later example of what is 
now known to be the classical form of the perfect of τίθημι, 
which only in the Hellenistic age was replaced by τέθεικα. 
The late sense ‘‘impart,” “communicate,” with a view to 
consultation, found in the two NT occurrences of the word 
(Ac 2514, Gal 2?; cf. 2 Macc 3%) seems to appear in P Par 
6975 (A.D. 233) ἀναθέμενοι τὸ πρᾶγμα ἀκ[έραιον]. In 
P Strass I. 417 (A.D. 250) ὥστε οὐκ ἂν ἔχοι ἀναθέσθαι τὴν 


Slkn[v εἰς ἑτέραν ἡμέραν] the verb = “postpone.” The 
active = “‘ dedicate’’ occurs everywhere. 

For the use of the plural to denote ‘‘the east,” found 
unambiguously in Mt 2? (cf. 811, 2427, Lk 1329), we can 

’ , 

quote the new parchment from Media, presumably the 
home of these Magi, P Said Khan 2%8 (p.c. 22), where 
we read ὅρια καὶ γειτνίαι ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνατολῶν. Cf. also the 
Alexandrian sundial inscription in Preisigke 3583 (iii/B.c.) 
περιφερειῶν τῶν ἐφε[ξ]ῆς τῶν διατεινουσῶν ἀπ᾽ ἀνατολῶν 
ἐπὶ δύσεις. For the same phrase without the ellipsis, as 
in Rev 72 A ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν ἡλίου, cf. OG/S 225% (iii/B.c.) 
ἀπὸ ἡλίου ἀνατολῶν. For the singular in the same sense 
see OG/S 199% (i/A.D.), where ἀπὸ ἀνατολῆς is opposed to 
ἀπὸ δύσεως, and Sy// 740% (A.D. 212) ᾧ γείτον[εἸς [ἀπ]ὸ 
μὲν ἀνατολῆς [ot] ᾿Εἰπαφρᾶ κληρ[όνομοι]. The more literal 
sense—which seems probable in Mt 25. 3, from the otherwise 
motiveless substitution of sing. for plural—appears in the 
calendar of P Hib I. 27% (B.c. 301-240) πρὸς τὰς δόσεις 
(1. δύσεις) Kal ἀ[να]τολὰς τῶν ἄστρω[ν], and in P Tebt 
II. 276% (ii/iii A.D.) [ἐν τῇ ἑ]ῴᾳ ἀνατολῇ, the heliacal rising 
of Venus. Time, instead of point of compass, is indicated 
in P Oxy IV. 725” (A.D. 183) ἀπὸ ἀν[ατολῆς] ἡλίου] μέχρι 
δύσεως, P Ryl I. 2758 (astronomical—iii/A.pD.) pera ἃ ὥραν 
ἔγγιστα τῆς τοῦ (ἡλίου) ἀνα[το]λῆς, “1 hr. approximately 
after sunrise” (Ed.). Similarly in BGU IV. 102115 (iii/a.p.) 
where, in apprenticing a slave to a hairdresser for instruc- 
tions, his master undertakes to produce him daily ἀπὸ 
ἀνατολῆς ἡλίου μέχρι δύσεως τρεφόμενον καὶ ἱμ[α]τιζόμενον. 
A nearly identical phrase in the “shorter conclusion” of 
Mark presumably has the other meaning—atrds ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς 
ἀπὸ ἀνατολῆς καὶ ἄχρι δύσεως ἐξαπέστειλεν δι᾿ αὐτῶν τὸ 
ἱερὸν καὶ ἄφθαρτον κήρυγμα τῆς αἰωνίου σωτηρίας. In 
MGr it means either ‘‘east” or ‘* Asia Minor.” 


With Tit 1 οἵτινες ὅλους οἴκους ἀνατρέπουσιν διδά- 
σκοντες ἃ μὴ δεῖ αἰσχροῦ κέρδους χάριν, we may compare 
P Par 63%*-% (ii/B.C.) τῆς πατρικῆς οἰκίας... ἔτι ἔνπροσθεν 
ἄρδην [ἀ]νατετραμμένης δι ἀσζω]τίας. The literal meaning 
is found in P Oxy I. 693 (A.D. 190) φέρουσαν εἰς δημοσίαν 
ῥύμην ἀνατρέψαντας, “they broke down (a door) leading 
into the public street,” and Sy// 8919 (ii/A.D.) εἰς γῆν ava- 
τρέψει : the inscription quotes the LXX, but is pagan. For 
the subst. see P Oxy VI. 902! (c. A.D. 465) els τελείαν 
yap ἀνατροπὴν... περιέστην, “I have been reduced to 
complete ruin”’ (Edd.). 


The verb occurs in the interesting Christian letter, P Oxy 
VI. 939% (iv/A.D.) θεοῦ γνῶσις ἀνεφάνη ἅπασιν ἡμῖν : cf. 
Lk τοῦ παραχρῆμα μέλλει ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ ἀναφαί- 
νεσθαι. From iii/A.D. comes the defixio in Wiinsch 4.2, 
no. 4°", Tov μονογενῆ, Tov ἐξ αὑτοῦ ἀναφανέντα, of a god 
who receives the names Qy ᾿Ιάω eenad. 


This LXX word (Lev 135) in the sense of ‘bald on the 
forehead” frequently recurs in personal descriptions in 
Ptolemaic wills, e.g. P Petr I. 20(1)! (p.c. 225) θ]ρὶξ 


With reference to the use of this verb in 1 Pet 2533, 
Deissmann has argued (BS p. 88 ff.) that the writer may 
have had in view the forensic usage to denote the imposing 


> , 

of the debts of another upon a third, in order to free 
the former from payment: he compares P Petr I. 16(2)29 
(B.C. 237) περὶ δὲ dv ἀντιλέγω dvadepopév[wy εἰς ἐμὲ] 
ὀφειλημάτων κριθήσομαι ἐπ᾽ ᾿Ασκληπιάδου, ““ ας to the debts 
laid upon (or against) one, against which I protest, I shall let 
myself be judged by Asclepiades.” Any direct suggestion 
of substitution or expiation would thus be foreign to the 
Petrine passage, the writer’s thought being simply that the 
sins of men were removed from them, and σία ufon the 
cross. On Sy// 813 avevéyka[t] αὐτὸς παρὰ Δίάμ]ατρα 
(sc. garments deposited with some one who refused to return 
them), Dittenberger suggests somewhat doubtfully that the 
objects are, as it were, brought to the goddess as evidence 
of the wrong done. The meaning would then be closely 
akin to that in P Petr II. 38 (/)° ὅπως ἀνενέγκωμεν ἐπὶ 
Θεογένην, ‘‘that we may report it to Theogenes,” 26. III. 
46 (1)° ἕως ἂν ἐπὶ τὸν διοικητὴν ἀνενέγκωμεν, 1045 ἀνενήνοχεν 
ἐφ᾽ ἡμᾶς... συγγραφήν, ‘‘has submitted to us a contract” 
(Edd.), εὐ alzéz. Here we have the verb followed by ἐπί 
c. accusative, but the accusative is of a person, a difference 
which also seriously weakens the applicability of the parallel 
drawn by Deissmann for 1 Pet 274. We must not further 
discuss this difficult passage here. 

One or two miscellaneous examples of the verb may be 
added. It is used of ‘‘transference” from a village prison 
to the prison of the metropolis in P Lille I. 7!? (iii/B.c ) νυνὶ 
δὲ ἀνενήνοχέν pe εἰς τὸ ἐν KpoxoB(Awy 7rd (Aer) δεσμωτήριον, 
and of the ‘‘registration” of the death of a priest in the 
official list in P Lond 28115 (a.p, 66) = (II. p. 66) ὅπως 
ἀνενεχθῇ ἐν [τοῖς] τετελευτη[κό]σι. In P Ryl II. 16338 
(A.D. 139) ὁπηνίκα ἐὰν αἱρῇ ἀνοίσω δημοσίῳ [χρηματισμῷ] 
is rendered ‘‘ whenever you choose, I will make the notifica- 
tion by an official deed”: see parallels in the note, showing 
ἀναφέρω and ἀναφορά to be “vague terms” covering a 
variety of forms of documentation where an official reference 
is implied. The verb is common in connexion with the 
payment of monies, e.g. P Lille I. r1® (iii/B.c.) of grain; 
Pb δου le) 225 [Αἴ Ὁ: 3758), Β' Hlor 1: 18:89 (ap) e153); 
P Tebt II. 29615, 315% (both ii/A.p.). Other occurrences 
are Syd 588% (ii/B.c.), Mechel 100779 (ii/B.c.) οὐδεμίαν 
ἀνενέγκαντες τῶι κοινῶι δαπάνην, P Rein 2615 (B.c. 104) 
ἅμα τῆι συγγραφῆι ταύτηι ἀναφερομένηι, BGU IV. 1124 
(B.C. 18) ἣν ἀνενηνόχασιν αὐτῶι... συνχώρησιν (cf. 
1157), P Lond 1170 verso 31 (Λ. Ὁ. 258-9) (=III. p. 195). 

The subst. ἀναφορά (which is MGr) is common in the 
sense of ‘‘instalment,” e. g. P Hib I. 1145 (B.c. 244) [éo]rw 
δὲ ἡ ἀναφορὰ ἀπὸ Μεχεὶρ [tw]s Φαῶφι μηνῶν 6 xri., 
“‘the instalment for the nine months from Mecheir to 
Phaophi is...” P Eleph 1719 5: (B.c, 223-2) ἧς τὴν 
πρώτην ἀναφορὰν καταβεβλήκασιν..... διὰ Td μὴ εἰσχύειν 
αὐτοὺς καταβαλεῖν τὰς λοιπὰς ἀναφοράς, P Lond 28618 
(A.D. 88) (=I. p. 184) ds κ(αὶ) διαγράψομεν ἐν ἀναφοραῖς 
δέκα κατὰ μ[ῆνα], P Iand 2618 (A.D. 98) τὸν [δὲ] φόρον 
ἀποδόσωι ἐΐν ἀν]αφοραῖς τέσσαρσι. In P Oxy I. 674 
(A.D. 338) it means “‘ petition ””—évérvxov διὰ ἀναφορᾶς τῷ 
κυρίῳ μου κτλ. 


A weakened meaning occurs in P Fay 14? ());.6. 124) τοῦ 
ἀναπεφωνημένου Νουμηνίῳ στεφάνου, “the crown tax de- 
creed for Numenius.” 

» , 
ανάχρονι ζω 


in the sense of χρονίζω occurs in the illiterate P Tebt IT. 
*““we are late in sending you letters” (Edd.). The papyrus 
has other examples of the tendency of uneducated persons 
to use compounds: NT critics may remember this when 
they assume the /t/évateuy’s hand in some of Luke's 
““emendations ” (?) of Ὁ. 

For the metaphorical use of this word in 1 Pet 44 εἰς τὴν 
αὐτὴν τῆς ἀσωτίας avaxvow we may cite Philo Sov. IL. 42 
ἀ. τοῦ ἀλόγου πάθους. We have no vernacular parallels. 


is applied to the ‘‘ falling” of the Nile in P Magd τ115 
(B.C. 221) τοῦ ὕδατος ἀναχωροῦντος, as is the substantive in 
P Petr IT. 13 (19)® (c. B.c. 252) (= Witkowski, p. 19) τὴ]ν 
ἀνα[χώ]ρησιν τοῦ ποταμοῦ. In the census return BGU II. 
4475 (A.D. 173-4) the name of a man is included who was at 
the time ἐν ἀναχωρήσι, “away from home” (‘‘ bleibende 
Entfernung,” Wessely Aarazis, p. 34). See Wilcken Ostr. 
i. p. 448, and for the same meaning of “absence” cf. P 
Tebt Il. 353° (A.D. 192) ἀπ᾽ ἀναχωρήσεως κατισεληλυθώς. 
In P Tebt I. 41 (c. B.c. 119) certain βασιλικοὶ γεωργοί 
petition against one Marres, stating that on account of his 
extortion they had gone on strike and taken refuge in the 
neighbouring villages—-dvakexwpyjkapey εἰς τὰς περιοίκας 
κώμας: cf. P Oxy IT. 2525 (a.p. 19-20) ἀνεχώρησεν [εἰς τὴν] 
ξένην, Sy// 802"? (jii/B.c.) τοῦτο ποιήσας εἰς τὸ ἄβατον 
ἀνεχώρησε, and the late Silco rescript OGZS 2019 (vi/A.D.) 
ἀναχωρήθην εἰς τὰ ἄνω μέρη pov. P Lille I. 378 (B.c. 241) 
ἀνακεχώρηκεϊίν . . .] ἔτη is rendered by Wilcken “er is 
geflohen” (Archiv v. p. 222): he remarks that the Christian 
ἀναχωρηταί were those who “fled” from the world— 
“retire” is too weak for @vaxwpéw. The connotation of 
“taking refuge ” from some peril will suit most of the NT 
passages remarkably well. 

avayv yo. 

In P Lond 4218 (B.c. 168) (=I. p. 30, Se/ectzons p- 10) we 
have an urgent appeal to a man who has become a recluse 
in the Serapeum: his wife writes to him, δο[κο]ῦσα v[d}y 
[γ]ε σοῦ παραγενομένου τεύξεσθαί τινος ἀναψυχῆς, ‘ think- 
ing that now at last on your return I should obtain some 
relief.” The noun, which is classical and occurs several 
times in the LXX along with the corresponding verb (cf. 
2 Tim 17), is found also in P Vat A? (B.c. 168) (= Wit- 
kowski?, p. 65)—a letter to the same recluse by his brother, 
obviously in collusion with the wife. For the verb see P 
Oxy X. 12967 (iii/A.D.) φιλοπονοῦμεν καὶ ἀναψύχομεν “1 
am industrious and take relaxation’’ (Edd.). See Anz 
Subsidia, p. 303. 


For the original noun cf. BGU IV. τοσοῦ (Aug.) ταξαμένη 
τὸ τέλος els τὰ ἀ., “having paid the slave-duty,” and Sy// 
8255 (iv/B.C.) ὅρος ἐργαστηρίου kal ἀνδραπόδων πεπραμένων 
ἔπὶ λύσει : workshop and slaves attached to it, sold “ἃ 
réméré” (Michel). OGZS 218%, 110 (iii/B.c.) has ἀνδράποδα 
in a catalogue of property, 76. 773% (iv/ili B.C.) τῶν ἀ. [τ]ῶν 
ἀποδράντων, also 16. 6297" (A.D. 137) ex suppl. Tt also 

40 ἀνέγκλητος 

occurs in a psephism of Apamea (or a neighbouring town) of 
the reign of Augustus: ἀνδράποδα δὲ καὶ τετράποδα καὶ 
λοιπὰ ζῷα ὁμοίως πωλείσθω. This last combination reminds 
us of the etymology of the word, which is merely an analogy- 
formation from τετράποδα, with which it is so often associated 
—Jjust as e/ectrocute is made out of execzz/e, to take a modern 
instance of a common resource of language. The word, 
which was normally plural (sing. in P Cattaoui ¥- 16 = Chres¢, 
II. p. 423, ii/A.D.), was never an ordinary word for s/ave: 
it was too brutally obvious a reminder of the principle which 
made quadruped and human chattels differ only in the num- 
ber of their legs. The derivative ἀνδραποδίζω, *‘ kidnap” 
supplied an agent noun with the like odious meaning, which 
alone appears in NT (1 Tim 119). Seealso Philo de Spec. Leg. 
IV. 13 (p. 338 M.) κλέπτης δέ τίς ἐστι Kal ὁ ἀνδραποδιστής, 
ἀλλὰ τοῦ πάντων ἀρίστου, ὅσα ἐπὶ γῆς εἶναι συμβέβηκεν. 


To the occurrences of this Greek name we may add Sy// 
301°, atmemorial inscription of ii/B.c. — Av8péas kal’ ᾿Αριστό- 
paxos ᾿Αργεῖοι ἐποίησαν. The form’ Avdpfas is found in 
Priene 31.358 (i/B.c.). 


P Petr ΤΙ. 40 (a)# (c. B.C. 233) (= Witkowski2, p. 41) 
μὴ οὖν ὀλιγοψυχήσητε, GAN ἀνδρίζεσθε- -α good parallel to 
I Cor 16%, ΟΥ̓ also BGU IV. 120518 (B.c. 28) μόνον ἀνδρα- 
γάθι ἐν τῆι ἀριθμήστι], ‘work hard” or the like (διανδρ. in 
2. 1206'%, etc.), 1’ Oxy II. 2918 (a.D. 25-6) kal προέγραψ[ά 
σοι] ἀνδραγαθῖ[ν], “1 have already written to you to be 
firm” (Edd.). The adj. ἀνδρεῖος is found in a eulogy on 
the good deeds of the Emperor Aurelian, P Lips I. r1gii: 3 
(A.D. 274) τηλικαῦτα ἀθρόως ἔχοντας ἀγαθὰ παρὰ τῆς ἀκη- 
ράτου μεγαλοδωρίας τοῦ ἀνδριοτάτου τῶν πώποτε Αὐτο- 
κρατόρων Αὐρηλιανοῦ. The subst. is defined in Aristeas 
199 (ed. Wendland) τί πέρας ἀνδρείας ἐστίν ; ὁ δὲ elev’ εἰ 
τὸ βουλευθὲν ὀρθῶς ἐν ταῖς τῶν κινδύνων πράξεσιν ἐπιτελοῖτο 
κατὰ πρόθεσιν, ‘‘ What is the the true aim cf courage?’ 
And he said, ‘ To execute in the hour of danger, in accord- 
ance with one’s plan, resolutions that have been rightly 
formed’” (Thackeray). Cf. OG/S 3397 (c. B.c. 120) προ- 
τρεπόμενος δὲ διὰ τῆς τοιαύτης φιλοδοξίας πρὸς ἄσκησιν καὶ 
φιλοπονίαν τοὺς νέους, ἐξ ὧν αἱ τῶν νεωτέρων ψυχαὶ πρὸς 
ἀνδρείαν ἁμιλλώμεναι καλῶς ἄγονται τοῖς ἤθεσιν πρὸς 

A proper name widely used throughout the Empire: cf. 
Syl/ III. Index p. 11, and Priéeze 313 (i/B.C.). 


For this NT ἅπ. εἰρ. (1 Tim 1°) cf. OGZS 218° (iii/B.c.) 
τοὺς τὴμ wWidlov προσθεμ]ένους ἀνδροφόνους εἶναι. It 
appears in a metrical epitaph from Corcyra (before B.C. 227), 
Kaibel 184° λῃστὰς ἀνδροφόνους. 


In P Oxy II, 28115 (A.D, 20-50), a petition to the ἀρχι- 
δικαστής, a woman who had been deserted by her husband 
claims—trayteda@s ὄντα ἀνέγκλητον ἐματὴν ἐν ἁπᾶσει παρει- 
χόμην, “1 for my part conducted myself blamelessly in all 
respects” (Edd.): cf. Sy/? 42974 (iii/B.c.) ἀνένκλητον ἑαυτὸν 

> , 

παρεσχηκὼς πρὸς πάντας τοὺς φυλέτας. For the adverb see 
P Magd 15° (B.C, 221), where a barber states that he has 
been wronged by one of his clients, notwithstanding that he 
has trea'ed him in an irreproachable manner -- τεθεραπευκὼς 
ἀνεγκλή[τως]. A wider sense is found Sy// 925}5 (B.c. 207-6) 
τοὺς στρατιώτας εὐτάκτους παρεσκεύαξαν Kal ἀνενκλήτους, 
and 26, ς4015᾽ (B.c. 175-1), where the epithet is applied to 
stones. Bp E. L. Hicks in CR i. (1887) p. 65, citing a Prie- 
nean inscr. to illustrate another word, observed that a. was a 
common word in Greek decrees: the phrase in this one was 
ἐπήνεσεν ἐπί te τῷ σωφρόνως καὶ ἀνεγκλήτως παρεπιδημῆσαι. 
Prof. Calder has an inscr. (πο. 8) in which a son commemo- 
rates his mother in the forms of public honorific monu- 
ments—with ἐπειδή, ἔδοξε, etc.: he says τήν Te [oiki]cv 

κυβερνήσασα ἀνενκλήτως καὶ Td παιδίον ἐκθρέψασα. It is 
from the southern cemetery at Karabunar (Hyde). Other 
instances are needless. 

is a word which Paul might have coined (2 Cor 915). But 

it is found as a variant in Aristeas 99 θαυμασμὸν ἀδιήγητον 
(ἀνεκδιήγητον BL), ‘“‘ wonder beyond description.” 


In OG/S 383” (i/8.c.) Antiochus of Commagene declares 
θεραπείαν τε ἀνέγλειπτον καὶ ἱερεῖς ἐπιλέξας σὺν πρεπούσαις 
ἐσθῆσι Περσικῶι γένει κατέστησα. (The spelling yA, where 
ἐκ is concerned, is usual in Hellenistic: see Brugmann- 
Thumb, Gr. p. 148.) In P Lond 11667 (a.p. 42) (= III. 
p- 105) contractors undertake to provide τὰ καύματα 
ἀνέγλειπτα for a bath during the current year. The adverb 
is found 7GSZ 24987. For a form ἀνεκλιπής, see Wisd 
7d 818. 


Cagnat LV. 2934 4 (Pergamon, ii/B.C.) πάντα δὲ κίνδυν7ο[ν 
κ]αὶ κακοπαθίαν ἀνεκτὴν ἡγούμενος. If the reading can 
be accepted, the word occurs in the dialect inscription Sy// 
793 αἱ ἀ(ν)εκτίόϊν ἐστι ta Θεμί[σ]τι καὶ βέλτιον ἐ(σ)κι- 
χρέμεν. Its appearance in the Christian letter P Oxy VI. 
939% (iv/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 130) ἀνεκτότερον ἐσχηκέναι, 
‘to be in a more tolerable state,” counts naturally for little, 
as NT echoes abound. 


This remade form in Jas 2.3 may be illustrated from 
P Lips I. 39% (a.p. 390) τύψας pe [av]eXeHs—though, of 
course, thus accented, it comes from ἀνελεής. Whether this 
last is any better Attic than ἀνέλεος may, however, be ques- 
tioned, unless we postulate it as the alternative to νηλεής, 
from which the Attic ἀνηλεής came by mixture. But the 
solitary grammarian whom Lobeck (Péryn., p. 710 f.) quotes 
for it is not very solid ground 


Mayor on Jas 1° suggests that the Gr. εἰρ. may have been 
coined by the writer, who is fond of -({# verbs. The suffix 
was at least as available for making a new verb in Hellenistic 
as its derivative -zze is in English. Of course the parallels 
in Grimm-Thayer are far later. 

Part I. 




To Deissmann’s example (2S, p. 248) CPR 1158 (ii/a.p.) 
γείτο]νες ἐκ τεσσάρων ἀνέμων, where the phrase clearly refers 
to the four cardinal points as in Zech 11%, Mt 2491, Mk 1337, 
we may add P Flor I. 50!4 (a.p. 268) ἐκ τῶν τεσσάρων 
ἀνέμων. The same use of ἄνεμος is implied in P Flor I. 20'8 
(A.D. 127) ἐξ οὗ ἐὰν 6 “Cpos αἱρῆται ἀνέμου : Vitelli com- 
pares Catullus xxvi, where the poet says his bungalow is 
‘“exposed ” (offoszta) not to S. or W. wind, N. or E., but 
to a mortgage of £63. In P Oxy I. 100! (a.p. 133) a 
declaration regarding the sale of land, we find ὧν ἡ τοποθεσία 
kal TO κατ᾽ ἄνεμον διὰ τῆς καταγραφῆς δεδήλωται, where 
the editors understand by τὸ κατ᾽ ἄνεμον the boundaries on 
the four sides. For the ordinary sense we need quote 
nothing, unless we may note the combination in Wiinsch 
AF 45 (p. 15—iii/A.D.) τὸν θεὸν τῶν ἀνέμων καὶ πνευμάτων 
“Λαιλαμ. (It is MGr.) 


For this NT Gr. εἰρ. (Rom 1133), Nageli (p. 23) cites, in 
addition to the references in Grimm-Thayer, a fragment of 
Heraclitus in Clem. Alex. Strom. II. 17, p. 437 P (fr. 18 
Diels). On the spelling see Pro/eg. p. 46. 


P Tebt II. 2729 (a medical fragment, late ii/A.D.), gives 
a literary citation for the word, εἰ γὰρ avet[(]kakos ἐν 
τοῖς [λ]οιποῖς Sy μὴ ὑπομένοι τὸ δίψ[ος], ‘for if he has 
general endurance but is nevertheless unable to bear the 
thirst” (Edd.). Vettius Valens has it, p. 382), οὐκ ἄποροι 
καθίστανται, ἐπιτάραχοι δὲ Kal ἀνεξίκακοι, ἐγκρατεῖς περὶ 
τὰς τῶν αἰτίων ἐπιφοράς. Though Lucian (zud. voc. 9) is 
posterior in date to Paul and to Wisd 218 (ἀνεξικακία), he is 
adequate evidence for the earlier use of the word in 
“profane ” Greek ! 


This word seems to have been borrowed by Paul (Rom 1138, 
Eph 38) trom Job (55, 919, 3455), and is re-echoed in early 


Josephus (Avsff. xviii. 243 μηδὲ δευτερεύειν ἀνεπαίσχυν- 
Tov ἡγοῦ, cited by Thayer) did not borrow this from his 
earlier contemporary, the writer of 2 Tim 2'5; but a word 
can hardly be called a coinage which only involves putting 
un- before an existing word (cf. αἰσχυντικός). 


For this word, which is found fer in 1 Tim (3%, 57, 614), 
cf. P Tor I. 1¥-15 (ii/B.c.), where one of the conditions 
of a decree of amnesty for offences is stated to be τὰς 
παρακειμένας im αὐτοῦ συγγραφὰς ἀνεπιλήπτους εἶναι. 
See also P Tebt I. 588 (B.c. 118) ἀκατηγο[ρήτου]ς καὶ 
ἀνεπιλήπτους, 25. 61(4)?°7* (B.c. 118-7) κλήρους ἀ[σ]υκο- 
φαντήϊτους)] καὶ ἀκατηγορήτους Kal ἀνεπιλήμτουϊς πάσαις 
αἰτίαις ὄντ]ας ; and so 26. 7217 (B.c. 114-3). Dibelius (on 
1 Tim 613) quotes a Jewish deed of manumission, Latyschev 
TosPE, 11. 528© κατὰ εὐχήν] pov ἀνεπίληπτον καὶ 
ἀπα[ρ]ενόχλητον ἀπὸ παντὸς κληρονόμου. 


ἀνερχομαι Ξ 


of ‘‘ going up” to the capital is illustrated by the illiterate 
P Tebt Il. 412° (late ii/A.p.), ἄνελθε els τὴν μητρόπολιν τοῦ 
νέου éroys ἐπὶ kalyd dvépxope els τὴν πόλιν : cf. 126. 411° 
(ii/A.D.) αὐτῇ ὥρᾳ ἄνελθε, ὃ yap κράτιστος ἐπιστράτηγος 
ἱκανῶς σε ἐπεζήτησε, ‘come up instantly, for his highness 
the epistrategus has made several inquiries for you” (Edd.), 
and P Lond 948 verso 3 (A.D. 257) (= III. p. 210) ἀνερχέστω. 
Other citations are hardly required, but we may add the 
almost contemporary BGU II. 595!® (c. A.p. 70-80) ὅτι ὁ 
vids μου ἀσθενῖ Sivas, τούτου εἵνεκα ἀνηρχόμην. 


This word, which with the exception of Ac 2439 is used 
in the NT only by Paul, and always with the contrast to 
θλίψις either stated or implied (see Milligan on 2 Thess 17), 
is found in a more general sense in P Tebt I. 247% (B.C. 117) 
ἀν[έ]σει γεγονότας, ‘ becoming remiss,” asin the paradoxical 
phrase ἐμπειρίᾳ ἀνέσεως, Wisd 13%; cf. also Sy// 5331° 
(iii/A.D. zzzz.), 93253 (76.), where it is used of ‘‘ relief” from 
taxation. P Ryl II. 84° (a.p. 146) ὅπως φροντίσῃς - - - 
τὴν ἄνεσιν τὴν διὰ τοῦτο γενομένην τῶν ὑπαρχόντων 
γενέσθαι, “Sin order ὑπαὶ... the ensuing remission of 
the lands be effected” (Edd., comparing Chrest. I. 363 
introd.). For the phrase in Ac 247% ἔχειν τε ἄνεσιν, where 
the RV renders “ should have indulgence,” cf. P Giss I. 59 
(A.D. 119-20), where a number of persons are enrolled as 
having vacatio munerum (Χευτουργιῶν), as ἄνεσιν ἐσχηκότες 
ἑπταετίας τῆς ἀπὸ ts (ἔτους) [16th year of Trajan] ἕως νῦν, 
and others, one of ἃ τριετία. Can the ἄνεσις in Ac Zc. bea 
kind of /ébeva custodia? Moffatt renders the clause, ‘‘ allow 
him some freedom.” 


In P Oxy I. 34/38 (A.D. 127) a prefect uses this word in 
directing Government clerks whose business it was to “‘ ex- 
amine” documents and glue them into τόμοι. This is one 
of the words which Grimm characterizes as ‘‘not found 
in prof. auth.,” occurring first in LXX. The compound 
(Ac 22% 29), now vindicated as sufficiently ‘‘ profane,” was 
as rare as its simplex (cf. Wisd 219) ; it may be suspected that 
the common ἐξετάζω ‘“‘to get out the truth,” (éreds—see 
Boisacq Dzct. Etym., p. 291) was the original from which 
both ἐτάζω and ἀνετάζω (and παρέτάζω in Arcadian) were 


P Par 454 (B.c. 153) ἄνευ τῶν θεῶν οὐθὲν γίνεται, BGU I. 
2678 (A.D. 199) ἄνευ τινὸς ἀμφισβητήσεως. Quotations are 
hardly needed, but see Wilcken Os¢r. i. p. 559f., where it is 
shown that in certain connexions ἄνευ must have the mean- 
ing of “without the knowledge of” rather than “in the 
absence of,” e.g. P Petr II. Appendix, p. 3, ὅτι ἄνευ ἡμῶν 
καὶ τῶν per ᾿Αριστοκρίτους λογευτῶν [προξενεῖ τοὺς 
ὑποτελεῖς τοῦ φυλακ[τι]κοῦ εἰς τὸ ἴδιον, where Wilcken 
translates ‘ohne unser Wissen und ohne Wissen jener 
Logeuten ladt er die Steuerzahler zu sich in’s Haus.” 
In sepulchral inscriptions the preposition is ofien used 
in the sense ‘‘apart from,” ‘‘except,” as in the formula 
ἐάν τις τολμήσηι ἀνῦξε (1 ἀνοῖξαι) τὸν σορὸν τοῦτον ἄνευ 
τῶν ἰδίων αὐτοῦ, see 70.5.7 3225, 2327, αἰ. cited by Herwerden. 
See further Kuhring, p. 46f. 




Gr. εἰρ. in Ac 2715, is another new word made with wz- 
which may or may not have been first used by Luke. The 
simplex is found in Lk 9®, 14%, and in Heb 67. 


Syll 154 δὲς (late iv,B.c.), 803356 (iii/B.c.). The adjective 
ἀνεύρετος is found on the recto of P Amh II. 125 (late i/a.D.), 
where a petition concludes, ot δὲ λοιποὶ avTa[y ἐν] συνώδῳ 
Gv8(pes) κε ἀνεύρητοι ἐγένοιτο (/. ἀνεύρετοι ἐγένοντο), Kal 
ἀφήλπακαν) (/. ἀφήρπακαν) ἡμῶν ἱμάτια κτλ. 


The verb is not common in early papyri, but cf. P Strass I. 
2255 (iii/A.D.) σιωπήσαντος τοῦ νομίζοντος αὐτῷ διαφέρειν 
καὶ ἀνασχομένου ὑπὲρ δεκαετίαν (a statute of limitations 
comesin), P Gen I. 76" (iii/iv A.p.), P Lips I. 5 1.8 (iii/a.p.), 
554 (iv/A-D.), and P Oxy VI. 903% (iv/a.D.) κἀγὼ οὐκ 
ἠνεσχόμην ἐκβαλεῖν αὐτήν, “but I refused to send her 
away”’ (Edd.). Later examples are P Oxy I. 130! (vi/a.p.) 
οἱ διαφέροντες τοῦ ἐμοῦ δεσπότου οὐκ ἠνέσχετο (/. ἠνέσχοντο) 
ποιῆσαι κατὰ τὴν κέλευσιν τοῦ ἐμοῦ ἀγαθοῦ δεσπότου, ‘“ the 
servants of my lord refused to do my kind lord's bidding” 
(Edd.), and P Grenf. I. 64? (vi/vii A.D.) οὐκ ἠνέσχετο τοῦτο 
ποιῆσαι. There is a note on the syntax of the verb in 
W. Schmidt /vs., p. 424 f., and one on the complexities of 
its augment in Cronert Mem. Herc., p. 207. 

It may be noted that Nestle (2.2 7 xix. p. 284) has 
drawn attention to the interesting reading ἀνέξεται (for 
ἀνθέξεται) in Mt 65: = Lk 1618, as supported by the OLat 
(seestinebit or patietur) and OSyr (“‘endure,” Burkitt): it 
was familiar from the common Stoic formula ἀνέχου καὶ 
ἀπέχου. “Put up with the one, and take advantage of the 
other” (see 5.0. Katadpovéw) will be the meaning. 


This word, which in Greek writers is regularly applied to 
cousins german whether on the father’s or on the mother’s side 
(see Lightfoot on Col 47°), may be illustrated from P Lond 
1164 (&)*° (A.D. 212) (=III. p. 167) τὸ καταλειφθὲν ὑπὸ 
[ro]® κατὰ πατέρα pov ἀνεψειοῦ ᾿Ισιδώρου and P Tebt II. 
32318 (A.D. 127) μετὰ κυρίου τοῦ ἑαυτῆς κ[α]τὰ μητέρα 
ἀνεψιοῦ ᾿Ορσέως. Premsighe 176 (reign οἵ M. Aurelius) 
has ἀνεψιὸς πρὸς πατρός and πρὸς μητρός. See also P Oxy 
I. 993 18 (A.D. 55), P Fay 995 (A.D. 159), BGU II. 6489 
(A.D. 164 or 196), and from the inscriptions OG/S 5447 
(ii/A.D.), where, however, the editor notes, ‘‘Graecos non 
distinguere fratres patrueles et consobrinos, sed utrosque 
aeque ἀνεψιούς appellare.” Phrynichus (ed. Lobeck) p. 306 
praises ἀνεψιός as against the form ἐξάδελφος, which is found 
in the LXX (Tob 153, 1178) and in Christian writers. Both 
occur in MGr, ἀνιψιός for “nephew,” and ἐξάδερφος for 
“cousin (male).” The fem. ἀνεψιά may be cited from 
PSI 5324 (a.p. 132-3) ἐπιγέγραμμαι [τῆς ἀν]εψιᾶς μου 
κύριος. ᾿Ανεψιάδης, ‘“cousin’s son,” occurs in Pretsigke 176 
(see above). 


δνὦ 804325 (perhaps ii/A.D.) & μετ᾽ ἐλαίου, for headache. 
P Oxy VIII. 1088®? (early i/a.p.), a collection of prescrip- 
tions, commends for a ὑπνωτικὸν πότημα "ὑοσκ[υάμον . . ,] 
ἀννήσου (δρ.) a, ὀπίου (τριώβολον) " μείξας δός, “᾿ soporific: 

. ,’ 

henbane . . ., anise I dr. εἰς." (Ed.) This spelling is also 
found in P Ἀν] 11. 148?® (A.D. 40). 


The ethical meaning of this word “το be due” is by no 
means confined to the Biblical literature, as the following 
citations will show. OGJ/S 53217 (B.c. 3), the Paphlagonians’ 
oath of allegiance to Augustus, has the undertaking παν]τὶ 
τρόπωι ὑπὲρ τῶ[ν] ἐκείνοις ἀνηκόϊντων] (for the rights of 
Augustus and his heirs) πάντα κίνδυνον ὑπομενεῖν. Other 
examples of this use, which is found in 1 and 2 Maccabees, 
are given in the index. From the Magnesian inscriptions we 
may quote 53°° (end of iii/B.c.) οὐθενὸς ἀποστήσεται (sc. 
6 δῆμος) τῶν ἀνηκόντων τῇ πόλει τῶν Μαγνήτων πρὸς τιμὴν 
ἢ χάριτος ἀπόδοσιν, where Thieme (p. 15) renders, “ was 
man der Stadt der Magneten zu erweisen schuldig ist.” 
Similarly from the papyri: P Fay 94 (iii/a.D.) has twice περὶ 
τῶν [τῇ ἐπιτροπείᾳ] ἀνηκόντων, as the editors restore it, 
‘his duties in the period of guardianship, functions pertain- 
ing to it.” In P Tebt I. 6" (ii/B.c.) τῶν ἀνηκόντων τοῖς 
tepofts κομίζεσθαι, ‘the dues which belong to the temples,” 
it is unfortunately not clear whether the infinitive depends on 
ἀνηκόντων or on the main verb προστετάχαμεν : cf. P Tebt 
I. 4325 (B.c. 118) ἐν τοῖς ὑμῖν ἀνήκουσι, “in your interests”. 
In P Flor I. 14% (A.D. 153) ἀνηκόντων πάντων is simply 
“all that belongs.” A technical use based on this appears in 
a Rainer papyrus in Chves¢. I. 72, p. 101, (A.D. 234) δηλοῦμεν 
μηδὲν δεῖν ava[kov σ]ημᾶναί mote τῇ Tod ἰδιολόγου κ[αὶ 
ἀρχ]ιερέως ἐπιτροπί(ῇ), where Wilcken explains it as the 
““Kompetenzkreis” of these two officials. 


A good example of this NT ἅπ. εἰρ. (2 Tim 38) is afforded 
by Epictetus’ description (I. iii. 7) of those who forget their 
divine origin as like to lions—@ypior kal θηριώδεις καὶ 


The special differentia of ἀνήρ : ἄνθρωπος survives in 
MGr (ἄντρας, ἄθρωπος), where even the old gen. sing. 
(ἀντρός) may still be found beside the ‘‘regular” τοῦ ἄντρα 
(Thumb Handbook, p. 48). Naturally there is nothing 
particular to record in the uses of this everyday word, which 
has in NT and Hellenistic generally much the same range 
as in class. Gk. Thus, taking the index to BGU IV., we 
can illustrate many of the uses noted for the NT in Grimm 
from documents of the Augustan period. So (1) husband 
by the perpetual phrase μετὰ κυρίου τοῦ ἀνδρός after the 
name of a woman, as 1126* (where ἀνδρός is written over 
an erased ὁμομητρίου ἀδελφοῦ), or in a marriage contract 
as τορϑ τηρεῖν τὰ πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρᾳ καὶ τὸν κοινὸν βίον 
δίκαια, while the document will also use ἀνήρ for irregular 
relations in the pledge μηδ᾽ ἄλλωι ἀνδρὶ συνεῖναι. Then 
under Grimm’s (3) we have 1189" of σημαινόμενοι ἄνδρες 
“the persons named,” 10617 where Patellis and ἄλλοι 
ἄνδρες te committed a burglary; the common phrase (τὸ) 
κατ᾽ ἄνδρα, ‘‘viritim,” in 1047 Hi (a.p. 131); and (from 
A.D. 196) 10227 ἄνδρες κράτιστοι in address (cf. II. 6462°— 
A.D. 193—@ ἄνδρ]ες ᾿Αλεξανδρεῖς) accounts for another use. 
᾿Ανήρ in distinction from νήπιος or παιδίον alone remains : 
of this less common use we do not happen to notice an 



example, but literature supplies them in plenty. We might 
add as an instance of technical use ἀνδρῶν καὶ ἱππέω[ν], 
P Flor IT. 278 iv-  (jii/a.p.). 


P Petr II. 37 2 (a) verso οὐ γὰρ δύναμαι ἀνθ[ι]στάνειν, 
BGU ΠῚ. 7474-10 ἐνιαχοῦ δὲ Kal τολμῶσιν ἀντίστασθαι 
(Z. ἀνθ-), P Hawara 695 (ii/A.D.) (= Archiv v. p. 383) . .Ἰοὐκ 
ἀντέστην πί. ., P Leid Wii 9 ἰσχυρότερον ἀντέστη αὐτῷ. 


P Oxy IV. γ4335 (and 40) (p.c. 2) (= Witkowski 3, p. 130) 
ὡς ἀνθομολογη(σομένῳ) ὑπέρ σου ὡς ὑπί(έρ) pov, where the 
Edd. render ‘‘as he will agree in everything for you just 
as for me”: cf. P Giss I. 717 (ii/a.D.) do[re . . alirov 
παραγενόμενον ἀν[θομο]λογήσασθαί σου τῆι εἴς [με σπου]δῆι 
“may answer to, come up to,” and P Tebt I. 215 (B.c. 115) 
kal ᾿Αρίστιππον αὐτῶι ἀνθομολογήσεσθαι, ‘and that A. 
will come to an understanding with him” (Edd.), P Par 427 
(B.C. 156) καὶ ὁ ἀδελφός σου ἀνθωμολογεῖτο μὴ ἠδικεῖσθαι 
ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ͵ Add P Tebt II. gro! (a.D. 16) ἀνθο]μο- 
λογήσηται περὶ τῆς σπίο]υδῆς, “δ may answer for 
your activity.” In P Grenf II. 71 1.14. (a.p 244-8) καὶ 
ἐπερωτηθέντες ἀνθωμολογήσαμεν περὶ τ[ο]ῦ ταῦθ᾽ οὕτως 
ὀρθῶς καὶ καλῶς γεγηνῆσθαι, the active appears with the 
meaning ‘‘ acknowledge,” ‘‘ formally admit,” the correctness 
of a legal form. 


Syll 9391 μηδὲ ἄνθεα παρφέρην (ἐν τὸ ἱερόν). OG/S 3657 
(ii/B.c.) has ἀνθεών, ““ viridarium,” and Vettius Valens, p. 154, 
speaks of ἀνθηραὶ (μοῖραι). The noun in its two NT occur- 
rences only repeats Isai 405 Ὁ, but it is fairly common in 
LXX, and survives in MGr. It recurs in Ρ Leid W. 

P Petr III. 107(@)*, P Lond 1159 (a.p. 145-7) 
(=III. p. 113) ἐπὶ ξυλ καὶ ἀνθράκων kal dave καὶ λαμπάδ, 
ii/iil The word also occurs 
ter in Michel 594 (B.C. 279), a long inscription from Delos 
containing the receipts and expenses of the ἱεροποιοί. It is 
MGr ἄνθρακας. 


which starts in LXX and Pss. So/., was presumably as 
much a coinage as our own ‘‘men-pleasers,”’ but made in a 
language where compounds are more at home than in ours. 
If this is a ‘‘ Bibl.” word, it is only an instance of the fact 
that every Greek writer made a new compound when his 
meaning required one. Lobeck on Péryz., p. 621, cites 
αὐτάρεσκος from Apoll. de Conjunct., p. 504. 


This significant adj. is found in Wilcken Os¢r. ii. no. 1218 
(Rom.) μέλη ἰαικὰ (2 tarp.) ἀνθρώπι(να), with reference 
apparently to certain healing charms. In wills of the 
Ptolemaic period ἀνθρώπινόν τι πάσχειν is the stereotyped 
form for ‘‘to die,” e.g. P Petr I. 119 (the will of a cavalry 
officer) ἐὰν δέ τι ἀνθρώπινον πάθω καταλείπω τίά por 
ὑπάρχοντα ἐγ] τοῦ βασιλικοῦ καὶ τὸν ἵππον καὶ τὰ ὅπλα 
κτλ. : cf. also the important marriage contract P Gen I. 2115 

᾽ , 

(ii/B.c.) ἐὰν δέ τις αὐτῶν ἀνθρώπινόν τι πάθῃ καὶ τελευτήσῃ 
κτλ., and BGU IV. 1τ149385 (a Ἰοαη--Β.6. 13) ἐὰν δὲ συνβῇ 
τὸν δοῦλον διαδρᾶναι ἢ καὶ παθεῖν τι ἀνθρώπινον, καὶ οὕτως 
εἶναι τὰ ὀφιλόμενα ἀκίνδυνα κτλ. So P Tebt II. Bae 
(Α. Ὁ. 216), Sy// 6331% (Rom.—note the unusual present 
πάσχῃ), etc. Various uses of the adj. are illustrated in 
Syll; thus 3478 (B.c. 48), an Asian decree in honour of 
Julius Caesar, τὸν dard” Apews kal ᾿Αφροδε[της θεὸν ἐπιφανῆ 
καὶ κοινὸν τοῦ ἀνθρωπίνου βίου σωτῆρα, 30579 (c. A.D. 37)— 
a grandiloquent adulatory oration from Cyzicus—@edv δὲ 
χάριτες τούτῳ διαφέρουσιν ἀνθρωπίνων διαδοχῶν, ᾧ ἢ νυκτὸς 
ἥλιος κτλ., 462° (iii/B.c., Crete) καὶ O.[vey (“ὑ divine”’) κ]αὶ 
ἀνθρωπίνων πάντων (cf. 7225), 463? (late iii/B.c.) οἱ 
e[plevral οἱ τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων, ‘the comptrollers of secular 
revenues”. The strong pervading antithesis with ‘‘ divine” 
in the uses of this word lends emphasis to such a phrase as 
ἀ. κτίσις in 1 Pet 213 (where see Hort). It is MGr. 


for which only Euripides is cited, will be one of the words 
Hellenistic prose has taken over from poetical vocabulary. 
Murray gives the lines thus (/f4. Zaur. 389)— 

This land of murderers to its god hath given 
Its own lust ; evil dwelleth not in heaven. 


like ἀνήρ, has kept its differentia practically unchanged 
from Homer to MGr. It is interesting to notice its philo- 
sophical abstract ἀνθρωπότης vouched for as fairly popular 
Greek by Vettius Valens (p. 346%, in antith. to ἀθανασία), 
passing into Christian theology (see LS and Sophocles Zex.), 
and current in MGr. The NT has no trace of the curious 
misuse by which the principal difference between a. and 
ἀνήρ is ignored: Tob 65 ἀνθρώπου ἢ γυναικός. P Flor |. 
61 (a.p. 86-8) ἄξιος μ[ὲ]ν ἧς μαστιγωθῆναι, διὰ σεαυτοῦ 
[κ]Ἰατασχὼν ἄνθρωπον εἰσχήμονα καὶ yuv[ai]kas is not 
parallel, as a. only means as little is Jn 772. 
(Grimm). Another case of ἄνθρωπος invading the sphere of 
ἀνήρ is the Matthzean locution ἄ, οἰκοδεσπότης, βασιλεύς, 
φαγός etc. 
though not Attic: Mt may have got it from LXX (so Lev 21° 
ἀνθρώπου ἱερέως). Some papyrus passages may be cited, 
though little is needed. The antithesis with θεός has figured 
under ἀνθρώπινος : the complementary one comes out well in 
BGU IV. ro24iv-® (iv/v A.D.), where a judge pronounces 
sentence of death with the words σύ μοι δοκεῖς [ψυχὴν 
ἔχειν θηρίου καὶ [οἹὐκ ἀνθρώπου, [μᾶλλον δ]ὲ οὐδὲ Onplov— 
he proceeds to give reasons. 7760. 10307 (iii/A.D.) ἐπίγοντες 
τοὺς ἀνθρώπους Kal τοὺς τέκτονας--ἀ. is general and τ. 


person” : 

As Grimm’s passages show, this is Greek, 

special. For the purely unemphatic use cf. the illiterate note, 
ἐδ. 10311% (ii/A.D.) ἔκδος ἀνθρώποις ἀσφα[λέσ]ι. Its ana- 
phoric use with the article (as Mt 123° etc.) may be seen in 
7b. 1208): (B.c. 27-6)tva δὲ εἰδῇς τὸ ὄρθριον (‘* “sein Mor- 
gengruss,’ = seine erste Tat” says Schubart) τοῦ ἀνθρώ(που), 
πέπομφά σοι ἣν τέθειται μίσθωσιν. This particular instance 
may perhaps serve as an illustration of ‘‘ the adjunct notion of 
contempt (Jn 522),” on which Grimm remarks (1.¢.). Under 
the same heading, with commiseration instead of contempt, 
will come πρεσβύτης ἄνθρωπός εἰμι in I Strass 1. 4140 (A.p. 
250). In the edict of Caracalla, P Giss I. gol® (A.D. 212-5) 
ὁσΊ]άκις ἐὰν ὑ[π]ενσέλθ[ωσῆιν els τοὺς ἐμοὺς ἀν[θρ]ώπους the 


ps ff 

editor notes the tone as characteristic of his dynasty. The 
general sense in the plural may be illustrated by Sy// 4241 
(A.D. 361-3) τὸν γῆς Kal θαλάσσης καὶ παντὸς ἀνθρώπων 
ἔθνους δεσπότην οἵ the brief Emperor Julianus, 24, 8907? 
(ii/A.D.) of a series of diseases kJa[t] ὅσα κακὰ κ[αὶ πάθη 
ἀνθρώποις γίγνεται. 


ϑν11 6565 (ii/A.pD.) presents Gaius Papillius Carus I’edo 
ἀνθύπατος replying to a resolution of the Ephesian Βουλή, 
who had referred him to his predecessors’ practice (τοὺς πρὸ 
ἐμ[οὔ] κρατίστους ἀνθυπάτους). //. 316% (ii/B.c.) has Ὁ. 
Fabius Q. f. Maximus, ἀνθύπατος “Pwpatwy, addressing the 
authorities of a town in Achaia. So fasszm, except in 
Egypt: since this country was governed by a prefect, we do 
not hear of proconsuls in the papyri. 


P Petr III. 53 (/)4 (iii/p.c.) dvelerar λοιπογραφεῖσθαι, 
“he is permitted to remain in arrears” (Edd.).  Sy// 
55229, 58 (late ii/B C.) of school-boys ‘‘let off” ἐκ τῶν μαθημά- 
των. P Amh IT. 99 (2)® (A.D. 179) βορρᾶ ἀνιμένη λιβὸς 
ἰδιωτικά, ‘Son the north dedicated land, on the west private 
properties” (Edd.) So Cagnat IV. 292*° (Pergamon, c. 
B.C. 130) ἀνεῖναι δε] αὐτοῦ κ[αὶ τ]έμενος, =consecrare (Ed.). 
P Oxy III. 47188 (ii/a.p.) γέλωτα πολὺν καὶ ἀνειμένον . .. 
γελᾶν, “laughed long and freely” (Edd.), 2), σο315 (A.D. 
118) ἀνεῖναι ‘‘admit,” 7. 5332 (ii/iii a.p.) ἐὰν ἀνεθῶσι, 
“if they are neglected.” P Ryl 11. 77% (a.p. 192) 
κελεύσατε ὃ ἔδωκα ἱκανὸν ἀνεθῆναι. P Grenf II. 78% 
(A.D. 307) ἀξιῶ. . . ἀνεθῆνα[ι] “released.” Ρ. Cattaoui τ᾿ 15 
(14...) (= Chrest. 11. p. 423) τὰ ἄλλα σοι ἀνίημι, 
“ concede.” A literary effort celebrating the accession of 
Hadrian, P Giss I. 38 shows us loyal subjects γέλωσι καὶ 
μέθαις ταῖς ἀπὸ κρήνης τὰς ψυχὰς ἀνέντες γυμνασίων τε 
ἀλείμμασι (see Wilcken on the document, d7chzv v. p. 249). 


P Amh II. 684 (late i/a.p.) has ἀρούρας . . . ὑπὸ 
ἀμφοτέρων τῶν πρὸς χρείαις διὰ τῶν λόγων ἀνασταθείσας 
= ‘‘reported” or the like. The transitive tenses are com- 
mon in the sense of ‘‘setting up” a statue; cf. P Oxy IV. 
70725 (c. A.D. 136) ἀνασ[τῆ]σαί τε τὰς τοῦ κτήματος Kal 
πωμαρίου πλάτας ἐπὶ μέτροις, ‘that he should restore on 
a certain scale the walls (?) of the vineyard and orchard” 
(Edd.), BGU II. 362%%4 (A.D. 215) (= Chrest. 1. p. 127) 
εἰς ὑπηρεσίαν τοῦ ἀναστίαθ]έντος θείου κ[ολοσ]σιαίου 
ἀνδριάντος. The formula became so common for setting 
up a gravestone that ἀνέστησα alone, with accus. of person 
buried, became current in E. Phrygia and Lycaonia (Ramsay 
C. and B., ii. p. 732). P Oxy VIII. 1161® (Christian letter, 
iv/A.D.) μὴ δυναμένη ἀναστῆναι ἐκ τῆς κοίτης pov, will 
serve as an instance of the intransitive use. One very 
interesting passage is added by a restoration of Wilcken’s 
in P Tebt II. 285! (A.p. 121-38)—see Archiv v. p. 232: 
ἀνασ[τὰ]ς εἰς [σ]υμ[βούλιον κ]αὶ σκεψάμ[ενος με]τ[ἃ τ]ῶν 
[-.«. With this reference to assessors Wilcken compares 
Ac 26%, 

The adv. is supplied by the editors in the Hadrian letter, 
P Fay 194 (ii/A.D.), οὔτε ἀνοήτως ἀπαλλάσσομαι τοῦ 

> , 

βίο[υ]. It is current in MGr, meaning ‘ unreasonable ” 


That ancient scribes were almost capable of sympathy with 
modern school-boys in writing the augmented forms of this 
intractable verb is shown by frequent misspellings in late 
papyri: thus PSI II. 1329 (iii/a.p.) ἀνῷχθαι. From Ptole- 
maic papyri we have the regular forms ἠνώιξαμεν P Petr IT. 
37 τὸ ?, and ἀνεωιγμένον 20. 2". 5, also ἀνοῖξαι 6. III. Ῥ- 133- 
The phrase of Mt 2" is nearly paralleled in Sy// 60132 
(iii/B.C.) ἀνοιγόντων δὲ of ἐξετασταὶ κατ᾽ ἐνιαυτὴν (/. -τὸν) 
τὸν θησαυρόν : so 7. 6532" (the Andania ‘‘ Mysteries” inscr., 
in dialect—B.C. 91), 587°? (B.c. 329-8) τῶι τοὺς θησαυροὺς 
ἀνοίξαντι. That of Rev 59 etc. occurs in Sy? 7904? (i/a.D.) 
τὰς σφραγῖδας ἀνοιξάτω. Close to this is its use for the 
“opening ” of a will, as P Ryl II. 1099 (A.p. 235—a stilted 
document with δυεῖν and υἱέας }) ἐκ διαθήκης τῆς καὶ ἀνοι- 
χθε[(σ]ης κατὰ τὸ ἔθος. We may quote OG/S 22238 (B.c. 
266-1) ἀνοῖξαι δὲ] τοὺς ἱερεῖς Kal τὰς ἱερείας τὰ ἱερά, οἴ 
3325 5 (B.C. 138-2) ἀ. τοὺς ναούς, and Dittenberger’s note, 
with parallels showing that the solemn ‘‘ opening ” of shrines 
was a conspicuous feature in ritual—cf. 1 Regn 3158 καὶ 
ὥρθρισεν τὸ πρωὶ καὶ ἤνοιξεν τὰς θύρας οἴκου Κυρίου, and 
Rev 117%, 15°. Something akin to our ‘‘ opening” a build- 
ing may be seen in OG/S 529" (a.p. 117-38) πρῶτον μὲν 
ἀνοίξαντα τὸ yupvacvov—he had evidently been prime mover 
in its establishment. The Neoplatonists appropriated the 
NT phrase “‘ heavens opened”: cf. Kazde/ 882 (Athens—c. 
iii/A.D.) Θειολόγου Λαίτοιο μετάρσιον ὕμνον ἀκούσας 
οὐρανὸν ἀνθρώποις εἶδον ἀνοιγόμενον. Laetus, a contem- 
porary of Plotinus (Ed.), is acclaimed as a reincarnation of 
Plato. The word is common on later tombstones for violat- 
ingagrave. The frequency of the spelling ἀνύγω has been 
thought to go rather beyond the mere blundering substitution 
of an identically pronounced symbol: Radermacher (Gr. 
P 35n.*) would attribute it to the influence of ἀνύω, which 
is however a decidedly rarer word (not in NT). But Prof. 
Thumb regards it as purely graphic. We may quote two 
illiterate papyri of ii/B.c., written by the same hand, P Par 
517 (= Selections p. 19) and 507: see Mayser Gr., p- IIo. 
So also P Tebt II. 38328 (a.p. 46) (the entrance and the 
exit) εἰς ἣν kal ἀνύξι ἑαυτῇ... .. θύραν. The late 2 aor. 
pass. ἠνοίγην (as Mk 7%, Ac 1219 etc.) is illustrated by BGU 
I. 3261.10 (as amended p. 359) (A.D. 194) ἠνύγη [κ]αὶ 
ἀνεγνώσθη --οἔ a will: cf. also the amended reading in |. 21 
ἠνύγησαν. The verb is MGr. 


In P Lond 887? (iii/B.c.) (=III. p. 1) a complaint is 
lodged against a neighbour who has ‘‘ built ” (ἀνοικοδόμηκεν) 
a staircase in a mutual courtyard, and thereby caused some 
injury to the petitioner : cf. P Magd 2? (iii/8.c.) ἀνοικοδομή- 
σαντος ἐν τῶι αὑτοῦ τόπωι ἱερόν KTA., and P Oxy IV. 70727 
(c. A.D. 136) ἀνοικοδομῆσαι tpdxov ἐκ καινῆς ἐξ ὀϊπτῆς] 
πλίνθου ἐπὶ μέτροις ὡρισμένοις, ‘should build on a fixed 
scale a new wheel of baked brick” (Edd.). In P Petr II. 
12 (135 (B.C. 241) kal ἀνοικοδομῆσαι βελτίους τῶν προῦπαρ- 
Χχόντων βωμῶν the meaning is ‘*vebuild”: cf. Sy// 22013 
(iii/B.C ) kal τῶν τειχῶν τῶν ἐν τῆι νήσωι πεπτωκότων 
συνεπεμελήθη ὅπως ἀνοικοδομηθεῖ, and Chrest, I. g6viii4 


5 ΄ 

(A.D. 215) οἰκοδόμ(οις) y κατασπῶσι καὶ ἀνοικοδομίοῦσι), 7). 
II. 6811 (A.D. 14) οὖς καὶ ἀνοικοδόμησα ἐπὶ τῶι [apy ]α[(]ωι 
words. For a Christian use οἵ ἀ. see the interesting epi- 
taph of the fourth-century bishop of Laodiceia, M. Julius 

Omission of augment is frequent in these ol- 

Eugenius, who describes himself as during his episcopate 
πᾶσαν τὴν ἐκλησίαν ἀνοικοδο[μ]ήσας ἀπὸ θεμελίων (\V. M. 
Calder in Exp VII. vi. p. 387). 


occurs in the magical papyrus P Lond 46274 
(=I. p. 73). In MGr it means “* springtime.” 



P Par 1457 (ii/B.c.) they assaulted me ἀφορήτῳ ἀνομίᾳ 
ἐξενεχθέντες. P Oxy VIII. 112129 (a.p. 295) ἅπαντα ὡς ἐν 
ἀνομίᾳ[ι]5 ἀπεσύλησαν, ‘“lawlessly carried them all off” 



P Oxy II. 237% (a.p. 186), the Dionysia petition, has 
ἀνόμου κατοχῆς, ‘‘an illegal claim.” 
ἀνομία and ἀδικία may be seen in the associated adjectives 
of P Lond 35819 (c. a.p. 150) (=II. p. 172), where ἄνομα 
καὶ ἄδικα are complained of. Cf. 70.57 10473 τοῦ ἀνόμου 
Τυφῶνος. For the adverb see  Magd 6" (8.6. 221) μὴ 
περιιδεῖμ με ἀνόμως ὑβριζόμενον ὑπὸ τῶν ποιμένων, and BGU 
IV. 1200°° (B.c. 2-1) ἐξουσίαν ἔχοντες τῶι ᾿Ασκληπιάδου a. 
ἀποδέδωκαν κτλ. The construction in 1 Cor 951 μὴ Oy 
ἄνομος θεοῦ is illustrated in Profeg. p. 235 f. The verb ἀνομέω 
as a transitive appears in P Par 3748 (ii/B.c.) ἀξιῶ... μὴ 
ὑπεριδεῖν με ἠνομημένον καὶ ἐγκεκλειμένον : cf. 26. 35°4 (by 
the same writer), with the same combination in the present 

The closeness of 


occurs in the fragmentary P Lips I. 119 recto (A.D. 274) 
τ]ῶν ἁμαρτιῷ[ν] τὰς πονηρίας συνεχῶϊς ἀϊνορθουμένων. For 
the sense of “rear again,” as Ac 1518, cf. OG/S 7108 (ii/a.D.) 
τὸ πίρ]οπύλα[ιον] χρόνῳ [διαφθαρὲ]ν [ἀἸνώρθωσεν ἐκ τοῦ 
ἰδίου ᾿Απολλώνιος ἐπ᾽ ἀγαθῶι. The noun occurs in Ρ Ryl 
Il. 157} (A.D. 135) ἔσται δὲ ἡ ἀνόρθωσις τῶν [νῦν ἀποκαθι]- 
στανομένων κοινῶν [τ]ειχῶ[ν] ἀπὸ κ]οινῶν λ[ηϊμμάτων 
‘the restoration of the common walls” (Edd.). 


This adjective, which in the NT is confined to 1 Tim 13, 
2 Tim 35, is frequently applied to the Jews in connexion with 
the great Jewish war in Egypt A.D. 115-7. See eg. P 
Giss I. 41% 4 παρὰ τὴν τῶν ἀνοσίων [᾿Του]δαίω[ν ἔφοδον, 
with the editor's introduction. So P Brem 405 (Trajan) 
(= Chrest. I. 16) pla ἣν ἐλπὶς Kal λοιπὴ προσδοκία ἢ τῶν 
ἀπὸ τοῦ νομοῦ ἡμῶν ἀθρώων κωμ[η]τῶν πρὸς τοὺς ἀνοσίους 
*Io[v8alJovs, who had just won a victory. From a later 
time comes the fragment of a letter in the correspondence 
of Heroninus (mid. iii/A.p.), P Flor 11. 2688, . . .Jevos 
ἀνοσείους [. . ., with θεῶν ἐπιτρείπόντων] in the next line, 
but no other context to help. 

P Oxy VII. τοδδ15 (iii/A.p.) ἀλλὰ ἡμερῶν ἀνοχὴν ἔχω, 
“and I have a delay of some days” (Ed.). 



For the derived noun cf. P Oxy III. 5103: (ii/A.D.) 
+» -Javeve ἀνταγίωνιστῇ) (δραχμαὶ) [. . , ina list of pay- 
ments to gymnastic performers. The verb construed with 
πρός, as in Heb 124, occurs in Préene 1715 (soon after 
B.C, 278) πρὸς τοὺς βαρβάρους ἀνταγωνίζεσθαι. 


With this expressive compound (Col 1535) cf. the similarly 
formed ἀνταναγινώσκω in the fragmentary P Petr II. 17 (1)}8, 
where with reference apparently to certain ἐγκλήματα we 
read, ἀνταναγνώσθη μοι καθότι ἀξιῶ. Its opposite ἀνταναι- 
ρέω is common in Ptolemaic land-surveys = ‘“‘subtract””. In 
P Tebt I. alone there are over twenty instances of this use 
(see Index): cf. also P Eleph 288 (iii/b.c.), and from i/A.D. 
BGU III. γηγοὶϊ 18 at εἰς ἀτέλ(ειαν) ἀνταναιρ[ούμεναι ... - 
Grimm’s citations sufficiently warrant ἀνταναπληρόω itself. 
Linde (p. 49) cites the noun (-wots) from Epicurus 11°. 


P Par 3455 (ii/B.c.) χαλκίαν τηροῦντες ἀν[τ]απ[ο]δώσωσι 
αὐτοῖς. Chrest. 11. 37211- 11 (ii/A.D.) δεῖσθαι οὗν] ἃ ὑφείλατο 
ἐπαναγκασθῆναι ἀ[ν]τα[π]οδοῦναι. P Leid W ** 34, 

figures in LXX and in Didache 5? μάταια ἀγαπῶντες, 
διώκοντες ἀνταπόδομα : we have no citations to make. 


Dr Nageli (cf. p. 36) kindly supplies us with the following 
instances of the use of this word in the inscrr. and papyri: 
Michel 913 (ii/B.c.) (= CZG 3088) . . . ὑποβολῆς ἀνταπο- 
δόσεως, Zwihos Ζωΐλου: ἀναγνώσεως, Ζωΐλος Zwidov κτλ. 
(according to the commentary in C/G ὑποβολῆς, in sense of 
ῥαψῳδίας, is dependent on ἀνταποδόσεως) ; CPR I., p. 59 
(a loan on a house—beginning of iv/A.D.) ἐπὰν μὴ ἀποδῶ 
τοκῖν (fut. of τοκίζω, with -ἶν for -vetv, and act. for mid.) σοι 
ἐπιγνώσωμαι (7. -ομαι) τοῦ ὑπερπίπτοντος χρόνου ἄχρις 
ἀνταποδώσεως, where the editor translates, ‘‘ wenn nicht, 
so verstehe ich mich fiir die Uberzeit bis zur Riickerstattung 
dazu, sie Dir zu verzinsen.’’ Its literary record is unex- 


For ἀ. in its more primary NT sense ““Πο]α firmly to’ 
Mt 6%4, Lk 161% (but see s.v. ἀνέχω), 1 Th 514, Tit 19, cf. 
such passages from the Κοινή as P Par 14” (ii/8.c.) οὐθενὸς 
δικαίου ἀντεχόμενοι (so BGU IV. 1187”, in Augustus’ reign, 
and P Tor 325 (ii/B.c.), and rii-14 (B.c. 116) ), P Tebt I. 4098 
(B.C. 117) (= Selectzons, p. 28) τοὺς ἐκ τῆς κώμης ὁμοθυμαδὸν 
ἀντέχεσθαι τῆς σῆς σκέπης, “‘that the inhabitants of the 
village are with one accord holding fast to your protection,” 
and P Amh II. 133! (early ii/A.p.) kal μετὰ πολλῶν 
κοπῶν ἀνηκάσαμεν (= ἠναγκ- —see under ἀναγκάζω) αὐτῶν 
ἀντασχέσθαι (/. ἀντισχ-) τῆς τούτων ἐνεργίας ἐπὶ τῷ προτέρῳ 
ἐκφορίου, ‘‘and with great difficulty I made them set to work 
at the former rent” (Edd.). The verb is very common in 
petitions, as implying that, notwithstanding the course taken, 
other claims are not lost sight of: e.g. P Oxy II. 2819° 
(A.D. 20-50), 26. 2822 (a.D. 30-5) τῶν μὲν yap ἄλλων 
τῶν ὄντων po[t] mp[ds] αὐτὴν ἀνθόξομα[ι] (1 avréx-) Kall 
ἀ]νθέξομαι, ‘this petition is without prejudice to the other 




claims which I have or may have against her” (Edd.), and 
26, IX. 1203°° (late i/A.D.) τῶν yap ὑπόντων ἡμεῖν δικαίων 
πάντων ἀντεχόμεθα καὶ ἀνθεξόμεθα, ‘for we maintain and 
shall maintain all our subsisting rights” (Ed.). The same 
combination of tenses is found in P Strass I. 7418 (a.pD. 126) 
τῶν μὲν πρὸ ἄλλων τῶν κατ᾽ ἐμαυτὸν δικα[ων ἀντέχῳμαι 
καὶ ἀνθέξ[ο]μαι ἐν οὐδενεὶ ἐλλατού[μενος], and in P Flor 
I. 8628 (i/A.D.) : see also 26. 5123 (A.D. 138-61). In P Tebt 
I. 41744. (c, B.C. 119) adt[ol] τε ἀπαρενόχλητοι ὄντες δυν[ ὦ]- 
μεθα ἀντέχεσθαι τῆς εἰσαγωγῆς Kal οὐθὲν τῶι βασιλεῖ 
διαπέσηι, the editors render ‘‘that we being undisturbed 
may be enabled to attend to the collection of the revenues 
and the interests of the king may suffer no harm.” Similarly 
BGU IV, 111618 (B.c. 13) & τῆς μισθώ(σεως). P Tebt Il. 
309%! (A.D. 116-7) ἀντεχό[μενοι καὶ ἑτέροι]ς μεταμισθοῦντες 
is rendered ‘‘resuming the land and leasing it to others.” 
It will be noticed that the instances (which might be added 
to) are all c. gen. red: gen. fers., as in the Gospels, does not 
occur among them, 


The primitive local force, surviving in ἔναντι and the Latin 
cognate ate, and conspicuous in the old Cretan dialect, 
leaves traces in the Kow7: there is an interesting discussion 
of its provenance in Wackernagel’s pamphlet, Aed/enzstica 
(Gottingen, 1907), p. 5 f. Its solitary appearance in an 
Attic inscr., and in one passage of the ‘* Halbattiker ” Xeno- 
phon, make quite natural such an abnormality in the Kowy 
as P Par 14° (the astronomical treatise of Eudoxus) ὅταν ἡ 
σελήνη τῷ ἡλίῳ ἐπισκοτήσ[ῃ] ἀντὶ τῆς ὄψεως ἡμῶν. Closely 
akin is the temporal use in Sy// 6164 (dialect of Cos, iii/B.c.) 
ayvever@ar . . ἀντὶ νυκτός, ‘ea ipsa nocte”: so Ditten- 
berger, who compares 438% (Delphi, before B.c. 400) ἀντὶ 
Féreos, and Hesychius ‘‘ avrérous τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἔτους." This 
may be seen still in P Lond 11719 (B.c. 8) (= III. p. 177) 
τιμ(ῆς) οἴνου ἀντὶ τῆς € τῶν ἐπαγομένων “‘ to cost of wine for 
the 5th of the intercalary days.” By far the commonest 
meaning of ἀντί is the simple ‘‘instead of.” P Tebt IT. 
343% (ii/A.D.) ὥστε ἀντὶ ἐλαιῶνο[ς] φ[ο(ρίμου)] ἄρουραι κτλ. 
“making 2%? arourae converted from productive oliveyard” 
(Edd.). P Giss I. 477° (ii/A.D.) a corslet bought for 360 dr. 
ἀντὶ πλείονος, “under its value.” P Rein 74 (B.c. 141?) 
avr’ ἐλευθέρου δοῦλο[ς] γενέσθαι. P Oxy VIII. 111979 (A.D. 
254) ἑτέρους ἀντ᾽ αὐτῶν. P Hib I. 170 (B.c. 247) ἵνα μὴ 
ἀντὶ φιλίας ἔχθραν [ποώ]μεθα. P Tebt 11. 302° (A.p. 71-2) 
τυγχάνομεν μερισθἸ]έντες ἐκ τοῦ δημοσίου ἀντὶ συντάξεως 
κτλ. “instead of a subvention” (Edd.). This shades into 
““in exchange for” or ‘‘in return for” : Calder 455 (c. mid. 
ili/A.D.) τόνδε σε Μυγδονίη Διονύσιον ἀντὶ β[(]ου πολλῶν 
καὶ τῆς εἰρήνης στέμμα, “thy statue here, a Dionysius (in 
marble), M. (erected, thus honouring thee with) a crown in 
return for guarding the life of many and for preserving the 
peace” (Ed.). Preisigke 678 (A.D. 216)—the writer begs to 
have the stipulated 7 artabae of wheat ἀντὶ πλειόνων τῶν 
κλεπέντων. BGU III. $22! (iii/A.p.) ὀφείλ[ι] yap por 

χαλκὸν τῶν ἐνοικίων. Kuhring p. 29 remarks that ὑπέρ has 
mostly superseded ἀντί. The formula ἀνθ᾽ οὗ with names, 
as “Epptas ἀνθ᾽ οὗ “Eppijs [ὁ kal Evda)ipwv, BGU IV. 10621 
(A.D. 236-7), has raised some discussion: see note and reff. 
there—Croénert took it as ‘‘adoptive son of,” Viereck (fol. 


lowing Wilcken) makes it = ὃ καί, In that case what are 
we to make of P Lond 11707? (iii/A.p.) (= III. p. 102) 
“Ἕκύσεως ἀνθ᾽ od ‘Extoews, “Smith a/ias Smith”? For 
ἀνθ᾽ ὧν “wherefore” or ‘‘ because” we may quote OG/S 
οοὔϑ (the Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) ἀνθ᾽ ὧν δεδώκασιν αὐτῶι 
οἱ θεοὶ ὑγίειαν κτλ., similarly 5619 (the Canopus inscr. of 
Ptolemy III. B.c. 247--21), Ρ Leid Di* (mid. ii/B.c.) σοὶ δὲ 
γίνοιτο, ἀνθ᾽ ὧν (= because) πρὸς τὸ θεῖον ὁσίως Srax[er|oar 
καὶ τῶν ἱεροδούλων . . . ἀντιλαμβάνῃ, ἐπαφροδίσια χάρις 
μορφή κτλ. In P Tebt I. 120% (i/p.c.) Τακύσι ἀνθ᾽ ὧ(ν) 
κέχρη(κε) τιμῆ(ς) KTA., ἀντί has the ordinary commercial 
sense. P Ryl II. 159'8 (A.D. 31-2) . . ἀνθ᾽] dv ἔλαβε παρὰ 
τῆς Τα[χόιτος. .. -. τοῖς δέουσι καιροῖς ‘in return for the 

. which he received from T. at the proper times.” The 
supplement depends on the parallel document P Oxy III. 
504!7 (early ii/A.p.), and is seen to be no instance of the 
conjunctional phrase ἀνθ ὧν. 


The subst. ἀντιβλήματα is found in P Oxy III. 4986 
(li/A.D.), a contract with stene-cutters, where the editors 
understand it of small stones used to insert in vacant places 
between larger ones. Vettius Valens p. 351°? ἐπειράθημεν 
kal τὰς ἀντιβαλλούσας μοίρας τῇ εὑρεθείσῃ ἐπισυντιθέναι. 
ὅπως ἡ ἑτέρα χρηματίσει μοῖρα, ‘‘the corresponding parts” 


A literary citation may be given for this NT ἅπ. εἰρ. (2 
Tim 255) : Longinus de Swddim. 17 has πρὸς τὴν πειθὼ τῶν 
λόγων πάντως ἀντιδιατίθεται, ‘steels himself utterly against 
persuasive words” (Roberts). 


For this common legal word we may refer to the interesting 
lawsuit regarding the identity of a child, which recalls so 
vividly 1 Kings 3}: the prosecuting advocate states that 
his client had put the foundling in the defendant’s charge— 
τοῦτο ἐνεχείρισεν τῆι ἀντιδίκωι (P Oxy I. 3718 (A.D. 49) 
(= Selections, p. 49). Cf. P Ryl II. 6515 (B.c. 67 2), P Oxy 
IL. 237% 34, 9% viii. 12 (Α, Ὁ, 186), BGU 11. 5927 (ii/a.p.), P 
Strass I. 41%23f (c. a.D. 250). ᾿Αντίδικος may be used 
of public opponents, as when the citizens of Abdera appeal- 
ing to Rome against annexation by Cotys the Thracian speak 
of τοὺς προ]νοουμένους Tod ἀντιδίκου ἡμῶν (.Sy// 30374, before 
B.C. 146). It also is used in the plural, of a body of oppo- 
nents, as several times in Sy// 512 (ii/B.C.), the case of the 
children of Diagoras of Cos versus the town of Calymnus ; 
also of the two parties, as in P Lille I. 293" (iii/B.c.), παρόντων 
τῶν & Silco, king of Nubia (vi/A.D.), concludes his ambiti- 
ous effort at Greek with a terrible threat against ot ἀντίδικοί 
pov: this is the wider use found in 1 Pet 5° and the LXX, 
with classical warrant. The verb appears in Prezsigke 
2055% (iv/v A.D.) . - ]"Apews ἀντιδικησαντί. . ., and 
the abstract in P Tor I. 1% 8! (8.6, 117) αὐτοὶ Kal τὴν 
πρὸς tov “Epplav κρίσιν ἐγδικάσαντες ἐκστήσωσιν αὐτὸν 
τῆς πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἀντιδικίας. 

The verbal adj. is used in a report of ii/B.C. regarding the 
peculations of certain officials, P Tebt I. 2453, one of the 

47 ἀντιλαμβάνομαι 

charges against them being that they had ‘‘ wormed them- 
selves” (αὑτοὺς ἐνειληκότων) into certain positions ἀντιθέταις 
τῆς καθ᾽ ἑαυτοὺς ἀσχολία (/.—as), ‘inconsistent with their 
own work” (Edd.). 

ἀντικαθίστη μι. 

P Oxy I. 97° (A.D. 115-6) περὶ ἧς ἀντ[εἸκατέστη αὐτοῖς 
ἐπὶ τοῦ τοῦ νομοῦ [σ]τρ(ατηγοῦ) ᾿Απολλωνίο(υ), BGU 
I. 168" (probably A.D. 169) mp[d]s ἣν καὶ ἀν]τικατέσ[την] 
ἐπὶ Αἰλίου, and 1.1 ἐφ᾽ οὗ καὶ ἀντικατέϊσήτην... πρὸς 
τὸν Οὐαλέριον. For the subst. see P Oxy II. 2608 δ (a.p. 59) 
ἐξ ἧς ἐποιησάμε[θα] πρὸς] ἑαυτοὺ (1. -ovs) ἐπὶ τοῦ στρατηγοῦ 

- ἀντικαταστάσεως, “in consequence of our confronting 
each other before the strategus” (Edd.); BGU III. 8687 
(li/A.D.) ἐν] δὲ] τῇ γενομένῃ ἐπὶ σοῦ, κύριε, ἀ[ν]τικατα- 
ἰστάσει, and Sy// 3557 (Chios, c. A.D. 3) ὕστερον δὲ ἑκατέρου 
μέρους ἐξ ἀντικαϊτα] στάσεως περὶ τῶν κατὰ μέρος ζητημάτων 
ἐν(τ)υχόντος διήκουσα. 

P Par 455 (ς. B.C. 153) (= Witkowski?, p. 85) Μενέδημον 
ἀντικείμενον ἡμῖν. 


Thackeray, Gr. p. 136, notes its use for “ opposite” (3 Macc 
518, Ac 2015) as ‘‘late”: see his note on these words with 
movable -s. Cf. P Oxy I. 43 vwersoili-20 (4.p. 295) 
καταμένων ἄντικρυς οἰκίας ᾿Εἰπιμάχου. P Tebt IT. 3954 
(A.D. 150) ἄντικρυς Τυχαίου, ‘‘opposite the temple of 
Fortune,” P Oxy II]. 471% (ii/A.p.) ἄντικρυς ἁπάντων, 
“in the presence of all.” P Lond 9788 (a.p. 331) Garr 
Ῥ. 233) kal kar’ ἄντικρυ[. . . is before a hiatus. The 
(Attic) compound καταντικρύ(ς) occurs in Apoc Petr 6, 
εἶδον δὲ καὶ ἕτερον τόπον καταντικρὺς ἐκείνου αὐχμηρὸν 
πάνυ, καὶ ἣν τόπος κολάσεως, “over against that other.” 
In P Hawara 116 verso 3.11 (= Archiv v. p. 385 f.) (Anto- 
ninus Pius) we read ἀντικρὺ Tuxatov]: clearly this may as 
well have been ἄντικρυς. 


This common verb is found in the general sense of “lay 
hold of,” ‘‘undertake,” in P Lond 3018! (a.p. 138-61) 
(=II. p. 256) ὀμνύω... ἀντιλήμψασθαι τῆς χρείας 
πιστῶς καὶ ἐπιμελῶς : so P and 3313 (Commodus), rendered 
“*se officio suo bene functuros esse.” P Oxy IX. τι96}3 5. 
(A.D. 211-2) ὀμνύω... ἀντιλήμψαισθαι (7. ε.--- εσθαι) τῷ 
προσήκοντι χρόνῳ τῆς δηλουμένης χρείας, καὶ ταύτην ἐκτε- 
λέσιν, ““1 do swear that I will take up at the proper time the 
said office and will discharge it” (Ed.) : in the first two -ασθαι 
has intruded into the weakened future inf., now getting rare. 
P Flor I. 47a"* (A.D. 213-7) ἐντεῦθεν δὲ ἑκάτερο]ν ἀντιλαμβάνε- 
σθαι kal χρᾶσθαι kal οἰκονομῖν kal διοι[κεῖν. Cf. P Rein 474 
(ii/A.D.) τῇς] γ[εωρ]γίας a. P Oxy VIII. 11238 (A.D. 158-9) 
ὁμολογῶ ἀπὸ Tod νῦν ἀντιλήμψεσθαι τῆς. [. «(ἸἼτης avaypa- 
φομένης εἰς τὸν μετηλίλαχότα σου] πατέρα, “I agree that 
I will henceforward undertake all the public land registered 
in the name of your departed father” (Ed.). So BGU II. 
531: * (ii/A.D.) παρακαλῶι δέ σε, ἄδελφε, ἀντιλα[β]έσθαι 
τῆ[Ξ τ]ρυγί[αΞς] to ‘‘set to” the vintage, and P Tebt II. 39313 
(A.D. 150) ἔπ [1] τῷ “Αρπαΐλον ἀ]ντιλαβέσθαι ταύτης ποιοῦντα 
πᾶσαν τὴν ὑπηρείσία]ν, “on condition that H. shall occupy 

> / 


this post performing all the duties.” From this come two 
derived senses, of which only the first is represented in the 
NT, (1) ‘‘aid,” ‘‘succour” of a friend, (2) ‘‘seize” of an 
opponent. Good examples of (1) are P Petr IT. 3 (4)? (iii/B.c.) 
σὺ δὲ ἀφιλοτίμως pov ἀντιλαμβάνηι, P Par 2777! καθότι οὐ 
διαλείπεις ἡμῶν ἀντιλαμβανόμενος, P Grenf I. 308f (B.c. 
103) ἐ[φ7᾽ ols ἂν οὖν ὑμῶν προσδέωνται ἀντιλαμβανόμενοι, 
BGU IV. 113874 (Aug.) tv’ ὧι ἀντιλημμέ(νος), and the ex- 
pressive double compound in P HibI. 82!7(B.c. 239-8) καλῶς 
οὖν [π]οιήσεις συναν[τι]λ[α]μβανόμενος προθύμως περὶ τῶν 
eis ταῦτα συγκυρόντων, ‘‘ please therefore to give your zealous 
co-operation in all that concerns this” (Edd.). Cf. OG/S 
697! (a Roman inscription from Egypt, on the graves of 
murdered men) ἀντιλα(β)οῦ, κύριε Σάραπι. Dittenberger 
quotes P Fay 12% (B.C. 103) τούτων δὲ γενομένων ἔσομαι 
ἀντειλημμένος, the passive. In OG/S 51°F (iii/B.c.) καὶ κατ᾽ 
ἰδίαν ἑκάστου καὶ κατὰ κοινὸν πάντων ἀντιλαμβάνεται, the 
verb must have the same sense. 70. 339% (ii/B.c.) shows 
gen. of thing, τῆς τε ἄλλης εὐσχημοσύνης τῆς κατὰ τὸ 
γυμνάσιον ἀντελάβετο. For (2), where the meaning is 77 
malam partem, see such passages as BGU II. 64810 (ii/a.p.) 
βιαίως ἀντι[λ]αμβάνονται τ[ο]ῦ πατρικοῦ μου μέρους, P Lond 
92412 (Α.Ὁ. 187- 8) (ΞΞ 11. p. 135) βιαίως ἀντέλαβον τὸ τῆς 
γῆς : other examples in Gradenwitz, Zinfiihrungi. p. 18. For 
the subst. ἀντιλήμπτωρ, formerly regarded as ‘‘ peculiar to the 
LXX” (Cremer?) Deissmann (2S p. 91) cites P Lond 23 
(B.c. 158-7) (=I. p. 38), in which a petitioner claims the 
King and Queen as his ἀντιλήμπτορες, and says he finds his 
καταφυγή in them: cf. for the same conjunction of words 
LXX 2 Regn 22%. Add BCU IV. 1138!® (cited above), where 
a Roman official is invoked as τὸν πάντ(ων) σωτῆ(ρα) 
καὶ ἀντιλ(ήμπτορα)---ἰπὸ same phrase without abbreviations 
occurs in a papyrus of the same collection cited in Archev 
vy. p. 81 n?. 


The strong sense of ἀ. in Rom 10”, 
oppose” may be illustrated by P Oxy VIII. 1148°% 
(i/A.D.) where an oracle is consulted as to whether it is 
better for a certain man and his wife μὴ συμφωνῆσαι viv 
τῷ πατρὶ α(ὐτοῦ) ἀλλὰ ἀντιλέγειν καὶ μὴ διδόναι γράμματα, 
“not to agree now with his father, but to oppose him and 
make no contract ” (Ed.). A somewhat weaker usage appears 
in Syd/ 523°! (iii/B.c.) ἐὰν δὲ οἱ γραμματοδιδάσκαλοι ἀντι- 
λέγωσιν πρὸς αὑτοὺς περὶ τοῦ πλήθους τῶν παίδων, 20. 540%° 
(ii/B.c.), ἐὰν δὲ πρὸς αὑτοὺς ἀντιλέγωσιν οἱ ἐργῶναι περί 
τινος τῶν γεγραμμένων. Cf. also P Oxy I. 6γ᾽} (a dispute 
regarding property, A.D. 338) εἰ πρὸς τὴν Tov... 
πίέδίων] ἀποκατάστασιν .. . οἱ ἐΐ -- αἰἸτιαθ[έν)τες ἀντι- 
λέγοιεν, ‘if the accused persons protest against the restora- 
tion of the estates” (Edd.), 76. X. 1252 verso8? (A.D. 288- 
95) ἀντιλέγοντες ἔρρωνται, ‘‘ persist in their refusal ’’ (Edd.), 
and 24. 11. 237% }8 (petition of Dionysia, A.D. 186) 9 δὲ παρὼν 
ἀναγνωσθέντος τοῦ βιβλειδίου mpd βήματος ἐσιώπησεν, οὐδὲν 
ἀντειπεῖν δυνά[με]νο[ς] : so CPHerm γί 15 (?ii/aA.p.) εἰ δὲ 
θέλετε ἑτέραν γενέσθαι οὐκ ἀντιλέγω, οὐ γὰρ δύναμαι. 

*€ contradict,”’ 



Like the verb, the subst. frequently has the meaning 
“‘help” in petitions, e.g. P Par 26% (B.c, 163-2) (= Se/ec- 
dions, p. 17) δεόμεθα οὖν ὑμῶν, play ἔχουσαι ἐλπίδα τὴν 

48 ἀντιπαρέρχομαι 

ὑφ᾽ ὑμῶν ἐσομένην ἀντίληψιν, ἀποστεῖλαι ἡμῶν τὴν ἔντευξιν 
ἐπὶ Διονύσιον, ‘ we beg you, therefore, having as our one 
hope the assistance that lies in your power, to send away 
our petition to Dionysius,” P Amh II. 3557 (B.c. 132) 
τυχόντες τῆς Tapa σ[ο]ῦ ἀντιλήψεως, P Grenf 1. 15! (not 
later than B.C. 146 or 135) σῆς δικαίας ἀντιλήψεως, BGU 
IV. 118777 (i/p.c.). For the extension of this meaning to 
religious matters in the LXX and in 1 Cor 1238, see BS 
p- 92. It should be noted that the p which WH insert in 
the noun in this last passage begins to invade it even in the 
earlier documents: cf. γον. p. 56. Thus P Lond 237° 
(B.c. 158) (=I. p. 38) ἧς ἔχετε πρὸς mavras ... ἀντι- 
Ap ews, and the same phrase in P Tebt I. 4339 (B.c. 118): 
cl. P Tebt 11. 283° (B.c. 93 or 60) τούτου δὲ γενομ[έ]νου 
ἔσομαι τετευχὼς [τῆ]ς παρὰ σοῦ ἀντιλήμψεως, ‘‘ for if this 
is done I shall have gained succour from you” (Edd). 
Later examples of the word are P Fay 296 (A.D. 113) 8d 
ἐπὶ σὲ τὴν καταφ[υ]γὴν ποιησάμενος ἀξιῶ ἐάν σοι φαίνηται 
ἀντιλήμψεως τυχεῖν πρὸς τὸ δύνασθαί με ἐπιμένιν ἐν τῇ ἰδίᾳ 
διευθύνων τὰ δημοσίᾳ, and BGU II. 613 (time of Antoninus 
Pius) δεόμενος τῆς ἀπὸ σοῦ ἀντιλήμψεως τ[υχεῖ]ν. 


The disputed meaning ‘‘ opposition” in act (see Thayer) 
finds fresh confirmation in P Petr II. 17 (3)? (iii/B.c.) where 
ἀντιλογίαν γενομένην ᾿Ατταλῶι refers to an ‘‘ assault.” 
The word is fairly common, meaning ‘‘ quarrel,” as P 
Grenf I. 388 (ii/i B.c.) ἀντιλογίαν πρός pe συνστησάμενος, P 
Ryl II. 681° (8.6. 89) ἐμπεσοῦσα] ἐξ ἀντιλο[γ]ίας ἔπληξέν] 
μέ, ‘attacking me in consequence of a dispute” (Edd.), and 
P Tebt I. 138 (late ii/B.c.). So in the formula ἄνευ (χωρὶς) 
πάσης ἀντιλογίας, ‘‘ without dispute,” in formal promises to 
pay money, etc. : BGU IV. 1133} (Aug.), P Strass I. 75} 
(A.p. 118), P Lond 310!8 (a.p. 146) (=II. p. 208) (ἀντι- 
λογίας γεινομένης), Wilcken Os¢v 1151 (ili/A.D.), P 
Flor I. 4315 (Α.Ὁ. 370) and 24. 9413 (a.p. 491). Cf. Syl 
929" (ii/B.c.) ὑπ᾽ οὐδενὸς ἀντιλογίας, 26. 334% (i/B.C.). 

P Petr III. 21 (9)39 (late iii/B.c.) ἐμοῦ δέ ge ἀντιλοιδοροῦν- 
τος follows ἐλοιδόρησας φαμένη κτλ. : cf. 1 Pet 2%. 


For this rare NT word (Lk 6538) Herwerden refers to the 
Byzantine Theophyl. Sim. p. 48, 25 (I. 5, 5) ἀ. ἀμοιβὴν 
ἀξίαν τοῖς βεβιωμένοις. Grimm cites Lucian, Amor. 19, 
which is stronger evidence for its ‘ profaneness.” 

> , 

No instance of this Pauline word (Rom 157, 2 Cor 63) 
seems as yet to have been found outside Christian literature, 
This, however, may be wholly accidental; and there is 
certainly nothing in the word itself to exclude it from the 
ordinary terminology of the day: see for further examples 
of the same kind Nageli p. 50 ff. 


Lk 10%" can hardly have acquired this word from 
Wisd 161°, where the sense is markedly different. It is 
quoted from Straton (ii/A.D. ?), who writes (dnth. Pal. 128) 
ἀντιπαρερχόμενος τὰ στεφανηπλόκια : Meineke took the 


rather needless trouble to emend ἄρτι παρ.---αἰά he know 
that the word occurred in Biblical literature? If the com- 
pound is rightly read there, it might be a new coinage, as it 
may well be in Wisdom and in Luke. Any writer was free 
to make a fresh compound like this for a special purpose. 
Straton was morally the most tainted writer in the Anthology, 
and we may be quite sure he owed as little to Holy Wnit 
as it owed to him! 


Deissmann (Sp. 187) calls attention to the appearance of 
[ΑἸντιπάτρου in Perg 11. 524? (“ not older than Caracalla?”) : 
that the full form of the name is used may be evidence that 
this later Pergamene was not called after the martyr. 

This NT ἅπ. elp., warranted from Polybius, is perhaps to 
be supplied in P Oxy I. 141° (A.D. 503) τοῖς ἀγροφύλαξ(ι) 
. . « φυλάττουσίι) τὸ ἀντιπελ ( ), with reference to guards 
who protected estates on the further bank (probably of the 
Bahr Yusuf). 


P Leid D* (ii/B.c.), one of the letters of Ptolemaeus in the 
cause of the Serapeum Twins, has μηδὲν ἀντιπεσόν[τ]α, 
“not opposing me.” 


The verb occurs twice in P Oxy IV. 707i 17, 38 (c, a.p. 
136), a report of legal proceedings, with reference to the 
opposing party. P Cattaoui verso} 7 (mid. ii/A.D.) (= Chrest. 
II. p. 98) τῆς ἀντιτεταγμένης ἀρτίως Δρουσίλλας. There 
are several instances in OGZS in a military sense, which was 
of course the earliest. 


The meaning “‘impress” is rightly given by LS for τύπος 
as the first that arises from the etymology, and it is well 
supported in classical and post-classical writers. Hence, 
though “profane” examples for ἀντίτυπος(-ον) = ‘‘corre- 
sponding” (adj.) or ‘‘image” (noun) are rare, we can take 
the use in Heb 9525 and 1 Pet 374 (‘‘ answering to”) as the 
survival of a primitive meaning. Note also Polyb. vi. 318 
τοῖς δ᾽ ἱππεῦσι τούτοις ἀντίτυποι τίθενται, of auxiliary 
infantry posted ‘‘ opposite” the cavalry, in a corresponding 

position. In MGr written language ἀ. means ‘“‘copy”’ of a 

> , 


Grimm suggests that John (1 Jn 215 εἰς.) coined the word : 
Bousset (Antichrist Legend p. 136) says it ‘is not older than 
the NT.” It seems obvious, from the manner of its first 
introduction, that it was at any rate quite familiar to the 
readers of 1 Jn and 2 Jn; but it might easily have been 
introduced by the author in his earlier teaching. The most 
probable model would be ἀντίθεος (‘‘aemulus Dei” in Lac- 
tantius), for which Cumont (Zes Religions Orientales? p- 
387) cites a magical papyrus, πέμψον μοι τὸν ἀληθινὸν 
᾿Ασκληπιὸν δίχα τινὸς ἀντιθέου πλανοδαίμονος. It was a 
term applied to the daéva of Magian religion, on whom see 

Part I, 

49 ἄνυδρος 

Early Zoroastrianism (Hibbert Lectures 1912), ch. iv.: 
they were ‘‘ counter-gods.” Whether John means primarily 
‘fa rival Christ” or ‘‘an opponent of Christ” or ‘‘a substi- 
tute for Christ ” may be left to the commentators. The first 
and third may be paralleled by the two senses of ἀντιστρά- 
t™yos, “‘the enemy’s general” and ‘“‘pro-praetor”: cf. 
ἀντισύγκλητος, the name Marius gave to his bodyguard, as 
an ‘‘ opposition Senate,” ἀντιχόρηγος ‘ rival choregus,” and 
ἀντιταμίας ““ pro-quaestor” etc. The second is less easily 
paralleled: Caesar's ᾿Αντικάτων, a counterblast to Cicero’s 
Cato, may serve. Generally speaking, dvti—x suggested 
(1) the claim to be «x, (2) opposition to, equivalence to (cf. 
Homeric ἀντίθεος, and the name ᾿Αντίπατρος), substitution 
for an existing x. 


P Oxy VI. 985 (i/A.D., second half) ἀνηλώμα(τος) Φαύστῳ 
ἀντλοῦντι μηχα(νήν), P Lond 1177% (a.p. 113) (= IIL. p. 
183) ἀντλούντων ἀπὸ πρωίας ἕως ὀψέ. In the late P Oxy I. 
147 (A.D. 556) we have a receipt for a ‘‘ rope” or ‘‘ coil” 
provided by the monks for the machine in the garden of the 
Holy Mary ἐπὶ τῷ ἀντλῆσαι ὕδωρ εἰς τὴν ἁγί(αν) κολυμβή- 
θραν, ‘‘ for raising water to fill the holy font.” The subst. 
ἀντλητής Occurs in P Lond 1177 (cited above), P Tebt I. 
241 (B.C. 74) and P Strass I. 5215 (a.p. 151) ; and ἀντλία in 
BGU IV. 1120 (B.c. 5). For the compound ἀναντλέω 
used metaphorically, see P Vat Al (B.c. 168) (= Witkowski?, 
p- 65) τοιούτους καιροὺς ἀνηντληκυῖα : similarly P Hawara 
567° (Ὁ late i/a.D.) (Archiv v. p. 382) ἀρρωστίαν ἰσοθάνατο(ν) 
[é&]qvtAnoa—presumably [ἀν]ήντλησα is as likely, in view 
of the parallel just cited. 


““Verbum elegantius = resistere,” so Blass on Ac 631, 
where the word is: found in his ‘‘ B-text,” μὴ δυνάμενοι οὖν 
ἀντοφθαλμεῖν (ἀντιλέγειν) τῇ ἀληθείᾳ : cf. the Polybian 
passage cited by Schweighauser (with a wrong reference) in 
Lex Polyb. s.v., μὴ ϑύνασθαι τοῖς χρήμασιν ἀντοφθαλμεῖν. 
In the ordinary text of the NT ἀ. occurs only in Ac 27 of a 
vessel’s not being able to ‘‘face” the wind: cf. Wisd 12%, 
of a king or prince who cannot ‘‘look God in the face” 
(ἀντοφθαλμῆσαί σοι), and Afoc. Baruch 7 (p. 89, ed. James) 
οὗ τὴν θέαν οὐκ ἠδυνήθημεν ἀντοφθαλμῆσαι Kal ἰδεῖν. For 
a similar usage see Barnab. 51°, and cf. Clem. Rom. 34 of an 
idle workman—6 νωθρὸς Kal παρειμένος οὐκ ἀντοφθαλμεῖ 
τῷ ἐργοπαρέκτῃ αὐτοῦ, ‘does not look his employer in the 

The word was read in the printed text of P Par 634°, but 
is removed by Mahaffy (P Petr III. p. 23), who reads avr’ 
ὀφθαλμ[ῶ]ν [θεμένου]ς, ““ keeping it before your eyes.” The 
parallel compound ἐ[π]οφθαλμήσασα occurs in P Théad τοῦ 
(iv/A.D.) ‘ayant jeté un ceil d’envie sur le troupeau” (Ed.). 


OGIS 1997 (i/A.D.) οἰκοῦντα ἐντὸς πεδίων μεγάλων 
aviSpwy—the ““ waterless” deserts stretching to the south 
and west of Abyssinia. P Oxy VI. g18ii-1° (a land-survey, 
ii/A.D.) μεθ᾽ (ἣν) γύη[ς &]vvbp(os). P Lips Inv 3485 (a.pD. 
376-8) (= Chrest. II. p. 86) avéSpapov . . . δι᾽ ἀνύδρων ὀρῶν. 
The subst. is found in the petition of certain quarrymen to 
be transferred to the alabaster quarries on account of the 


ἀνυπόκριτος 50 

want of water in the place where they were working—8a 
τὴν ἀνυδρίαν τῶν τόπων [τῶνδ]ε (P Petr IT. 9 (2) (iii/B.c.)). 

To the literary citations for this word given by Nageli, 
P- 43, we may add Demetrius de Z/oc. 194. 


In the great Paris magic papyrus (edited by Wessely, 
Wien. Denkschr. XXXVI. ii. pp. 44 ff.) 1367 we find ἀνυπο- 
τάκτους following σιδηροψύχους ἀγριοθύμους. Moeris (ed. 

Pierson), p. 34, defines ἀφηνιαστής by ἀνυπότακτος, 
ὑπερήφανος. See further Nageli, p. 45. 

Tob δ δὲ ἀπέδραμεν τὸ δαιμόνιον ἄνω εἰς τὰ μέρη Αἰγύ- 
πτου---οΥ ΘΓ authorities for this recension have εἰς τὰ ἄνω μέρη 
—raises some problems, on which reference may be made to 
Early Zoroastrianism, Ὁ. 338, and D. C. Simpson zz doc. 
(Oxford Apocrypha). For the text as it stands good illustra- 
tion may be found in the Egyptian documents, P Leid Di1é 
εἰς τοὺς ἄνω τόπους, ‘‘ad loca superiora,” and the con- 
temporary OGZS 1117 (after B.C. 163) ἐπὶ τῶν ἄνω τόπων 
[ταχθείς]. Cf. P Petr 11. 33 (a) A‘ (a steward’s account) 
ἄρτων τῶν ἀποσταλέντων σοι ἄνω, P Oxy IV. 7448 (B.c. 1) 
(= Selections, Ὁ. 33) ἀποστελῶ σε ἄνω, “T will send them 
up to you” (from Alexandria): on σέ = σοί, cf. Proleg. 
p- 64. For ἡ ἄνω κλῆσις in Phil 344 the RV mg (= ‘‘the 
call, Come τεῦ ! ) is apparently presumed in Afoc. Baruch 4 
(p. 87%3, ed. James) ἐν αὐτῷ μέλλουσιν τὴν ἄνω κλῆσιν 
προσλαβεῖν, καὶ τὴν εἰς παράδεισον εἴσοδον. A curious 
metrical epitaph (no. 69) in Prof. Calder’s Phrygian col- 
lection, dated by him after the middle of iv/a.D., begins 

viv ἀγαπᾷς σὺ μαθεῖν τίς ἐγὼ ξένος, ἢ πόθεν ἦλθα ; 
ἐγ λεγεῶνος ἄνω θεμέν[ων] βασιλξα μέγιστον, 

which he renders ‘‘ from the legion of those that have set the 
mighty king on high.” In P Fay 1o1 verso 1.15 (an account, 
about B.C. 18) we find ἄνω: Παῦνι δ ἕως *Emelp ve, where 
the editors explain ἄνω as indicating that the following dates 
“*Pauni 4 to Epeiph 15” should have headed the account, 
instead of coming at the end. The superlative ἀνωτάτω 
occurs in P Lond 1170 verso (c)! (A.D. 42) (= III. p. 107) 
τῇ ἀνωτάτω χρήσομαι τειμωρίᾳ, ‘the highest penalty ”— 
an unusual application: cf. Epict. iii, 2453 ἡ ἀνωτάτω καὶ 
κυριωτάτη (sc. ἄσκησις). The compound ἐπάνω (g.v.) is 
represented in MGr. 


In P Petr III. 43(2) 15.117 (B.c. 246) ἄνωθεν is found in 
opposition to κάτω : Azat contextus. P Hib I. 110% (records 
of postal service, ¢. B.C. 255) Spas πρώτης παρέδωκεν 
Θεύχρ[η]στος ἄνοθεν Δινίαι κυ(λιστοὺς) ¥, ‘‘ Ist hour, Theo- 
chrestus delivered to Dinias 3 rolls from the upper country ” 
(Edd.). Ανοθεν appears again twice in this document, and 
κάτοθεν ‘‘from the lower country.” (This is a very early 
example of the approximation of o and @, on which see 
Proleg.® pp. 244 and 35 f.). BGU IV. 1208? (Aug.) 
KatayTH[oals ἐκ τῶν ἄνωθεν [τόπων]... ἐκομισά[μη]ν 
Sia Σωτηρίχου κτὰ. In P Tebt I. 599", 10 (B.c. 99) ἣν ἔχετε 
πρὸς ἡμᾶς ἄνωθεν πατρικὴν φιλίαν, and διὰ τὸ ἄνωθεν 


φοβεῖσθαι καὶ σέβεσθαι τὸ ἱερόν, the editors translate ‘or 
old.” P Oxy IT. 237}}:81. (a,b, 186) ὅπερ οὐ καλῶς ἐνδέχεται 
εἰ μὴ ἄνωθεν γένοιτο ἀντίγραφα, ‘this cannot be done 
adequately unless copies are made from the beginning” 
(Edd.). In P Oxy IV. 718% (a.p. 180-92) ἔτι δὲ ἄνῳβ[ε]ν 
τῶν δημοσίων ἀποδιδομένων, the editors translate ‘although 
the imposts have for years been paid.” But ‘‘ completely,” 
“from the beginning” may equally be the sense of ἄνωθεν : 
cf. 2. 745. 8. (c, A.D. 1) pl}. - Jvel.]- aL. . Jva ἄνωθεν 
γείνηται πάντα καὶ πάλιν ἑατοὺς ἀνασκευάζωμε[ν] μὴ οὔσης 
Χρήας, ‘‘in order that everything may not be completely . . . 
and we go bankrupt again without any necessity” (Edd.). 
In BGU II. 595° (a.p. 70-80) the meaning ‘‘ again,” 
““a second time,” seems best to suit the context. A certain 
Sochotes, wishing to repay a loan, did not find his creditor— 
τοῦ δὲ σὲ μὴι εὑρεθῆναι ἀποδέδωκε αὐτὰς ἄνωθον (for 
ἄνωθεν) ἵνα φιλάνθρωπον εἰς δύο τόπους μὴι χορηγῆι, where 
Lietzmann (Gv. Pag. p. 14) understands by φιλάνθρωπον a 
gratuity: ‘‘S. has once paid it and would have to pay it 
again, if he went back home with the borrowed money; 
therefore he returns it immediately.” Other examples of the 
word are CPR 179 (i/A.D.) καθὼς ἄνωθεν εἴθιστο, P Tebt II. 
298% (A.D. 107) ἀκολούθως τῇ ἄν[ωθ]εν συνηθείᾳ, BGU IV. 
1074? (iii/A.D.) τοῖς ἄνωθεν προγόνοις, and P Oxy IX. 12044 
(A.D. 299) δεδέηται τῆς θείας τύχης ἔτι ἄνωθεν τῶν δεσποτῶν 
ἡμῶν. The usage of the inscriptions follows on similar 
lines. Dittenberger (Sy// III. p. 256) enumerates three 
meanings—(1) de swfero 537° ἐπεργάσεται ὀρθὸν καὶ ὁμαλὲς 
ἄνωθεν, (2) antiguztus 9298! νόμοις γὰρ ἱεροῖς... ἄνωθεν 
διεκεκώλυτο ἵνα μηθείς KTA., (3) aer2200 732" γενηθεὶς δὲ] καὶ 
παραίτιος τῆς ἄνωθεν συλλογῆς, a decree of i/B.C. referring 
to the revival of certain sacred practices which had ceased 
for some time. 


For this comparative with reference to time, cf. Sy// 307% 
(ii/B.c.) ἔτει ἀνώτερον tpl[tw], 26. 3188 (B.c. 118) τὸν 
ἀνώτερον μὲν χρόνον πάντα διατετέλεκεν. In P Giss I. 48% 
(A.D. 202-3) we find the -w form, τοῖς ἀνωτέρω ἔτεσι. 


P Lond 908" (A.D. 139) (= IIL. p. 133) ὅπως εἰδῇ ἄκυρον 
kal ἀνωφελὲς κριθησόμενον ὃ μετέδωκεν ὑπόμνημα. The same 
document has κενῶς kal [ἀ]νωφελῶς (]. 28). In P Hawara 
56” (Plate i/A.D.) (= Archiv ν. p. 382) we find a derived 
subst., ὅτι ἀρρωστίαν ἰσοθάνατο(ν) [ἐξ]ῆήντλησα Kal ἄλλας 
πολλὰς ἀνωφελίας. 


P Magd 88 (B.c. 218) δρέπανον θεριστικὸν οὗ τιμὴ (δρα- 
χμὰς) B, ἀξίνη (δραχμὰς) B. Herwerden s.v. κλῇς recalls 
the proverbial saying—ryq κλειδὶ τὰ ξύλα ox (le, τῇ δ᾽ ἀξίνῃ 
τὴν θύραν ἀνοίγειν (Plut. AZor. 43 C). Cf MGr ἀξινάρι. 


appears with infin. in BGU IV, ττ4115 (B.c. 14) ἐγὼ μὲν 
οὐ δοκῶι ἄξιος εἶναι ὑβρίζεσθαι. For the absolute use (as 
Mt 10!18) see P Petr If. 15 (3)8 (B.C. 241-39) τοῦτο 
δὲ ποιήσας εὐχαριστήσεις ἡμῖν κ[αὶ] ἄξιος γάρ ἐστιν ὁ 
ἄνθρωπος ἐν χρείαι[. . . where the editor translates, ‘* By 


doing this you will oblige us, [. .] for the man is worthy of 
it, [but] in need—.” The sense of ‘‘ worth,” ‘‘ value,” is 
illustrated by P Lille I. 6° (iii/n.c.), where a certain Petesuchos 
complains that robbers ἐξέδυσαν χιτῶνα ἄξιον (δραχμὰς) > 
“fa tunic worth six drachmas.” So the fem. became a noun 
=‘value”: BGU IV. 1118* (B.c. 22) πείθεσθαι περὶ τῆς 
τούτων ἀξίας, 7. 11264 (B.c. 8) ἐκτίνιν τὴν ἑκάστου ἀξίαν 
πλὴν συμφανοῦς ἀπ[ωλείας]. For ἀξίως τοῦ θεοῦ (as in 
1 Th 215, 3 Jn® etc.) see Deissmann BS p. 248 f., who shows 
that ‘‘the formula was a very popular one in Pergamus (and 
doubtless also in other localities).” He cites five inscrr., as 
Perg 1. 2487 5. (ii/B.c.), where Athenaios, a priest of Dionysios 
and Sabazius, is extolled as συ[ν]τετελεκότος τὰ ἱερὰ . .. 
εὐσεβῶς [μ]ὲγ kal ἀξίως τοῦ θεοῦ. We may add J/agn 33” 
(Gounos in Thessaly, iii/B.c.) ἀξίως [r]A[s] θ[εἸᾶς, 2. 851° Ὁ 
(Tralles) ἀξίως τῆς te’ Ἀρτέμιδος . . - καὶ [rod] . . δήμου, and 
Priene 119" (end of 1,8.6.}) πομπεύσας τῇ προστάτιδι τῆς] 
πόλεως ᾿Αθηνᾶι τῆς θεᾶς ἀξί[ως]. So P Petr II. 13 (19)4 
(ς. B.C. 252) (=Witkowski,® p. 18) οὐ] μὴν οὐδὲν ἐμοὶ [ἔσται 
μεῖῖζον ἢ σοῦ προστατῆσαίι τὸν] ἐϊπ]Ίίλοιπον βίον, ἀξίως [μὲ]ν 
σοῦ, ἀξίως δ᾽ ἐμοῦ, where the dependent gen. is neither 
divine nor a community, but has the dignity characteristic 
of the 2έσέας of this charming letter. A combination may 
be seen in the letter of Aline to her husband, P Giss I. 20% 
(ii/A.p.), following the citation under ἀξιόω below, ἵνα ἀξίως 
σοῦ Kal τῶν θεῶν ἀόκνως προσέλθῃ. The word survives in 

is very common in legal documents = ‘‘claim,” e.g. 
P Oxy I. 37/2! (a.p. 49) (= Selections, p. 50) ἀξιῶν tat [ra] 
φυλαχθῆϊν]αι, “1 demand that these (documents) be pre- 
served (in the record),” 26. II. 237% 44 (a.p. 186) ἀξιῶν τότε 
ἃ προσήνεγκα αὐτῇ ἀνακομίσασθαι, ‘claiming to recover 
what I had made over to her.” It also frequently occurs in 
the weakened sense ‘‘request,” ‘‘ask,” as P Eleph 19!8 
(iii/B.c.) ἀξιῶ oe ἀνακαλέσασθαι Μίλωνα, P Par 49} 5. 
(B.c. 164-58) (= Witkowski?, p. 70) τοῦ δὲ ἀδελφοῦ σου 
συμπεσόντος por... Kal ἀξιώσαντός pe, P. Oxy IV. 805 
(B.C. 25) ἀξιῶ δὲ ἀντιφωνεῖν [μ]οι πυκνότερον, P Giss I. 20% 
(ii/A.D.) ἀξιώσεις οὖν δίστιχον αὐτῶι γραφῆναι (can this 
mean ‘‘ you will arrange that . . .” ?). For ἀξιόω of prayer 
(as LXX Jer γιδ, 1112) cf. P Par 51“ (a dream from the 
Serapeum, B.C. 160) (= Selections, p. 20) ἠξίωκα τὸν 
Σάραπιν καὶ τὴν Ἶσιν λέγων" ENGE μοι, θεὰ θεῶν κτλ., and 
Syl/ 8161 (ii]i B.C.) ἐπικαλοῦμαι καὶ ἀξιῶ τὸν θεὸν τὸν ὕψιστον 
++. ἐπὶ τοὺς δόλωι φονεύσαντας κτλ. (See Deissmann 2.4.2 
Ρ- 423 ff.) The verb occurs in OG/S 2017 (the Silco inscrip- 
tion, vi/A.D.) αὐτοὶ ἠξίωσάν με, where Dittenberger renders, 
**dignitatem meam regiam agnoyverunt.” For a similar use 
of the noun ἀξίωμα, see P Tebt I. 334 (B.c. 112) (= Selections, 
Ῥ- 30) ἐν μίζονι ἀξιώματι κα[λ] τιμῆι. For the LXX usage of 
ἀξίωμα = ‘request, petition” (Esther 558, 7°f etc.), Deiss- 
mann (BS p. 92 f.) refers to the confirmation afforded by 
the inscriptions, e.g. Sy/2 303° (before k.c. 146) περὶ ἧς 
(χώρας) ἐπιδοὺς ἀξίωμα βασιλεὺς Θρᾳκῶν Κότί[υς] . .. 
ἥτει τὴν π]άτριον ἡμῶν χώραν. Frankel on erg I. 13} 
(iii/B.c.) describes it as very rare: see his exx. 

P Leid Wii 97 (occult) has ἀ. among divine epithets, also 
vil. 41 of fire (!). From Hellenistic times comes the Milesian 


᾽ , 

epitaph Kazbe/ 223 ἀνύσαντά σε τὰν ἀόρατον. . ατρατατου 

(ἀτραπιτὸν Ed.) βιότου : ““ videtur via dici quam qui sequitur 

nescit quo ducit.” The subst. occurs in J/agn 1144 διὰ τὴν 
- ἀορασίαν τῶν ἀρτοκόπων. 


The verb = ““σεροσῖΐ, announce ” (as Mk 68°) is found in 
PLond 4275 ff-(B.c. 168) (=I. p. 30, Se/ections, p. 11) ἔτι δὲ 
Kal’ Qpov τοῦ τὴν ἐπιστολὴν παρακεκομικόϊτο]ς ἀπηγγελκότος 
ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀπολελύσθαι σε ἐκ τῆς κατοχῆς παντελῶς ἀηδί- 
fopar, ‘Sand now that Horus who brought the letter has 
reported about your having been released from your retreat, 
I am utterly distressed.” So P Tebt II. 2977 (c. A.D. 123) 
ἀπήνγ[ειλεν τὴν τάξιν ὡς ὀφείλουσαν πραθῆναι, ‘reported 
that the office ought to be sold.” Abbott, Joh. Voc. p. 164, has 
a good note on the force of ἀπ. = ‘report, bring word” in 
Jn 16%: he illustrates it from Epictetus. In the interesting 
proceedings before a Roman Emperor, P Oxy I. 33 (late 
ii/A.D.), the word seems almost to have the legal sense of 
“appeal,” as when the accused man exclaims, ¥- ° ff ; 
ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐμαυτοῦ εὐγενείας... amayyéAA[w], ‘I appeal on 
behalf of my nobility ” (Edd.). 

2 ἐς 


The verb is found four times in P Oxy I. 33 (late ii/a.D.), 
of one being ‘‘led off” to death, which may perhaps deter- 
mine the meaning in Ac 1279: the guards were not merely 
‘‘imprisoned,” but ‘led away to death” (RV mg). Lk 2355, 
with the Vulgate duci and the gloss ἀποκτανθῆναι in D*, are 
probably decisive for this (the Attic) meaning. On the 
other hand, it should be noted that ἀ, is the ordinary word 
for ‘‘arresting” (cf. Gen 3972 τοὺς ἀπηγμένους -- ‘‘ the 
prisoners”) as P Petr III. 36 (a) verso® ἀδίκως amnypévov 
and 76.27 ἀκριβείας ἕνεκεν ἀπήχθην : so P Lille γ15 (iii/B.c.) 
οὗτος δὲ ἀπήγαγέν pe els τὸ αὖθι δεσμωτήριον, P Petr II. 10 
(2)!2 συνέταξεν ὁ ὑπηρέτης ἀπαγαγεῖν pe, ‘the apparitor 
gave directions to arrest me” (Ed.), and OG/S go™ (the 
Rosetta stone, B.C. 196) τοὺς ἐν ταῖς φυλακαῖς ἀπηγμένους 

. ἀπέλυσε τῶν ἐνκεκλ(η)μένων. Cf. also P Oxy II. 
237 1:18 (a.p. 186), where Chaeremon claims the right of 
taking away his daughter even against her will from her 
huSband’s house—amdyovtt αὐτὴν ἄκουσαν ἐκ τῆς τοῦ ἀνδρὸς 
οἰκίας, BGU IV. 113915 (B.c. 5) ἐτόλμησε. .. ἀποστερεῖν 
ἀπαγαγεῖν τὴν θυγατέρα ἡμῶν... καὶ ἔχειν παρ᾽ ἑαυτῶι ἐν 
εἱρκτ[ἢ ἐπὶ] μῆνας € In the dialect inscription Sy// 271%" 
(ii/B.c.) it denotes apparently the ‘‘capture” of youths in 
a raid. 


In P Oxy I. 33428 (late ii/a.D.) Appianus does not 
hesitate to charge the Emperor (? Marcus Aurelius) with 
τυραννία ἀφιλοκαγαθία ἀπαιδία as contrasted with the 
virtues of his deified father Antoninus who was φιλόσοφος 

. ἀφιλάργυρος . . . φιλάγαθος. See Archiv i. p. 37. 


For the intransitive sense of a. = ‘‘ depart,” as in Gen 377}, 
cf. P Petr II. 13 (5)5 (B.c. 258-3) ἀπίηρμ)ένον, ‘on your 
departure.” In the Paris magical papyrus 3082 Deissmann 
(LAE p. 254) ingeniously proposes to substitute for the 
meaningless ἀφαιρων of the MS. ἀπαίρων in the sense of 


“make to go forth” (as LXX Ps 777652) ὁρκίζων δὲ φύσα 
ἀπὸ τῶν ἄκρων kal τῶν ποδῶν ἀπαίρων τὸ φύσημα ἕως τοῦ 
προσώπου καὶ εἰσκριθήσεται. MGr παίρνω (also παίρω) 
is given as “‘take,” ‘‘fetch” in Thumb’s Glossary: it might 
equally well come from ἐπαίρω, but the meaning suits 
ἀπαίρω better. 


BGU II. 530% (i/A.p.) (= Selectzons, p. 62) ἄλλως τε καὶ 
ἀπαιτῖται ὑπὸ τῶν πρακτόρων ἱκανόν, ‘especially security is 
demanded by the taxgatherers” : cf. P Fay 3915: (a.p. 183) 
ἐκ τίνος ἀπαιτεῖται τὸ προκείμενον ἀπότακτον, where the 
editors state that ἀ. ‘‘may imply that the payment was in 
arrear or have a quite general meaning.” The former 
alternative is clearly implied in P Fay 112° (¢. B.c. 
115) ὃ ἐνκαλούμενος πλεονάκις ἀπῃτημένος [ο]ὐχ ὑπομένει 
ἑκουσίως ἀποδιδόναι, “the accused, though frequent de- 
mands have been made, p-rsistently refuses to pay volun- 
tarily” (Edd.). Other examples of the verb, which is 
common, are P Flor 1. 61% (A.D. 86-8) διὰ τί ἕως σήμερον 
οὐκ ἀπήτησας, and again δ᾽ ἐπεὶ σιτόλογοι ἦσαν Kal ἀπῃ- 
τ[οῦ]ντο εἰς τὸν Κ'ὶ [αἸίσαρος λόγον, P Lond 85619 (late i/A.D.) 
(ΞΞ ΠΙ. p. 92) ὃ δὲ λήμπτωρ ἀπαιτεῖ certain taxes, P Tebt 
Il. 32.719 1: (late ii/A.D.) οὐ δέοντως ἀπαιτοῦμα[ι] τὰ ὑπὲρ 
τῶν ὑπαρχόν[τω]ν τελούμενα δημόσια, ‘demands have 
wrongfully been made upon me for the government dues 
payable on behalf of the property” (Edd.): a very similar 
phrase occurs in CPHerm 52'36. In P Oxy VIII. 115725 
(late iii/A.D.) καὶ μάθε ὅτι τὸ ἐπεικεφάλαιον ἀπαιτοῦσιν 
“*find out also about the collection of the poll-tax” (Ed.) : 
the idiomatic impersonal plural curiously contrasts with the 
translation Greek, showing the same word, in Lk 122°. In 
the Christian letter P Oxy VI. 93918 (iv/a.D.) (= Selections, 
p- 129) we have the phrase τοῦτο τοῦ καθήκοντος ἀπία]ι- 
[τοῦντ]ος, ‘this being what duty demanded.” For the 
subst. see BGU IV. 110318 (B.c. 14) περὶ ἀπαιτήσεως τοῦ 
φερναρίου, P Oxy I. 1048 (a will, a.p. 96) ἀπαίτη[σι]ν 
ποιήσεσθαι, ete, and for the adj. ἀπαιτήσιμος various 
land-surveys of ii/B.c.—P Tebt I. 61, 64, 72. ‘Vhe noun 
ἀπαιτητής occurs in Wilcken Ost 1460 (A.D. 185-6) δὲ 
ἐμοῦ Μάρκου. . . ἀπαιτ(ητοῦ". 


To Grimm-Thayer’s reff. for this NT ἅπ. εἰρ. (Eph 419 
ἀπηλγηκότες, but ἀπηλπικότες DG etc.) in its Hellenistic 
sense of “to despair” or ‘* become callous,” add Dion Cass. 
xlvill. 37 @. πρὸς τὴν ἐλπίδα. 


In one of the oldest marriage-contracts hitherto discovered 
among the Greek papyri, P Gen I. 21” (ii/B.c.), provision 
is made for what will take place ifthe wife of her own accord 
βούληται ἀπαλλάσσεσθαι, “desires to be released”: so P 
Tebt I. 104%? (B.c. 92), P Oxy IT. 10435 (a will, Α.Ὁ. 96) 
ἡνίκα ἐὰν ἀπαλλαγῇ τοῦ ἀνδρός, 74. IT. 26517 (a.p. 81-95), 
76. 11. 26717, 39 (4.D. 36), αἰ, and for the subst. in a similar 
sense P Oxy VI. 90514 (A.p. 170) éJay δὲ ἀ]παλλαγὴ 
γένητία]ι. The correlative is well seen in P Ryl 11. 15426 
(A.D. 66) ἐὰν δὲ διαφορᾶς αὐτοῖς γεναμένης [χ]ωρίζονται 
ἀπ᾽ ἀλλήλων, ἤτοι τοῦ Χ. ἀποπέμποντος τ[ὴ]ν Θ. ἢ καὶ αὐτῆς 
ἑκουσίω[ς ἀ]παλλασσομέν[η]ς [ἀ]π’ αὐτοῦ : the correspond- 



ing nouns ἀποπομπή and ἑκούσιος ἀπαλλαγή appear in 1. 2%. 
A more general use of the verb is afforded by P Petr II. 
2 (3)'f (B.c. 260) (= Witkowski®, p. 22) εἰ ἔρρωσαι καὶ ἐν 
τοῖς [ἄϊλλοις ἀλύπως ἀπαλλάσσεις, “if you are well and 
in other respects are getting on without annoyance.” P 
Petr II. 201”: 8 (as amended P Petr III.) (B.c. 252) λυσιτε- 
λέστερον ἀπαλλάξει, “it will be more profitable for you to 
release (the boat from &yyapta).” P Ryl II. 7735 (a.p. 192) 
kal ἀπαλλαγῆναι ἐπιτηρήσεως “released from the super- 
intendence of land under lease” (Edd.). The perf. partic. 
mid. means “dead” in P Lond 915! (A.D. 160 or 161) 
(=IIL. p. 27): cf. μετηλλαχώς. P Tebt 11. 315 (ii/a.p.) 
twice shows the word, as 15 [μη]δὲν ταραχ[θ]ῇς, ἐγὼ γάρ [oe 
[ἀ]παλλάξω (and 50 35) “1 will get you off” (Edd.). 74. 38524 
(A.D. 117) ᾧ kal δώσι arradAaccopévw . . . “on his release 
(from apprenticeship)”: cf. the subst. in P Oxy IX. 120418 
(A.D. 299) ἀπαλλαγὴν εὕρασθαι πειρώμενος... τῶν πολει- 
τικῶν λειτουργιῶν, ‘‘ endeavouring to find a release from 
municipal offices.” The tod Blov, which produces the use 
noted above, is expressed in Hadrian’s dying letter (or what 
purports to be such), P Fay 191° [οὔτε ἀϊνοήτως ἀπαλλάσσομε 
τοῦ βίου. From inscriptions may be cited Sy// 51089 (ii/B.c.) 
ὅσοι δὲ ἐγκαταλιπόντες τὰ κτήματα ἀπηλλαγμένοι εἰσίν, οἱ 
δὲ τοκισταὶ γεγεωργήκασιν, εἶναι τὰ κτήματα τῶν τοκιστῶν, 
apparently “have absconded.” So P Fay 1219 (c. B.c. 103) 
ἀπηλλάγησαν. There is a curious use in P Flor II. 26214 
(iii/A.D.) ἀπήλαξεν γὰρ τότε τὸν πῆχιν δραχμῶν δέκα, which 
Comparetti renders ‘‘ poiché allora να]αϊὸ il cubito a dieci 
dramm=:”—so we say “he let it go for a shilling.” 



δ») 22684 (Olbia on Euxine, iii/B.c.) οὐδενὸς δ᾽ ἀπηλλοτρί- 
aoe οὐδὲν τῶν ὑπαρχόντων. 70. 86012. 13 (in dialect, Delphi, 
ii/B.c.) ὡσα[ζύτω]ς δὲ μηδὲ ἀπαλλοτριωσάτω "Acla. . ., 
εἰ δὲ ἀπαλλοτριωοίη καθ᾽ ὁποῖον τρόπον KTA. OG/S 383158 
(118.6.) μήτε αὑτῶι καταδουλώσασθαι, μήτε εἰς ἕτερον ἀπαλ- 
λοτριῶσαι. Dittenberger (Sy// II. p. 10, n®) cites another 
Delphian inscr. with ἀπαλλοτριώουσα. Cf. also Sy// 22912 
(iii/B.c., Orchomenus in Arcadia—in dialect) μὴ ἐξέστω 
μηθενὶ ἀπαλλοτριῶ[σαι ἐντὸς ἐτ]έων εἴ[κΊοσι (sc. γᾶν κλᾶρον 
ἢ οἰκίαν), P Lond 1157 zerso (4) (illiterate, A.D. 246) (= III. 
Pp: III) ἀπολοτριοῦσται, apparently for ἀπαλλοτριοῦσθαι 
(Edd.). The compound ἐξαλλ. is more common: thus P 
Giss I. 2i-24 (B.c. 173), BGU IV. 1167 (B.c. 12), 26. 118718 
(i/B.c.), P Oxy VIII. 11189 (i/ii A.D.), of the ‘‘ alienation” 
of property. Note also the verbal ἀνεξαλλοτρίωτον in P 
Ryl IL. 177" (A.D. 246), “unalienated”: we might say of 
this what we said of ἀνεπαίσχυντος and other like words. 
The noun occurs in Vettius Valens p. 237, where Mars is 
said to produce a host of evils, including γονέων ἀπαλ- 
λοτριώσεις, ‘estrangements of parents.” 


The verb is very common of ‘“‘attendance” before a 
magistrate. It is sufficient to cite P Petr IIT. 30° καὶ φαμένη 
καταστήσεσθαι πρός [pe] [TI . . . οὐκ ἀπήντησε], “though 
she said that she would appear against me on the . . . she 
did not present herself” (Edd.), P Tor II. 1315 (B.c. 147) & 
ἐπὶ τὸ κριτήριον, P. Grenf 1. 13° (B.c. 152 or 141) ἀπαντᾶν 
ἐπὶ σέ, P Oxy I. 598 (A.D. 292) αἱρεθέντος Θεοδώρου ἀντὶ 
᾿Αρείονος σκρείβα ἀπαντῆσαι ἐπὶ τὴν ἡγεμονίαν καὶ 

5 , 

προσεδρεῦσαι τῷ ἀχράντῳ αὐτοῦ δικαστηρίῳ], “ Theodorus, 
who was recently chosen in place of Arion the scribe to 
proceed to his highness the prefect and attend his immaculate 
court ” (Edd.), P Cairo Preis 49 (A.D. 320) ἀπαντησάτωσαν 
[ἐπ7ὶ τὸ ἡγ[εἸμονικὸν δικαστήριον, and from the inscriptions, 
Syll 737% (ii/iii a-p.) εἰ δέ τις τῶν ἰοβάκχων, εἰδὼς ἐπὶ 
τοῦτο ἀγορὰν ὀφείλουσαν ἀχθῆναι, μὴ ἀπαντήσῃ, ἀποτεισάτω 
τῷ κοινῷ λεπτοῦ δρ(αχμὰς) ¥. P Lond 4255 (B.c. 168) 
(=I. p. 30, Selections p. 9) εἰ ἐρρωμένωι τἄλλα κατὰ λόγον 
ἀπαντᾶι, “if you are well, and things in general are going 
right,” shows a common epistolary formula: cf. P Vat A* 
(B.c. 168) (= Witkowski, p. 64), P Par 455: (B.c. 153) αἰ. 
In MGr the verb means “‘ answer.” 


The word is used absolutely (as Mt 255 and LXX 
1 Regn 1315) in P Tebt I. 43:7 (B.c. 118) παρεγενήθημεν εἰς 
ἀπάντησιν (a newly arriving magistrate)—a passage which 
may demolish the Semitism sometimes found lurking in the 
word. For ets 4. construed with the gen. (as Mt 27%? 8- 
text and 1 Th 477) cf. BGU II. 36avii 17 (A.D. 215) πρὸς 
[ἀἹπάντηϊσιν τοῦ] ἡγεμόνος, and the Pelagia-Legenden (ed. 
Usener) p. 19 εἰς ἀπάντησιν τοῦ ὁσίου ἀνδρός. A Ptolemaic 
inscription edited by Strack (Archiv iii. p. 129) has ἵν᾽ εἰδῆι 
ἣν ἔσχηκεν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡ πόλις εὐχάριστον ἀπάντησιν. The 
word seems to have been a kind of Δ 7. for the official 
welcome of a newly arrived dignitary—a usage which accords 
excellently with its NT usage. See Proleg.* pp. 14, 242. 

For a subst. ἀπαντητήριον, deversorium, see P Iand 17° 
(vi/vii. A.D.). 


P Oxy III. 47177 (ii/a.D.) ἅπαξ γὰρ ἐν ἔθει τῆς α[ἰσἸχύνης 
γενόμενον, ‘for when once accustomed to his shame ” (Edd.). 
In P Lond 4178 (c. A.D. 346) (=III. p. 299, Selectzons, 
p. 124), we find συνχωρῆσε αὐτοῦ τοῦτω τὸ ἅβαξ (= συνχω- 
ρῆσαι αὐτῷ τοῦτο τὸ ἅπαξ), “pardon him this once ”—a 
substantival use of ἅπαξ, which has been traced perhaps to 
Coptic influence (Deissmann 2.4.8, pp. 206, 209) : cf. below. 
Note also P Giss I. 4819 (A.b. 202-3) οὐχ ἅπαξ παρεγράφη, 
“not once alone,” aN ὁποσάκις ἕκαστα προσηνέχθη. and 
P Oxy VIII. 11028 (ς. A.p. 146) ἐπεὶ ἅπαξ προσῇ[λθε] τῇ 
κληρονομίᾳ, ‘having once entered on the inheritance” 
(Ed.). Vettius Valens, p. 2859 has ἅπαξ τε καὶ ἀπαραι- 
τήτως δαμάζουσιν ‘‘in perpetuum” (Ed.). OG/S 201 
(vi/A.D.), an inscr. of King Silco of Nubia, which is very 
instructive for the study of foreigners’ Greek, has ἅπαξ in a 
curious idiom: thus ἕν ἅπαξ is seme/, τὸ πρῶτον ἅπαξ -- 
primum, ἅπαξ δύο = zs. Dittenberger quotes Lepsius to 
show that it is an effort to render a Coptic word answering 
to Ger. Ma, Fr. fois. In P Oxy VIII. 1138" (v/vi A.D.) the 
words πρὸς ἅπαξ occurring at the end of a receipt are trans- 
lated ““ once for 411" by the editor, who compares BGU IV. 


In P Ryl II. 6518 (B. C. 67?—in any case Ptol.) a judge- 
ment ends with kal τἄλλα τὰ δι᾽ αὐτῆ[ς δι]ωρισμένα μένειν 
κύρια καὶ ἀπαράβατα, “valid and inviolate” (Edd.). The 
legal formula, thus established for an early period, survives 
six centuries later in P Grenf I. 607 (a,D. 581) ἀπαραβάτῳ 

> , 

πράσει : “inviolable” must be the sense, though the words 
follow a hiatus. Another example, also vi/A.p., is in 
P Lond rors (=III. p. 257) ἄτρωτα καὶ ἀσάλευτα καὶ 
ἀπαράβατα[. . . , a contract for the surrender of property. 
See also P Catt γεείου. 19. (ii/A.p.) (= Chrest. II. p. 422) 
ἔνια ἀπαράβατά ἐστιν, “es gibt Dinge, an denen sich nichts 
andern lasst” (Ed.). It is clear that the technical use, com- 
pared with the late literary (@f. Lobeck Phryn. p. 313), 
constitutes a very strong case against the rendering “ not 
transferable”. Phrynichus himself prescribed ἀπαραίτητος : 
what sense that would have made in Heb 7*4 passes compre- 
hension. Vettius Valens has the adverb five times (see 
index), always as “‘ validly” or “inevitably.” It occurs in 
P Strass 1. 405 (A.D. 569), rendered ‘‘unverbriichlich ” 


A literary citation for this word may be given from the 
recently recovered A/imes of Herodas, iv. 74 οὐδ᾽ ἐρεῖς 
“ἐκεῖνος ὥνθρωπος ἕν μὲν εἶδεν, ἕν δ᾽ ἀπηρνήθη," where Naim 
prefers to render a. ‘‘failed to see” rather than ‘‘ was 
denied”: cf. Mk 833. εἴ τις θέλει ὀπίσω μου ἐλθεῖν, 
ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτόν, “let him lose sight of himself and 
his own interests,” as Grimm renders. But this involves 
a needless distinction from Mk 147, where the verb means 


is to be written as two words, the combination matching 
such familiar Hellenistic locutions as ἕως ἄρτι, ἐκ πότε, ἀπὸ 
πέρυσι, etc. The two Attic quotations which Thayer takes 
over ‘from LS are denied by Lobeck Piryn. p. 21, who 
takes ἀπαρτί by preference in the extant passage: Ruther- 
ford VP p. 71 agrees with him. ᾿Απαρτί = ‘‘exactly” in 
Tonic, and (by irony) ‘‘ quite the contrary” in Attic (Ruther- 
ford): it has a totally different history from ἀπ᾽ ἄρτι. On 
the practice of the critical editors, see Nestle Z7i/. 7 aas 
Gr. NT, p. 27. 

We can only cite two instances of this rare noun, one from 
P Catt versoiv-25 (ii/a.p.) (= Chrest. II. p. 99) μέχρι τοῦ 
τῆς λογοθεσίας ἀπαρτισμοῦ ‘‘till the completion of the 
audit,” and the other from P Giss I. 67°*- (time of Trajan or 
Hadrian) ἤδη κα[τ]ὰ τὰς ἐντολάς σου Ἡράκλειος ὁ ἐπίτρ[ο]- 
ποῖς χωρὶς τῶν] ξενικῶν ξύλων τὸν ἀπαρτισίμ) ὃδῖν] τῶν ἐπὶ 
[τόϊπῳν [ἔργων πρ]ὸ ὀφθαλμῶν ἔχει. But the verbal phrase 
εἰς τὸ ἀπαρτίζειν is so completely equivalent to εἰς ἀπαρτι- 
σμόν (Lk 1428) that the verb may be illustrated. P Oxy I. 
1177 (ii/iii A.D.) has the aor. pass. twice, the “‘ completing ” 
of a horoscope (?) and of a sale of slaves: cf. 2d. VI. 9085 
(A.D. 199) ὥστε ὑφ᾽ ἑκάστου ὑμῶν ἀρτοκοπεῖον ἕν ἀπαρτι- 
σθῆναι, “that one bakery be fitted out by each of you Ὁ 
(Edd.), 22. 936™ (iii/A.D.) οὐκ ἔχω ἄρτι σεῖτον οὐδὲ τὰ 
βιβλίδια ἀπήρίτ]ισται ἕως ἄρτι, “1 have no food now, 
and the petitions have not yet been got ready” (Edd.). 
P Oxy IV. 7242 (A.D. 155) ἐὰν δὲ ἐντὸς τοῦ x[p]évov αὐτὸν 
ἀπαρτίσῃς οὐκ ἐκδέξομαι τὴν προκειμένην προθεσμ[αν ‘if 
you make him perfect [in shorthand] within the period, I 
will not wait for the aforesaid limit” (Edd.) is a close 
parallel to the NT use of καταρτίζω (Gal 61, 1 Th 319 αὐ). 


P Lips I. 105" (i/ii A.D.) μόγις τὸν τῆς βεβρεγμένης 
ἀπήρτισα, “1 have with. difficulty completed the account 
of the irrigated land.” BGU II. 44873 (ii/a.p.) πρὸς τὸ 
τὴν π[ρ]οα[ίρ]εσίιν τῶν [διαθεμένων φανερὰν [κ]ατα- 
στῆϊναι καὶ ἕκαστα ἀπαρτισθῆναι τοῖς ἐν[γ]εγρα[μμ]έν[ο]ις 
ἀκολούθως. In P Catt versolli 18. (as cited above) we find 
the expression μετὰ τὴν χειροτονίαν ἐντὸς € ἡμερῶν ἀπαρτι- 
οὖσιν τὰς δίκας. P Ryl Il. 744 (Λ.}. 133-5) shows the 
verb in a proclamation of M. Petronius Mamertinus, 
prefect of Egypt, where [τὸν διαλο͵γισμὸν ἀπαρτίσαι is 
rendered by the editors ‘“‘to complete the convents.” 
We could cite many more exx.: the relative frequency of the 
ἀπό and the κατά compounds of this verb in NT and papyri 
is quite reversed. 


In P Tor I. αὐ}: 10 (8,6. 117) the word is used for ‘‘ legacy- 
duty”: see Wilcken Ostv. i. p. 345 f., Archiv iii. p. 7 f., 
and Mitteis in Chvest. II. p. 421. In P Tebt II. 3161° 
(A.D. 99) καὶ μὴ ἀλλοτρίᾳ ἀπαρχῇ μηδὲ ὁμονυμίᾳ κεχρῆ- 
orat, the editors understand it of the ‘‘ entrance-fee ” paid by 
ephebi on enrolment in the Alexandrian demes, and suggest 
the same meaning for P Flor I. 5781 (a.p. 166) τοῦ παιδὸς 
ἀπαρχή, where, however, Vitelli refers it to ‘‘la tassa di 
successione,” and Wilcken (Chves¢. I. p. 168) regards the 
sense as still obscure. See also BGU I. 30 ἡ ἀπαρχὴ 
Μάρκου ᾿Αντωνίου Διοσκύρου, and 74. IV. 1150! (B.c. 11) 
ἀνακεκόμισται δὲ ἡ ᾿Οπώρα παρὰ τῆ(ς) ᾿Αρτέμιδ(ος) ds 
ἔδωκίεν) αὐτῇ ἐν ὑπί(αλλάγματι) ἀπαρχὰς δύο κατὰ δου- 
λικ(ῶν) σωμάτων Δ. καὶ °E. οἵας καὶ ἔλαβεν. The editor 
(Schubart) compares P Tebt II. 316 and the note there (see 
above), but observes that the meaning will not suit the 
present passage: neither ‘‘legacy-duty” nor ‘‘entrance- 
fee” will serve, nor ‘‘an impost upon Jews.” Schubart 
suggests it was some pecuniary rights in these slaves which 
Artemis had ‘‘ deposited in pledge” with Opora. In the 
Magnesian inscriptions the word is very common in the sense 
of a peisonal “gift” to the goddess: thus in 83, ἀ. τῆι 
θεᾶι ᾿Αρ[ τέμιδι]. It isa very old use of the word, as may be 
seen from the lines inscribed by an Athenian potter of vi/B.c. 
on a base intended for a vase (Sy// 772)—Néapxos ἀν[έ]θη- 
κεῖν ὁ κεραμε]ὺς ἔργον ἀπαρχὲ[ν τ]ἀθεναίαι. Thieme (p. 26) 
throws out the suggestion that this sense might possibly be 
recognized in Rom 8533. From Sy/7 we may also cite 52974 
(i/B.c.—“i. e. sacrificilum,” notes Dittenberger); 587265 αἱ 
(B.C. 329—é€mrapxfs, as throughout this long inscription, 
except in 87; it is &. τοῦ σίτου, first-fruits given to Demeter 
and Kore at Eleusis) ; 588114 (ii/B.c.) ; 61174 (ii/i B.c.—see 
So OGJS 179! (B.c. 95) δίδοσθαι... κατ᾽ ἐνιαυτὸν 
ἀπαρχὴν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν . . πυροῦ aprd(Bas) ρπβ (1824), 
z.é. 4 art. of wheat for each day of the year. It is clear that 
the connotation ‘‘/rs¢-fruits ” could not be pressed in our 
exegesis of the term when it appears in NT, apart from 
associations wholly outside the field surveyed in this article ; 
and we are perhaps at liberty to render “sacrifice” or 
“gift” where it improves the sense. The uses of this liberty 
must not be discussed here. For a discussion of the word, 
see Gradenwitz in Ber/, Philol. Woch. 1914, p. 135 ff. 


The use of ἅπας for πᾶς appears to be largely determined 
by considerations of euphony, and is confined principally to 

34 ἀπάτωρ 

literary documents : see Mayser G7. p. 161 f., where it is shown 
that in seventeen out of twenty-one occurrences in Ptolemaic 
papyri ἅπας follows a consonant, and only in four cases a 
vowel. As examples of ἅπας from Roman times we may 
cite P Oxy III. 471® (official—ii/a.p.) ὥστε ἄντικρυς 
ἁπάντων συνπαίζειν, and 2. 642 (official—ii/A.D.) mpd 
παντὸς yap πεφροντίκαμεν τῆς πρὸς ὑμᾶς... εὐνοίας Kal 
ἀρετῆς ἢ τῶν ἄλλων ἁπάντων. P Ryl Il. 68! (B.c. 80) 
ἐ[πληξέν] με... [πληγαῖς πλείσταις εἰς ἅπαν [μέρος] τοῦ 
σώμα[τό]ς μου answers to Mayser’s rule, but has no suspicion 
of literariness. So such a phrase as els τὸν ἅπαντα 

χρόν[ον], P Tebt I. 567 (late ii/.c.). 


PSI II. 152% (ii/A.p.) may show ἠπάτίων in ἃ frag- 
mentary line at the end, with practically no context: 
ψεῦδος occurs a line higher up. It is surprising that this is 
the only citation we can make. The verb is absent from 
Polybius and only occurs twice in Plutarch, but is fairly fre- 
quent in LXX, and found in early Christian writers. It was 
evidently falling into disuse in most quarters. 


For ἀ. = ‘‘deceit”’ (as 4 Macc 188, 2 Th 219, Heb 3:5) cf. 
P Oxy VII. 10207f (A.D. 198-201) εἰ τὴν ἐκ τῆς ἡ[λικίας] 
ἔχεις βοήθιαν, τὸν ἀγῶνα τῆς ἀπάτης ὁ ἡγούμ[ε]νος τοῦ 
ἔθνους ἐκδι[κ]ήσει, ““1 you can claim the assistance due to 
immature age, the prefect of the province shall decide the 
suit for fraud” (Ed.). So CPHerm 6° viv δὲ οἱ μὲν [μετ᾿ 
ἀπάτης εἰσποιοῦ[ντ]αι, if the supplement is right. Atten- 
tion may be called to Deissmann’s note in his Hellenisterung 
des semvttischen Monothetsmus (Neue Jahrb. f. d. klass. 
Altertum, 1903), Ρ. 165 n.: he recalls the fact that ἀπάτη 
in popular Hellenistic had the meaning ‘‘ pleasure,” and 
finds this in Mt 1323 = Mk 413 (cf. Lk 8132) and 2 Pet 2!8: 
cf. Polyb.:ii. 5612 and Moeris’ definition (p. 65)—Amarn’ ἡ 
πλάνη παρ᾽ Artikois .. . ἡ τέρψις map’ “Ἕλλησιν. Of 
this rare sense Rouffac (p. 38 f.) cites a probable instance 
from “γεγο 113°4 (B.C. 84) κα[τατιθ]εὶς δὲ μὴ μόνον τὰ 
πρὸς ἡδον[ήν, ἀλλὰ καὶ βουλόμενος] ἐκ τ]ὸς ἀπάτην χορη- 
γῆσαι [τοῖς θεαταῖς, αὐλητήν 37, where he renders, ‘‘il ne fit 
pas seulement ce qui était agréable, mais voulant en outre 
offrir une réjouissance aux spectateurs (il fit venir [un joueur 
de flite?]).” It may be added that in P Petr III. 11% 
᾿Απάτη appears as a proper name, where (as in other cases) 
we may safely assume the ‘‘ Hellenistic” meaning. But the 
word must have really covered both, like our verb ‘‘ be- 
guile”? ; and ἀπατάω would tend to keep the older sense to 
the front. If it is derived from a root akin to our find 
(see Boisacq s. v.), it meant ‘‘ invention, discovery” at the 
start, and was then turned 77 malam partem, to be partially 
reformed in later vernacular. 


The word is common in papyri in such a formula as 
BGU I. 884 (ii/A.D.) Xatpy(pov) ἀπάτωρ μητίρὸς) Θασῆτος, 
76. III. 971% (ii/A.D.) Θερμουθάριον ἀπάτορα μί(ητρὸς) 
[OeppovOaplov]. Krebs (dus den Papyrus ad. Koniglichen 
Museen, p. 160) renders BGU II. 4108 (a.p. 159-60) 
Ἰσάρι[ο]ν ἀπάτωρα μητρὸς Τ᾽ανεφ[ρ]έμμεως, as ‘the ille- 
gitimate daughter of Tanephremmis,” and 26. 302}9 (a.D. 208) 
Πᾶις ἀ(πάτωρ) μητίρὸς) TeABaBews, as ‘‘ Pais, father un- 


known” (p. 175). The editors translate similarly in P Fay 
39° (A.D. 183) and in P Tebt II. 39711 (A.D. 198). Without 
the mother’s name we have P Ryl I. 12? (A.p. 250) Δημῶτος 
ἀπάτορος, and P Lond 1170 (iii/a.p.) (=III. p. 98) 
Πολυδεύκους ἀπάτορος, also “ἢ Σωτήριδος [am]aropos—in a 
long list of names in which the rest have the father’s name 
given: we must assume the same sense. It does not seem 
to be used for ‘‘fatherless.” See Archiv ii. p. 97. Deiss- 
mann (2.4.8 p. 39 f.) has drawn attention to the fact that 
so far back as 1808 W. Sturz (in his De Dialecto Macedonica 
et Alexandrina Liber, Lipsiae, p. 146 f.) made use of the 
Charta Borgiana (the first papyrus ever brought to Europe, 
in 1778) to explain the use of a. in Heb 7%. That a word 
meaning ‘‘father unknown”’ should be available for use in a 
passage where the thought is so far from the beaten track, 
is quite natural: the ἀμήτωρ following, which by association 
shares its special sense, protected ἀπάτωρ from its common 


That this noun, with ἀπειθέω and ἀπειθής, connotes 
invariably ‘‘ disobedience, rebellion, contumacy,” is made 
abundantly clear from papyri and inscriptions: Grimm’s 
assumption that ἀπειθέω (instead of ἀπιστέω) is the anti- 
thesis to πιστεύω, though supported by the RV mg (= AV) 
in Jn 335, has no warrant whatever. For the noun see 
P Oxy I. 349 (a.p. 127) τούτους τε οὖν κελεύω καὶ 
τοὺς πολειτικοὺς πάντας τὰ ἀκόλουθα Toi[s] προστεταγμένοις 
ποιεῖν, εἰδότας ὅ[τι] τοὺς παραβάντας καὶ τοὺς] διὰ ἀπεί- 
θιαν κ[αὶ] ὡς ἀφορμὴν ζητοῦντας ἁμαρτημάτω[ν] τειμωρή- 
σομαι, “These therefore I command, and all the civil 
servants, to do what is in accord with the instructions given, 
knowing that those who have transgressed, and those who 
(have done wrong) deliberately (ἐν. by way of disobedience), 
and as seeking an occasion for wrong-doing, I shall punish.” 
(In the very elliptical phrase τοὺς διὰ ἀπείθειαν it is possible 
that the Eparch accidentally omitted ἁμαρτάνοντας, though 
it can be translated without: we can hardly get help from 
Rom 335 τὸν ἐκ πίστεως --οἴ. 41} c.—as the preposition 
is much easier). Add P Fay 21° (A.D. 134) [ὅπ]ως τῆς 
ἀποθίας ἐκῖνοι τὴν προσήκουσαν δίκηϊν ὑἸπόσχωσι, where 
the Edd. conjecture ἀπειθίας or ἀπαθείας, BGU III. 
7471-14 (A.D. 139) ὑπόδιγμα τῆς ἀπειθίας, and P Rein 5174 
(iii/a.D.), Where THs τούτων ἀπιθείας follows μὴ πιθόμενοι 
νόμοι [9] 


For ἀ. = ‘‘ disobey” in its later as in its earlier history 
see s.v. ἀπείθεια and cf. P Hib I. 7319 (B.c. 243-2) τὴν 
ἸΠάτρωνος βίαν, ὃς ἀπειθῶν δια[τετέλεκε τοῖς πα]ρὰ σοῦ 
προστάγμασιν, ‘the violence of Patron, who has continued 
to disobey your orders” (Edd.), P Tebt I. 645 (B.c. 139— 
decree of Euergetes II) τοὺς δὲ ἀπειθοῦντας ἐπαναγκάζετε 
e’raxta[s] ἕκαστ᾽ ἀποδιδόναι, ‘compel those who disobey to 
pay all the sums regularly” (Edd.), 26. 4917 (B.c. 113) ἐὰν δὲ 
ἀπειθῆι, ““1 he refuses” (Edd.). So Rev 1, 4319 (iii/B.c.) 
[τ]ῶν γεωργῶν τῶν ἠπειθηκότων, P Tebt 1. 183 (late 1i/B.C.) 
ἐ[ὰ]ν δὲ ἀπει[θῶσι κ]αταστῆσαι ἐπί] τὸν στρατη[γό]ν, and 
from Roman times P Tebt II. 315%° (ii/a.D.) ἔχι γὰρ 
συστατικὰς [ὅπως Toy ἀπιθοῦντα μετὰ φρουρᾶς τῷ ἀρχιερῖ 
πέμπιν, ‘he has instructions to send recalcitrants under 



guard to the high-priest” (Edd.), P Oxy IX. 118532 
(c. A.D. 200) εἰ δὲ μή ye, ὃς ἂν ἀπειθήσει τούτῳ pov τῷ 
διατά[γματι], ‘otherwise, ifany one disobeys this my order,” 
P Ryl II. 153%? (a.p. 138-61) ἐὰν δ]ὲ ἀπιθῇ ὁ [Μύρων καὶ 
μὴ ἀπΊοδοϊ ταύτας, of disobedience to the terms of a will. 
Add from the inscriptions Sy// 6141 (Cos, dialect, iii/B.c.) 
αἱ δέ κά τις... ἀπειθῇ, let him be fined, 26. 510 (Ephesus, 
ii/B.C.) ὡς ἀπειθοῦντα Kal ἐπιβουλεύοντα τοῖς συ(μ) φέρουσι 
τῆς πόλεως, 20. 737° (ii/A.D., Athens) ἐὰν δὲ ἀπειθῇ πρασ- 
σόμενος, he is to be denied entrance to the Bacchium, and 
similarly 142, 74. 6534° (Andania, B.C. 91) τὸν δὲ ἀπειθοῦντα 
ἢ ἀπρεπῶς ἀναστρεφόμενον εἰς Td θεῖον μαστιγούντω οἱ ἱεροί, 
and so #. We have not sought for more instances, but it 
has seemed desirable to give rather plentiful illustration to 
prove a case which is very important for doctrine. 


occurs in Sy// 8108 (Phlius) δίκη δὲ ἐπικρέματα[ι] τιμωρὸς 
ἀπελθόν[τι] ἀπειθὴς Nepéoe[ws], where Dittenberger renders 
““implacabilis Nemeseos deae vindicta tibi imminet.” 


P Oxy 11. 2375 (A.D. 186) μήτε ἐμοὶ ἔτι ἀπε[ιλεῖν]. 
P Grenf I. 53° (iv/A.D.) (= Chest. I. 131) ἀσπάζεται τὰ 
παιδία σου kal ᾿Αλλοῦς πολλά σοι ἀπειλίεῖ). Vettius Valens, 
Ρ. 5%, has ἀπειλητικοί ‘‘men given to using threats,” 
which comes from a verbal ἀπειλητός. Since this verb, 
with its rather commoner noun, might have had a large 
use in the innumerable papyrus petitions, we seem bound 
to infer that it was going out of popular speech. It occurs 
nine times in LXX and twice in NT. Its use in Ac 417, 
where one is strongly tempted to accept from E and P 
the characteristic ἀπειλῇ ἀπειλησώμεθα, clearly reflects the 
literal rendering of a Semitic original reported to Luke from 
an eye-witness—was it Paul? Homeeoteleuton and un- 
familiarity to Greek ears would account for the loss of the 
noun in NABD Pesh., etc. (so Blass). 


P Ryl II. 11419 (¢. A.D. 280) μετ᾽] ἀπιλῆς με ἀπέπεμψεν 
‘¢drove me away with a threat.” BGU IV. ro60%® (B.c. 
23-2) ὅθεν καταπεπονημένοι προήγμεθα πρὸς ἀπειλαῖς. CP 
Herm 25}: 3, a law report, makes an advocate say οὔτε 
συσκευαῇὶ οὔτε] ἀπειλαὶ κατεσίγησαν p[.......]. PRyl 
I. 2811: (iv/a.pD.) the ‘‘ quivering” (see under ἅλλομαι) of 
the left shin means for a slave ἀπειλαὶ kal μόχθοι. In the 
vi/A.D. inscr. OGZS 52114 (Abydos) we have ἀεὶ τὴν ἀπιλὴν 
ἐν τοῖς πράγμασιν ὁρῶντα : Dittenberger accepts the emenda- 

tion γράμμασιν. 


P Par 45° (B.C. 153) ἀπόντος μου πεφρόντικα ὑπέρ σου. 
P Tebt Il. 317% (A.D. 174-5) ἕκαστα ἐπιτελοῦντι ἐκ τοῦ 
ἐμοῦ ἀπούσης ὀνόματος καθὰ Kal ἐμοὶ παρούσῃ ἐξῆν, ‘while 
carrying out everything in my name during my absence, just 
as I should have the right to do if I were present” (Edd.). 
BGU IV. τοϑοῦ τί. (iii/a.D. ἢ) Kal ἡμεῖς δὲ ἀκοῇ ἀπόντες ὡς 
παρόντες διαθέσι ηὐφράνθημεν. CPHerm 267° εἰ βούλει καὶ 
ἀπόντων αὐτ[ῶν . . .. (a fragmentary law report). P Oxy 
IX. 1204% (A.D. 299) TLatye X ἀπήμην ἐν ᾽Οάσει: ὅτε ἔγνων 



The middle (as in 2 Cor 4*) appears in Osty 1156 ἀπει- 
πόμεθα map ἡμῶν χρήσασθαι ᾧ βούλει γερδ(ιείῳγ. The 
perfect may be cited from BGU IV. 11135 (B.c. 14) τοῦ 
Kayodnlo[y ἀπε]ιρημένου τὴν ἐπιτροπείαν, and pres. with 
aor. in P Giss I. 8251 (A.D. 117) . . ἀπο]λ[ε]γομένων καὶ 
ἀπειπομένων πάσας Tas μέχρι νῦν Sard[vas ... In the 
new uncanonical Gospel fragment, P Oxy X. 1224 ii verso 
(p. 7) (iv/A.D.) we find τί οὖν ἀ]πεῖπας ; ‘‘ What then hast 
thou forbidden?” (Edd.). 


For the gen. constr. after this negative adj. in Jas 113 
© γὰρ θεὸς ἀπείραστός ἐστιν κακῶν, cf. P Tebt I. 12426 
(ς. B.C. 118), where certain allotments are described as ἀσυκο- 
φαντή(τους) kal ἀδιστάστους ὄντας πάσης αἰ[τ]ίας, ‘subject 
to no dispute or question on any ground” (Edd.). The 
citation may also help to support the neuter sense which 
Hort assigns to ἀπείραστος in the NT passage. For 
similar gen. construction with negative adjectives numerous 
passages may be quoted: cf. Pro/eg. p. 235f. 


According to Meisterhans Gr. p. 150 the Attic inscrip- 
tions use ἀπείρων, not ἄπειρος, in the sense of ‘‘ endless.” 
It might be read, if worth while, in OG/S 38343 (Com- 
magene—i/B.C.) εἰς τὸν ἄπειρον (or ἀπείρον᾽ !) αἰῶνα κοι- 
μήσεται, but χρόνος ἄπειρος in 1. 118 (= Avestan zervan 
akarana—see J. H. Moulton, Azbbert Lectures, p. 107) is 
decisive. For ἀ. construed with the gen., as Heb 5), cf. 
P Giss I. 6817 (ii/A.D.) ἐπὶ Φιβᾶς ὁ αὐτοῦ ἄπειρός ἐστιν τῶν 
τόπων καὶ οὐ δύναται μόνος προσε[λθε]ῖν, ‘since Phibas, his 
siave, is unacquainted with the places, and cannot come 
alone.” Απειρος in this sense is the opposite of ἔμπειρος 
(cf. πεῖρα) : meaning “‘endless,” as a substitute for the Epic 
ἀπείρων, it is connected with πέρας. 


This rare word is used in the apocryphal 4cta Pauld iii. 
of Onesiphorus on the outskirts of Lystra ‘waiting for” 
Paul’s arrival from Iconium—etorhker ἀπεκδεχόμενος αὐτόν. 
Nageli (p. 43) and LS s.v. give late ‘‘ profane” citations 
which make it perhaps possible that Paul was not the first 
to use a regularly formed perfective of ἐκδέχομαι, which 
becomes a favourite word with him: it also figures in r Pet 
and Heb, where of course borrowing from Paul is possible. 
But if late writers who never could have read him use the 
word, it is obviously conceivable that they coined it independ- 
ently, as we may very probably suppose him to have done. 
See the next article. 


is admittedly a word first used by Paul, so far as our present 
knowledge goes: only one MS of Josephus (Azzét. vi. 142) 
saves its verb from the same category. There can be little 
doubt that Lightfoot (on Col 215) rightly treats them both as 
minted by the Apostle. It was evidently for the special 
purpose in his mind when writing this letter; and if Nageli 
(Ρ. 50) asks why he should have coined a word not needed 
to express some specially Christian conception, the answer is 
surely that a new compound, formed by prefixing a per- 



fectivizing preposition in an entirely normal way, was a 
resource available for and generally used by any real thinker 
writing Greek. What else are we to infer from the list of 
ἅπαξ εἰρημένα which any writer’s 7udex verborum willafford, 
even if the majority were really only ἅπαξ edpynpéva? The 
case of ἀπεκδέχομαι (7.v.) may be taken with this; but 
there, if Paul coined the word, he used it again, which he 
did not with these. On the problem of Col 215 we have 
nothing to contribute that would be relevant in this work. 


P Giss I. 707 (Hadrian) ἀπέλᾳ[σ]α τὸ πλοῖον περὶ ὥραν 
ἐνάτην, “41 caused the boat to sail about the ninth hour.” Ρ 
Tor I. 1 i. 82 (B.c, 116) (=Chrest. II. p. 33) καὶ κατὰ μὲν τὸν 
τρόπον τοῦτον φήσας ἀπελαύνεσθαι αὐτοὺς τῆς κρατήσεως 
τῆς οἰκίας. P Par 3717 ἀπελάσαντό pe, with mid. for act. : 
note the dropped augment in the two aorist forms cited here. 
BGU III. 75918 (a.p. 125) ἀπήλασαν αἶγας τρεῖς (of 
robbers), P Lips I. 3728 (a.p. 389) ζῶα ἀπελακότας (sc. 
ἀπεληλ.) πολλάκις. 


is a dar. εἰρ. of Luke (Ac 1937), being an easy derivative 
from ἀπελέγχω “‘ repudiate,”.on the model of ἐλεγμός (LX X) 
from ἐλέγχω. 


For the Pauline phrase ἀπελεύθερος Κυρίου in 1 Cor 722, 
Deissmann (LAZ p. 332 f.) compares the common title 
“freedman of the Emperor,” Σεβαστοῦ ἀπελεύθερος or 
ἀπελεύθερος Καίσαρος : see e.g. Sy// 3717 (time of Nero), 
and the numerous examples in Magie De vocabulis solemn- 
zbus p. 70. The adjective is very common in the papyri, 
e.g. P Oxy I. 98% (a.p. 141-2) ᾿Αρχίᾳ ἀπελευθέρῳ ᾿Αμοιτᾶ- 
Tos, 13. 1044 (A.D. 96) Σιο(ῆ)ρις “Αρποχρᾶτος ἀπελευθέρου ai. 
For the light thrown by the ancient rites of manumission on 
the Pauline teaching regarding spiritual freedom see Deiss- 
mann’s valuable discussion referred to above, and Archiv v. 
ἘΣ 117f. 


Priene 248 (c. B.C. 1) has the acc. Ἀπελλῆν, as in Rom 
1610 ; a similar name ᾿Απελλᾶς, gen. -ἃ, is cited by Hatch in 
J&L xxvii., part ii., p. 145, from a Carian inser. concerning 
a tribunus militum who served under Vespasian against the 
Jews. The name ᾿Απελλῆς is widely spread: on some con- 
fusions with ᾿Απολλῶς cf. Zahn Jnr. i. p. 270, and Blass- 
Debrunner § 29. 4. 

This late compound generally takes the acc. instead of the 
natural gen., as in Lk 655 if we read μηδένα with δὲ W etc.. 
and the Lewis Syriac: see Proleg. p. 65. The passive is 
found Sy// 807" (ii/a.D.) αἷμα ἀναφέροντι . . . ἀφηλπισμένῳ 
ὑπὸ παντὸς ἀνθρώπου, the ‘ faith-cure” of a man who had 
been ‘‘ given up.” (For the ᾧ, which occurs in Lk Z¢. DP, 
and twice in this inscription, see Pro/eg. p. 44.) The editor 
restores the verb in OG/S 194®° (i/B.c.) ὥσπερ λαμπρὸς 
ἀστὴρ καὶ δαίμων ἀγαθ[ὸς τοῖς ἀπελπίζουσι]ν ἐπέλαμψε. 
There is a good collection of instances from literature in 
Linde Zficurus p. 31f., beginning with Hyperides. His 
passage from Epicurus himself is worth quoting: 62° τὸ 


μέλλον... μήτε... προσμένωμεν ὡς ἐσόμενον μήτε ἀπελ- 
πίζωμεν ὡς πάντως οὐκ ἐσόμενον. It survives in MGr. 


>A. construed with the gen. in the sense of “ over against,” 
“opposite,” as in Mt 27%, is well illustrated by P Grenf. I. 
24 (p.c. 126) ἀπέναντι τῆς θύ(ρας) αὐ(τοῦ) and Syé/ 
55817 (i/A.D.) Tov ναὸν τὸν ἀπέναντι TH[S] εἰσόδου. See also 
P Petr IL. 17 (3) (iii/B.c.), and from the inscriptions Priene 
37265 (beginning of ii/B.C.) ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ἐγκολαπτῶν ὅρων εἰς 
τὸν ἀπέναντι βουνὸν τὸν λεπρὸν ἐθήκαμεν ὅρον, 0. 4288 ἐπὶ 
τὴν ἀ. ὀφρύν and Preisigke 3556 (on ἃ mummy). On P Ryl 
I. 3012 (i/B.c.), a few lines from a historical work, Prof. 
Hunt observes that “the use of the preposition aréva[v]tt, 
of which Stephanus quotes no example earlier than Poly- 
bius,” may perhaps give “ some indication of the date of the 
work.” Wackernagel, He//endstica, p. 3 ff, quotes ἵναντι 
δ. gen. from a very old Cretan inscr., and ἔναντι from Delphi 
(B.c. 198): in both dialects ἀντί was still used in the old 
From this Doric Greek it passed into the 
He goes on to discuss its relations 

local sense. 
Kovw7 about B.c. 300. 
with ἐναντίον, etc. 


The adj. is common. Thus P Grenf. I. 114-8 (B.c. 157) 
τούτου δὲ γενομένου Kal ἀπερίσπαστος by δυνήσομαι 
ἀπροφασίστως εἰς τὸ βασιλικὸν τὰ ἐκφόρια ἀπομετρῆσαι. 
P Oxy Il. 28617 (A.p. 82) ὅπως παρέχωνται ἡμᾶς ἀπερι- 
σπάστους [καὶ] ἀπαρενοχλήτους ὑπὲρ τῆς προκειμένης 
ὀφειλῆς καὶ ἀποδώσειν ταῦτα, “in order that they may 
secure us against any liability or trouble in connexion with 
the aforesaid debt, and may repay it” (Edd.). In P Oxy 
VI. 808,5 (Δ... 123) ὑποθέσθαι ὅσα ἔχω ἐν τῇ ᾿Οάσε[ι] 
κτήματα [λα]βόντα τοῦ Διοσκόρο[υ] γράμματα ἀπερίι- 
om] άστου, the editors translate “ to mortgage all my property 
in the Oasis in return for a deed of release received from 
Dioscorus,” and explain γράμματα ἀπερισπάστου as a deed 
of indemnification, distinguished by the formula ἀπερί- 
σπαστον παρέξεσθαι or some equivalent phrase. In 1. 18 
of this same papyrus the deed is called ἢ ἀπερίσπαστος 
simply. The development of meaning is exactly like that 
of our “‘ security,” in the commercial sense. Other examples 
of the word are P Rein 1839 (B.c, 108), BGU IV. 1057” 
(Aug.), P Lond 932% (ap. 211) (Ξ- ΠΙ. p. 149), and 
P Amh 11. το 19 (early iii/A.D.), etc. 


On the possibility that this harsh word may have been 
coined by the Greek Jews of Alexandria to express the 
contempt with which they regarded the uncircumcised, see 
Deissmann BS, p. 153. Of course it must be remembered 
that περιτέμνω itself is familiar in papyri, in connexion with 
the circumcision of priests in Egyptian temples: see Otto 
Priester i. p. 214. 

occurs in a special sense in the affectionate letter of Philo- 
nides to his father the “‘ architect’ Cleon, P Petr II. 13 (19)? 
(middle of iii/B.c.) (=Witkowski?, p. 19), ζῶντός σου καὶ εἰς 
θεοὺς ἀπελθόντος. So, much later, in the beautiful simplicity 
of a Christian epitaph, Preisigke 1190: Tahoat ἐβίωσεν 

Parr I, 



εἴκουσι ὀκτώ, γ(ίνονται) (ἔτη) KH His λαμπρὰν (sc. γῆν) 
ἀπῆλθεν ---ἃ striking contrast to the monotonous ἄωρε χαῖρε 
on the pagan tombs of the young. 
of the word, it is sufficient to cite P Par 32°* (B.c. 162) 
γινώσκετε, ἀφ᾽ οὗ ἀφ᾽ ὑμῶν ἀπελήλυθα, μὴ ἐσχολα[κέν]αι 

For the ordinary use 

A.D.) πρὶν οὖν ἀπέλθῃς πρὸς Χαιρήμονα, ἀνά(βαινεὶ πρός pe, 
ἵνα σοι ἀποτάξομαι. It inay be noted that “‘in later times the 
idea of the word goes forward to the goal” (Usener, Pe/agia- 
Legenden, p. 49). So in Pelagia, p. 75) ἀπήλθαμεν ἐν τῇ 
μεγάλῃ ἐκκλησίᾳ, “ we arrived at the great church”; and 
much earlier in BGU III. 814% (iii/A.p.) γείνωσκε ὅτι 
λοιποῦμαι ὅτι οὐκ ἀπῆλθα ἐνγὺς τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ, “ have never 
come near my brother,” 26.22 ἔλεγε ὅτι ἐὰν ἀπέλθω εἰς οἶκον, 
πέμπω σοι] πάντα" οὐδέν μ[ο]ι ἐπέμψαται -- -re) . διὰ tel; 
The ἀπό has thus done for this word what it did in early 
times for ἀφικνέομαι, ferfectivizing the action: see Proéeg. 
p- 111 ff. So also with ἀποβαίνω. 


Deissmann (BS p. 229 and LAE p. τὸ ἢ.) has already 
shown how much light is thrown on the NT use of this 
word (Mt 6% 16 Phil 418) by the papyri and ostraca. 
There it 4s constantly found in the sense of *‘I have re- 
ceived,” as a technical expression in drawing up a receipt. 
Consequently in the Sermon on the Mount we are led to 
understand ἀπέχουσιν τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν, ‘they can Sign the 
receipt of their reward: their right to receive the reward is 
realised, prectsely as if they had already given a receipt 
for it” (BS p. 229). To the almost contemporary instances 
of this usage which Deissmann gives, BGU II. 5845% 
(A.D. 44) Kal ἀπέχω τὴν συνκεχωρημένην τιμὴν πᾶσαν ἐκ 
πλήρους, and 2. 6125: (A.D. 57) ἀπέχω παρ᾽ ὑμῶν τὸν 
φόρον τοῦ ἐλα[ι]ουργίου, ὧν ἔχετέ [po]u ἐν μισθώσει, we 
may add a few exx. which might be multiplied almost 
indefinitely : P Par 523 (B.c. 163-2) ἀπέχι παρ᾽ ἐμοῦ τιμῆς 
ὀθόνια, P Tebt I. 109)? (B.c. 93) τάλαντον ἕν, ὅ ἀπέχουσιν 
οἱ προγεγραμμένοι πία]ρὰ Ilererovxov, BGU III 975*°* 
(A.D. 45) (= Selections, p. 43) ἀἸπέχι ἡ Τεσεν[ο]ῦφις τὴν 
ὀφιλη[μένην] ὁ Ilalods] φερνὴϊν ἀργυρίου : we might 
suggest τὴν ὀφίλη (1. ε. εἰ) [αὐτῇ] as a rather simpler 
emendation than the editor’s ὑπὸ τοῦ [laottos—the substitu- 
tion of for (€)t has a parallel in 1. ® of this illiterate deed 
of divorce. Also PSI 398 (A.D. 148) ἀπέχειν τὴν συμπε- 
φωνημένην τιμὴν ἀργυρίου δραχμὰς ἑκατὸν ὀγδοηκονταοκτώ, 
etc. For the subst. ἀποχή, which is used exactly in the 
sense of our “receipt,” cf. P Oxy I. 9135 (A.p. 187) κυρία 
ἡ ἀποχή, ‘the receipt is valid,” 26. II. 269%-* (a.p. 57) 
ἐάν σοι δῦ τὸ ἀργύριον δὺς αὐτῷ ἀποχήν, “if he gives 
you the money, give him the receipt,” Osvv 50 (i/A.D.) τὴν 
mpot(épay) ἀποχ(ήν), and often. An important note by 
Albert Thumb (in Weue Jahrbiicher f. d. kl. Altertum, 1906, 
p. 255) shows that the function of the ferfectivez¢ng preposi- 
tion is to supply a present answering to the past ἔσχον. 
In receipts we find regularly ἀπέχω and ἔσχον, hardly ever 
(as Ostr 1417, 1430) ἀπέσχον, still less ἀπέσχηκεν, as in 
BGU IV. 105818 (Augustus). See further Wilcken Os¢r. i. 
Ρ. 85f. and H. Erman in 47chiv i. p. 77 ft. 

For the intransitive sense of the verb “to be away, dis- 
tant,” cf. P Strass I. 578 (ii/a.p.) μηδὲ μείλιον ἀπεχουσῶν 
ἀλλήλ[ων], and Michel 466° (iii/B.c.) ἀπέχον ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς 


{ - 
ἀπιστεω 58 

[ἐφ᾽ [ὅσον ποδῶν ἑπ[τ]ά, a vessel “distant from the shore 
as much as seven feet,’’ P Lille I. 1° (B.c. 259-8) χώματα 7 


ἀπέχον dm ἀλλήλων σχοινία κε, 29. 25 (111,8...) ἀπέχει δὲ 
ἡ γῆ αὐτὴ [why not αὕτη ἢ] ἀπὸ τῆς κώμης στάδια ἴε, etc. 
It may be added that the impersonal sense of ‘‘it is 
enough,” ‘‘it is sufficient,” often given to ἀπέχει in the 
difficult passage Mk 1441 is rejected by de Zwaan (Zxf. VI. 
xil. p. 452 ff.), who understands the word in the usual com- 
mercial sense referred to above— He (Judas) did receive 
(the promised money) ”—and refers to P Leid I. p. 97, for 
similar instances of ἀπέχει with this meaning standing by 
itself. For the middle, as in 1 Th 4, etc., cf. Sy// 35018, a 
rescript of Augustus (B.C. 31) τῆς τῶν πολεμίων ὠμότητος 
οὐδὲ τῶν ναῶν οὐδὲ τῶν ἱερῶν τῶν ἁγιωτάτων ἀποσχομένης. 


P Oxy III. 4714 (ii/A.p.) π]ροσθήσω τι κύριε περ[ὶ οὗ] 
θαυμάσεις οἶμαι καὶ ἀπι[στήσΊεις ἕως ἂν τὰ ypdpplara 
ἀνα]γνῶνμεν (with 2nd ν deleted and μὲν written above), ‘I 
will add a fact, my lord, which will, I expect excite your 
wonder and disbelief until we read the documents” (Edd.). 
P Oxy Il. 237%-° (a.p. 186) has τάχα ἀπιστεύσας εἰ κτλ. : 
here we must assume a momentary slip of spelling with 
πιστεύω in mind—of course ἀπιστεύω is an impossible word 
even in papyri. Sy// 802%! (dialect, iii/B.c.) ἀπίστει τοῖς 
ἰάμασιν Kal ὑποδιέσυρε τὰ ἐπιγράμμα[τ]α, said of a sceptic 
at the Asclepios temple in Epidaurus. So lines 30, 1. The 
appearance of the word for ‘‘incredulity” helps the case 
for ἀπειθέω as retaining its proper force. 


appears in the quasi-Ionic οἍϑ the illiterate P Par 23° 
(B.C. 165) kat’ ἀπιστηίην : ἀπιστίη was the real Ionic, and 
we have to take this as a mere blunder—see Mayser Gy, 
pp: 11 f., 130. 


may be cited from Sy// 80 253 (iii/B.c.) meaning first 
“incredible” and then ‘‘incredulous” : ὅτι τοίνυν ἔμπροσθεν 
ἀπιστεῖς avro[ts] (the inscriptions recording cures), οὐκ 
ἐοῦσιν ὀπίστοις, τὸ λοιπὸν ἔστω τοι, φάμεν, "Απιστος 
ὄν[ομα]. It is MGr. 


Kaibel 716° (Rome) ἤσκι τὴν ἁπλότητα, φίλους ὑπὲρ 
ἁτὸν ἐτίμα. The word is found OG/ZS 7642 (ii/A.D.) un- 
fortunately with a /zatws both before and after. On its 
biblical use see Charles’s note on 7552. xit. patr. Iss. iii. 1. 


The papyri have sundry uses of this word which effectively 
dispose of the contention that ‘‘the sora’ sense is the only 
one lexically warranted” (see Grimm-Thayer). Thus P 
Gen I. 217 (ii/B.c.), the marriage-contract already referred 
to (under ἀπαλλάσσω), where it is enacted that in the event 
of the wife’s being set free, the husband shall repay τὴν 
φερνὴν ἁπλῆν, ‘the marriage-dowry pure and simple,” but 
that in the event of his not doing so at the proper time he 
shall repay it with interest. In this sense we often find 
ἁπλοῦς contrasted with σὺν ἡμιολίᾳ, as in BGU IV. 105618 
(Augustus) ἐκτεῖσαι τὸ μὲν δάνηον σὺν ἡμιολίᾳ, τοὺς δὲ 

> ΄ 

τόκους ἁπλοῦς, 7. 1147}7 (B.C. 13). P Cairo Preis 118 
(ii/A.D.) πρᾶσις ἣν ἁπλῆ ἀνεύθυνος, P Tebt II. 340" (a.p. 
206) τὸ δὲ συναίρεμα τοῦτο δισσὸ(ν) γρα(φὲν) ἐπὶ τῷ ἁπλοῦν 
συνηγηθῆναι “to be considered as one,” P Oxy VI. 921 
recto (iii/A.D.) where mention is made of different kinds of 
πήχεις. -ἁπλοῖ, Kapapwrikol (or -ωτοί) and éuBaSol (see 
the editors’ introduction), with the reference to a ἁπλοῦν 
οἴκημα in OG/S 483!!! (ii/B.c.), will serve to illustrate the 
variety of ‘‘non-moral” senses left to the word in the ver- 
nacular. In P Petr I. 1229 (iii/B.c.) ἁπλοΐδιον (for the 
Homeric ἁπλοῖς) is used to denote a single garment. The 
moral sense is well illustrated by Sy/J 633” (ii/a.D.) καὶ 
εὐείλατος γένοι[τ]ο ὁ θεὸς τοῖς θεραπεύουσιν ἁπλῇ TL ψυχῇ. 
For the adverb see the separate article. In MGr ἁπλός 
means ‘‘simple, naive, natural.” 


The adverb is frequent in legal documents to lend emphasis 
to a statement : P Oxy II. 237. 1 (a.p. 186) ἄλλο ἀδίκημα 
εἰς αὑτὸν ἁπλῶς, ‘any other single act of injustice against 
himself,” cf. P Flor I. 28! (ii/a.p.) παντὸς ἁπλῶς εἴδους, 
and similarly P Amh II. 96% (a.p. 213). So with the 
negative P Lond 1218? (a.p. 39) (=III. p.-130) οὐκ εἶχον 
ἁπλῷς πρᾶγμα, P Oxy II. 268! (a.p. 58) περὶ ἄλλου 
μηδενὸς ἁπλῶς ἐνγράπτου ἢ ἀγράφου πράγματος, ‘ concern- 
ing any other matter whatever written or unwritten,” zd. VI. 
ἐνεστώσης ἡμέρας, ‘or on any other subject whatever up to 
the present day”: and the short P Tebt II. 490 (B.c. 92 or 
59) μὴ κατεγγύα μηδὲν τὸν Κόμωνος tod Kdpwvos πρὸς 
μηδὲν ἁπλῶς. In a philosophic letter of iv/A.p., P Oxy I. 
120°", the editors transkate χρὴ yap τινα δρῶντα αἱαυτὸν ἐν 
δυστυχίᾳ κἂν ἀναχωρῖν καὶ μὴ ἁπλῶς μάχαισθαι τῷ 
δεδογμένῳ, “‘ when a man finds himself in adversity he ought 
to give way and not fight stubbornly against fate.” Refer- 
ence should be made to Hort’s abundant illustrations in his 
note upon Jas 1°. 


In this and the other prepositions cf very wide and general 
use we have not pretended to any fullness: they would 
afford abundant material for a fair-sized treatise. We only 
notice such special uses as we have remarked in our reading, 
and have therefore passed over most of the common and 
obvious uses. On ἀπό there are some illustrations in Prodeg. 
which may be recalled with some additions. There is the 
partitive use (pp. 102, 245), still current in MGr: so P Petr 
III. 11%° (B.c. 234) ddeloO[w] ἀπὸ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων μοι 
[σ]ωμάτων [ἐλ]εύθερα A. kal’A., 2d. 11. τα (1)> (= Selections 
p- 7) (iii/B.c.) ἀπὸ τούτου τὸ μὲν ἥμυσυ . . . τὸ δὲ λοιπόν 
κτλ. P Tebt II. 209013 (c. a.D. 50) ἀπολυσίμ[ο]υ ἀπὸ 
av8[pav πεντή]κοντα ‘one of the 50 exempted persons” 
(Edd.), P Iand 8° (ii/A.p.) διεπεμψάμην cor. . ἀϊπὸ τοῦ 
οἸΐνου Κ νίδια τρία, etc. To Kuhring’s scanty exx. (p. 37) 
for ἀπό of agent (cf. Proleg. pp. 102, 246) add Syi/ 6558 (A.v. 
83) συντετηρημένα ἀπὸ βασιλέων Kal Σεβαστῶν, P Lond 
117312 (A.D. 125) (=TIII. p. 208) ἕως πεισθῇς ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ, 
P Flor IT. 150° (A.D. 267) ἀ, τῶν μυῶν κατεσθιόμενα, BGU 
IV. 118576 (Augustus or earlier) μηδὲ κατακαλεῖσθαι ἀπὸ 
μηδεν(ός). It is universal in MGr, but its very limited use 
in papyri and NT suggests that in the Hellenistic period it 

>. ’ 

had only local currency. Various uses under the general 
heading of source are collected in Kuhring p. 35 f.: add the 
remarkable BGU IV. 107975 (A.D. 41) (= Selections Ὁ. 40) 
ὡς ἂν πάντες καὶ σὺ βλέπε σατὸν ἀπὸ τῶν ᾿Ιουδαίων “like 
everybody else, you too must beware of the Jews.” The 
familiar NT idiom (Mk 81:5 a/) may be translation Greek 
still, but it is evidently possible enough in vernacular 
untouched by Semitic influence. Kuhring’s instances cover 
the categories of cause, authorship, recetpt, inheritance, but 
not 2zzstrvwment: there are numerous exx. of καθαρὸς ἀπό 
and the like (once regarded as Semitism!). Sometimes the 
καθαρός is dropped, and ἀπό is practically =dvev: see 
Kuhring p. 53 f., and add P Lips I. 16!® (a.p. 138) 
πα[ρ]αδίώσω colt σὺν ταῖς ἐφαιστώσαις θ[ύραις) κ[αὶ] 
κλεισὶ καὶ ἀπὸ πάσης ἀκαθαρσίας : on P Fay 345 the edd. 
note ‘‘cf. CPR 3551, BGU I. 305}, etc., where these phrases 
occur without καθαρός." Not that καθαρός is really to be 
supplied: the frivatzve ἀπό, as Kuhring calls it, is quite 
naturally developed. Cf. P Tebt II. 4204 (iii/A.p.) ἀπὸ 
ζημίας ““ blameless.” In P Oxy VIII. 11038 (A.D. 360) a 
certain Eutrygius is called ἀπὸ λογιστῶν “ex-logistes” : 
Prof. Hunt notes ‘On the titular use of ex and ἀπό see 
Mommsen Zphem. Epigr. v. p. 128-9, and cf. e.g. 1334 
ἀπὸ ὑπάτων [A.D. 550], 8932 ἀπὸ μειζόνων [vi/vii A.D.], P 
[Lond] 233° [=II. p. 273---αἰ Ὁ. 345] ἀπὸ ἐπάρχων, P Flor 
I. 71 passim [iv/a.p.].” On its relations with ἐκ, παρά 
and ὑπό see Proleg. p. 237: add Prezsivke 997 and 998, two 
προσκυνήματα from the same place, dated respectively A.D. 4 
and A.D. 16-7, with ὑπὸ χειμῶνος ἐλασθείς in the first and 
ἀπὸ χιμῶνος ἐλασθείς in the other. We may further note 
the idiomatic use of ἀπό in Mk γέ dm ἀγορᾶς, 15° an’ 
ἀγροῦ, *‘fresh from market,” ‘‘ from field-work,” which is 
well illustrated by such phraseology as that in Sy// 567 
(ii/A.D.), a tariff prescribing the number of days of ceremonial 
impurity following certain acts, described as τὰ ἐκτός : thus 
ἀπὸ τυροῦ ἡμέ(ρας) a, ἀπὸ φθορείων ἡμείρῶν) ji, ἀπὸ κήδους 
[οἰκἸείου ἡμείρῶν) p, ἀπὸ συνουσίας νομίμου they may enter 
the shrine the same day after washing and anointing. Cf. 
Deissmann 4S p. 227. Among phrases with ἀπό we may note 
one in P Ryl IL. 1575} (A.p. 135) εἰ χρεία γείνοιτο [ποτίσαι 
é]v ἀναβάσει [7.v.] ἀπὸ ποδὸς τὴν αὐτὴν νοτίνην μερίδα, 
“*if need arises at the inundation to water the same southern 
portion by foot.” It seems clear that this refers to the same 
method of irrigation which appears in Deut 1119 (LXX ὅταν 
σπείρωσιν τὸν σπόρον καὶ ποτίζωσιν τοῖς ποσὶν αὐτῶν 
ὡσεὶ κῆπον Aaxavias): see Driver zz doc. The editors in 
their note citea papyrus with ἀπὸ ποδὸς ποτισ[μ]οῦ. In ἁλιεῖς 
ἀπὸ ποδός (BGU I. 220, 221, III. 756) the sense is different, 
perhaps ‘‘ from the bank ” (lit. ‘fon foot’). In P Rein 184 
(B.c. 108) we note μέχρι [ἂν ἀπὸ] τοῦ σπόρου γένηται “until 
he has finished his sowing.” For ἀπό denoting matter or 
material, as Mt 3%, cf. Priene 1177 (i/B.C.) στεφανῶσα[ι 
-.. στεφ]άνῳ χρυσέων ἀπὸ χρυσοῦ. The phrase ἀπὸ 
μέρους may be provisionally illustrated by P Ryl II. 13317 
(A.D. 33) αὐθάδως κατέσπασεν ἀπὸ μέρους “ ventured to pull 
it partly down” : see further under μέρος. On am’ αἰῶνος we 
gave some parallels under αἱών : add Predsigke 176% (A.D. 
161-80) πρώτου τῶν ἀπ᾽ αἰῶνος. ᾿Απὸ τοῦ νῦν is illustrated 
by Deissmann ZS p. 253, and ἀπὸ τοῦ βελτίστου 20. 93: add 
P Tebt I. 589 (B.c. 118), 11. 2828 (late ii/B.c.), P Fay 12° 
(B.C. 103). See further Pro/eg. p. 9 for Rey 14, on which 


5 ΄ 
more may [56 5414 underelwf. Rossberg’s dissertation system- 
atically illustrates papyrus usages of ἀπό, as far as its date 
(1908) allows: it ought perhaps to be observed that the 
extracts are not always correctly transcribed. There is an 
elaborate dissertation on later uses of ἀπό in composition by 
K. Dieterich in 7rd. Forsch. xxiv. pp. 87-158, on which cf. 
Frankel, Wochenschr. f. klass. Philol., 1909, p- 369 ff. 


For the metaphorical sense (as in Lk 2118, Phil 119) cf. 
P Petr III. 42 H (8) f® (iii/B.c.) (= Witkowski?, p. 15) 
νυνὶ [δὲ ἐν φόβωι clipl οὐ μετρίωι, wa[s] Te col ἀποβήσεται 
καὶ ἡμῖν. Sy// 406! (A.D. 147—a reply οἵ M. Aurelius to 
an address of congratulation on the birth of a son who had 
died after it was sent) εὔνοια ὑμῶν, ἣν ἐνεδείξασθε συνησθέντες 
μοι γεννηθέντος υἱοῦ, εἰ kal ἑτέρως τοῦτο ἀπέβη, οὐδὲν ἧττον 
φανερὰ ἐγένετο. The literal sense may be illustrated by the 
use of the verb, with its nouns ἀπόβασις and ἀποβατικόν, 
to denote a kind of chariot race in which one of two men 
in a car had to jump off: see Sy// 670 (i/ii A.D.) and notes. 
Schlageter (p. 59) quotes ἀπόβασις from a Delos inscr. in 
BCG xiv. p. 3991! (B.c. 279), where it means ‘‘ place of 
exit,” the classical meaning having been ‘‘ landing.” 


νὼ 32430 (i/B.c.) τῆς πόλεως ἀποβεβλημένη[ς] ἀγαθὸν 
[πολείτην. The words τὰ ἀποβάλλοντα are used as a 
designation for certain δημόσια ἐδάφη in P Flor 1. 20" 
(A.D. 127) (= Chrest. I. p. 422), but the reason for the 
designation is by no means clear: see the note by Vitelli, 
who favours a sense = ‘‘ fruitful,” and compares the some- 
what similar usage in P Gen I. 62° (ii/A.D.) μήτε ἐκ τ[οῦ] 
κεφαλαίου τι αὐτοὺς [ἀ]ποβεβληκέναι. P Ryl I. 25% (iv/ 
A.D.) tells us that one kind of ‘‘quivering” means that 
πολλὰ ἀποβάλλει ὁ τοιοῦτος, and in * one whose left shin 
quivers ἀποβαλεῖν πρόσωπον ὑποτακτικόν, ‘will lose a 
subordinate person.” PSI 32!7 (A.D. 208) μὴ ἐξεῖναι δὲ ἡμεῖν 
ἀποβαλέσθαι σε τῆ[ς μι]σθώσεως. 


For this NT dr. εἰρ. (Heb 1125) cf. Sy// 6 5610 (Ephesus, 
ii/A.D.) ἀποβλέπων εἴς Te THY εὐσέβειαν τῆς θεοῦ καὶ εἰς τὴν 
τῆς λαμπροτάτης ᾿Εἰφεσίων πόλεως τειμήν. 


P Ryl IL. 659 (8.6. 67 2) has ἀπογεγονότα πλείονα σώματα, 
«© several corpses.” P Grenf II. 69! (A.D. 265) τῷ 
ἀπογεγονότι πατρὶ αὐτοῦ, ‘his departed father.” P Lips 
I. 29 (A.D. 295) has aor. partic. fer in the same sense— 
so Syl/ 727% (iii/B.c.) and 8507 (ii/B.c.) ; but three or four 
iv/A.D. documents in the same collection show the general 
meaning ‘‘depart” c. gen. 


It is hardly necessary to observe that a very large number 
of the papyri are census papers, and that by their aid a four- 
teen years’ period has been established during the Imperial 
age: the discovery was first made by Wilcken, Hermes 
xxviii. p. 230 ff. (1893). The oldest certainly dated census 
paper is one of A.D. 34, published in 7 ἀζμοίοσεις Ixxi. p. 24 Iie? 
ἀπογράφομαι eis τὸ ἐνίεσ]τὸς Κὶ ἔτος Τιβερίου Καίσαρος 

ἀπογράφομαι 60 

Σεβαστοῦ. The editor, 5. Eitrem, remarks that P Oxy 
II. 254 probably belongs to A.D. 20. See Grenfell and 
Hunt's long introduction to that document, discussing the 
argument of Sir W. M. Ramsay in his Was Christ Born at 
Bethlehem ? (1898) ; and note that they think P Oxy II. 256 
might even go back to A.D. 6. For the κατ᾽ οἰκίαν ἀπο- 
γραφή of the Ptolemaic period, see P Petr III. 59 (@), a 
very early example. They were made every year, and 
included the name of the owner and other occupants of each 
house, then the total number of inhabitants, and the number 
of males. In later times we find in the ἀπογραφή a return of 
property, as in P Oxy I. 72 (A.D. 90),—of a slave, as 26. 73 
(a.p. 94), and of sheep and goats, etc., as 74 (A.D. 116)— 
the two latter are examples of the annual registration. See 
Wilcken, Grendztige I. p.175 f., and for the Imperial census 
pp- 192 f. and 202 f. He accepts P Oxy 11. 254 and 255 as 
belonging to the census of A.D. 19-20 and 47-8 respectively ; 
and agrees with Grenfell and Hunt that ‘‘this census was 
established in B.C. 10-9 or A.D. στό. In favour of this is 
the fact that the new λαογραφία, poll-tax, which was closely 
connected with the census, was in operation in B.C. 19-8. 
Wilcken’s points must not be repeated here, for we cannot 
spare room for the Readiex. 16 shows that the purpose 
of the census was to determine the total population of Egypt, 
and each person according to his residence, ἴδια : this is 
specially brought out by the edict of Vibius Maximus 
(P Lond 904 = Selections no. 28), in which the Prefect 
orders all to return to their homes for the census of A.D. 104. 
(See further on this Wilcken’s introduction to the document 
in Chrest. I. 202, p. 235 f., and Deissmann LAZ p. 268 f. 
There seems to be an unnoticed reference to this requirement 
in the late iii/A.p. document, P Oxy VIII. 1157: the writer 
asks his sister to register him in his absence if possible, and 
if not to let him know, that he may come and do it.) 
Wilcken shows that personal attendance to the duty of 
εἰκονισμός (cf. P Oxy VII. 1022) was necessary, and brings 
into connexion the story of Lk 2, The only thing he does 
not explain is his own use of the term ‘‘legend” (/. c. p. 194). 
The deduction so long made from I.uke’s shocking blunders 
about the census apparently survives the demonstration that 
the blunder lay only in our lack of information: the microbe 
is not yet completely expelled. Possibly the salutary process 
may be completed by our latest inscriptional evidence that 
Quirinius was a legate in Syria for census purposes in 
B.C. 8-6 (see Zxfositor VIII. iv. pp. 385, 481 ff.). 


On the general subject we have included everything under 
the noun above. The verb is used as a ‘‘vox sollennis” 
in P Petrie 11. 11 (2)3 (mid. iii/B.c.) (= Witkowski?, p. 6) 
ἀπογέγραμμαι δὲ ἐπὶ τελώνιον Td οἰκόπεδον KTA, “1 have 
registered as subject to tax the site bringing 17} dr. rent.” 
the payment of customs, it is laid down that ἐὰν μὲν εὑρεθῇ 
τίι] ἕτερον ἢ ὃ ἀπεγράψατο, στερήσιμον ἔστω, ‘if anything 
be discovered other than what was declared, it shall be 
liable to confiscation.” If not, the τελώνης had to repay to 
the merchant the cost of unloading his ship for examination. 
It is usually the middle voice that is employed—a fact not 
unconnected with the personal responsibility already noticed. 
But in P Ryl IT. 10317 2° (a.p. 134) we have ἀπεγρά φη), 


[ἀπεγ]ρά[φ]ησαν, as against ἀπεγράψατο (-avro) in other 
places in the document: the former simply gives the fact of 
the registration, which indeed in one case, that of a slave's 
child, was effected by the head of the family. 

With the use of the verb in Heb 12% may be compared 
Afpoc. Pauli (ed. Tischendorf), p. 39 f.: γνῶτε, viol τῶν 
ἀνθρώπων, ὅτι πάντα Ta πραττόμενα παρ᾽ ὑμῶν καθ᾽ ἡμέραν 
ἄγγελοι ἀπογράφονται ἐν οὐρανοῖς. 


P Alex 45 (iii/B.c.) (= Witkowski?, p. 51) ἀποδείξομέν σε, 
“‘we shall report you.” For the middle cf. Sy// 5211° 
(B.C. 100) the newly admitted efhedé ποιησάμενοι. . . 
μελέτην ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις ἀπεδείξαντο τοῖς. . . Θησείοις. 
The verb is very common in the sense of ‘‘appoint” or 
“nominate”: in P Ryl 11. 15317 (A-p. 138-61) ἀποδίγνυμι 
τὸν υἱόν as heir to my estate. Generally it is used of 
‘*proclaiming”’ an appointment to public office. Thus in 
the rough draft of a public proclamation of the accession 
of Nero we are told ὁ δὲ τῆς οἰκουμένης καὶ προσ- 
δοκηθεὶς καὶ ἐλπισθεὶς Αὐτοκράτωρ ἀποδέδεικται, ““1Π6 ex- 
pectation and hope of the world has been declared 
Emperor” (P Oxy VII. ro21®ff, a.p. 54), and in the same 
Emperor's speech to the Greeks he describes himself as 
δ[η)μαρχικῆς ἐξουσίας τὸ τρισκαιδέκατον ἀποδεδειγμένος -- 
designatus (Syll 376°3, Α.Ὁ. 67, with Dittenberger’s note). 
Other examples are P Petr III. 36 (a) verso 17 ἐπί] τῶν 
ἀποδεδειγμένων ἐπισκόπων ‘in the presence of the appointed 
supervisors,” P Gen I. 36? (ii/A.p.) ᾿Ανουβίωνι ἀποδίεδε]ι- 
γμένῳ γυμνασιάρχῳ, and from the inscriptions OGZS 437” 
(i/B.C.) ot ὑφ᾽ ἑκατέρων τῶν δήμων ἀποδειχθέντες ἄνδρες ἐπὶ 
τῶν συλλύσεων Σαρδιανῶν, Sy// 409" (ii/A.D.) ἀποδειχ[θέν]- 
τος ὑπὸ θεοῦ ᾿Αδριανοῦ, εἰς. 

This use of the verb adds point to 2 Thess 24, where the 
man of lawlessness is decribed as ἀποδεικνύντα ἑαυτὸν ὅτι 
ἔστιν Geds—he actually ‘* proclaims” himself as God (see 
further Milligan ad /.). For the other meaning, ‘‘ demon- 
strate,” as in Ac 257, cf. P Par 15%4f (B.c. 120) ἠρώτησεν 
τὸν ‘Epptay εἴ τινα ἀποδείξιν παράκειται (so Radermacher 
Gr. p. 152 [.) ὥς ἐστιν αὐτοῦ προγονική, P Lond. go4* 
(A.D. 104—see above, under ἀπογραφή) (-- ΠΠ1. p. 126) οἱ 
amod[e(jEavres avayk[atay αὐὐτῶν τὴν παρουϊσίαν, who 
have ‘‘ proved” their inability to return home for the census, 
P Fay 3215 (A.D. 131) πρότερον ἀποδίξω ὑπάρχειν “1 will 
first establish my title to the ownership” (Edd.), and BGU 

ἀποδείκνυται, τίνος ἐστὶν δοῦλος. The verb 

(ἀποδείχνω) means ‘‘ prove.” 

in MGr 


[ὑπε]θέμην σοι τὰ ὑπογεγρί(αμμένα) “ἴῃ proof thereof.” 
P Oxy II. 257}9 (a.p. 94-5) καθ᾽ [ἂς] ἐπήνεγκεν ἀποδείξεις, 
«ἔῃ accordance with the proofs he produced.” P AmhII. 77% 
(A.D. 139) ἵνα δυνηθῶ τὴν ἀπόδιξιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτοὺς π[ο]ιησ[ά]- 
μενο(ς) τυχεῖν καὶ τῆς ἀπὸ σοῦ εὐεργεσίας, ““ἴπ order that 
I may produce the proofs against them and obtain your 
beneficence” (Edd.). P Tebt II. 2914 (a.p. 162) (= 
Chrest. 1. p 163) [ἀπΊόδειξιν δοὺς τοῦ ἐπίστασθαι [ἱε]ρατικὰ 
[καὶ] Αἰγύπτια γράμίματ]α, a priest gives proof of his 
qualifications by his knowledge of hieratic and Egyptian 

ἀπόδεκτας 61 
writing. Syi/ 5214? (see above under ἀποδείκνυμι) ἐπο[ι]ή- 
σαντο. .. ἐπ᾿ ἐξόδωι τῆς ἐφηβείας τὴν ἀπόδειξιν τῆι 
βουλῆι. In P Tor I. 15}: 8 (8.6. 116) (= Chest. 11. p. 37) 
it is closely connected with another compound: καὶ μετὰ 
τὰς ἐπιδείξεις ταύτας αἰτεῖσθαι αὐτὸν τὰς περὶ τῆς οἰκίας 
ἀποδείξεις, “‘ tandem, hisce demonstratis, iam ipsi licuisset 
a nobis documenta petere, quae ad domum attinent” (Peyron). 
BGU IV. 11417? (c. B.C. 14) kal δέδωκα ἀποδείξεις ἀληθινάς 
“genuine proofs.” P Catt ii 9 (ii/a.p.) (= Chrest. Il. p. 
421) ἐάν t[u]vals] ἐναργεῖς ἀποδ[εἴξεις ἔχῃς, ἐὰν erevely]k qs, 
ἀκούσομαί σου (οσου was first written). Cf. Sy// 729°° 
(8...) ἀ. σαφεῖς. For the sense “election” (the omen 
actionis to ἀποδείκνυμι), cf. Sy// 20679 (B.c. 274) ylveo [Oar 
δὲ εἰς τὸ λοιπὸν] τὴν ἀπόδειξιν τῶν θεωρῶν καθ᾽ ἑκάστην 
πενταετηρίδα. For a ‘‘ display,” cf. Sy// 9235 (1|8.6.}..... 
ποιητῶν kal ἱστοριαγράφων ἀποδείξεις. 


OG/S 441190 (i/B.c.) ἀπόδεκ[τα ὑπάρχει]ν δεῖν. ( Ampdo- 
δεκτος is found in the contrary sense P Oxy II. 268᾽8 
(A.D. 58) τὴν ἐσομένην ἔφ[ο]δον ἄκυρον καὶ πρόσδεκτον 
(Δ aarp.) ὑπάρχειν, ““Δηγν claim that is made shall be void 
and inadmissible” (Edd.): cf. the Xanthos inscription Sy/? 
633° (ii/A.D.) ἐὰν δέ τις βιάσηται, ἀπρόσδεκτος ἥ θυσία 
παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ.) ᾿Αποδεκτέος ““ laudandus” occurs in Vettius 
Valens: see under ἀποδέχομαι. The noun ἀποδέκτης, 
following σίτίον), occurs in Osty 1217 (iii/A.D.), a. 


P Oxy VI. 939 10 fF (iv/A.D.), a letter from a Christian 
dependent to his master regarding the illness of his mistress, 
has the following: συνγνώμην δέ, κύριέ pov, σχοίης μοι [καὶ 
εὔνους] ἀποδέξει με εἰ καὶ ἐς τηλικαύτην σε [ἀγωνία]ν 
ἄκων ἐνέβαλον γράψας περὶ αὐτῆς ὅσα [ἐκομίσω], ‘* please 
pardon me, my lord, and receive me kindly, though I unwil- 
lingly caused you so much anxiety by writing to you the 
messages which you received” (Edd.). Syé/ 6935 (iii/B.c.) 
ἐμφανίζειν δὲ αὐτοῖς ὅτι kal viv πρῶτοι τὸν ayava ταῖς 
Μούσαις στεφα[νήτην ἀποδέχοντί[αι... ., 7. 790% (i/B.C.) 
ἁγνεύοντες καὶ νήφοντες καὶ ἀποδεχόμενοι τὰ πινάκια παρὰ 
τῶν μαντευομένων. ΟΟ 15 6921 (Egypt) οὐκ ἀπεδεξάμην σε 
τί(ῆς) ἐΐν λόγοις] τριβῆς [ἕνεκεν]. Vettius Valens p. 250% 
τινὲς μὲν εὐχερεῖς καὶ ἐπακτικοὶ τῆς ἀληθείας ἀποδέχονται, 
which Kroll renders ‘‘laudantur,” comparing p. 3261 ὅθεν 
ἀποδεκτέος ὁ τοιοῦτος. Gildersleeve (/ust. A/. p. 239) 
remarks on the ‘ respectful” tone of the verb in Ac 24% 
πάντη Te καὶ πανταχοῦ ἀποδεχόμεθα. Tt survives in MGr. 

Early examples of this verb ἀγα afforded by P Petr III. 4215 
(iii/B.C.) εἰμὶ yap πρὸς τῶι ἀποδημεῖν, “for Iam on the point 
of departure ” (Edd.), and P Par 468 (B.c. 153) ἐνκατελελοίπει 
pe ἀποδημήσας. An antithesis which verbally resembles 
2 Cor 59 may be seen in P Tebt I. 10417 (B.c. 92) ἐνδημῶν 
kal ἀποδημῶν, in a marriage contract : similarly BGU I. 1837 
(a.p. 85), P. Giss I. 2.15 (B.c. 173), and cf. P Par 69 
(iii/A.D.) where the arrivals and departures of a strategus are 
recorded in his day-book by émt- and ἀποδημέω respectively 
(cf. Archtv iv. p- 374). On P Gatt’2° Gi/ap.) (= 
Chrest. 11. p. 422) ἐὰν γένηταί pe ἀποδημεῖν, P. M. Meyer 
observes (Avchzv ili. p. 84) that the verb is the antithesis 


of ἐνδημεῖν, as especially in marriage contracts. Add P 
Oxy I. 4% (late i/A.p.) ἀποδημοῦντός σου, ‘in your 
absence,” 7. 11. 3267 (c. A.D. 45) οὐκ ἔλαβον ἀργύριον 
παρὰ [τῶν πρ]οπόλων ad’ οὗ ἀπεδήμη[σα], 7. Ill. 471° 
(ii/A.D.) ἀποδη[μοῦντ]ες ἠγνοήσατε τὰς [π]Ἰερὶ τούτων γεγραμ- 
μένας tplet]y ἐπιστολάς, P Tebt II. 3337 (Α.Ὁ. 216) τοῦ 
πατρός μου. . . ἀποδημήσαντος.. . πρὸς κυνηγίαν λα- 
γοῶν, “my father set off to hunt hares,” and P Amh II. 14515 
(iv/v A.D.) ἐϊλυπήθην διότι ἀπεδήμησας ἀλόγως, “1 am 
grieved because you went away without cause” (Edd.). In 
Sy// 633%* (Rom.) ἐὰν δέ τινα ἀνθρώπινα πάσχῃ ἢ ἀσθενήσῃ 
ἢ ἀποδημήσῃ πον gives us a good combination. For the 
subst. cf. P Oxy III. 4717™ (ii/a.p.) τάς te ἀποδημίας, 
P Tebt 11. 330% (ii/A.p.) ἐμοῦ ἐν ἀποδημίᾳ ὄντος, and 
P Giss I. 41% (Hadrian) ὑπὸ τῆς μακρᾶς ἀποδημίας τὰ 
ἡμέτερα] πα[ντ]άπασιν ἀμεληθέντα tvyx [aver]. 



Syil 1545 (age of Alexander) τοὺς δὲ ἀποδήμους, ἐπειδὰν 
ἔλθωσι ἐς τὴμ πόλιν, ἀποδοῦναι τὴν τιμὴν διὰ μηνός. 70. 
42739 (iv/iii B.c.) (Crete, in dialect) καὶ τ[οὺς ἄλλο]υς 
πολίτας ἐξορκιῶ, τοὺϊς μὲν ἐνδάμους αὐτίκα pada], τοὺς 
δ᾽ ἀποδάμους αἴ κα ἔλθωντι, [ὧϊς Aly δύνωμαι τάχιστα]. 


It is unnecessary to illustrate at length this very common 
verb, the uses of which are on familiar lines. Thus ἀπόδος 
τῷ ϑεῖνι is the direction on the back of a letter, e.g. P 
Oxy II. 2932 (A.D. 27) ἀπόδο(ς) παρὰ Διον[υσίου] Διδύμῃ 
τῆι ἀδελφῇ] ; see also Wilcken Archiv v. p. 238 for the 
use of ἀπόδος to denote the transmission of an official docu- 
ment. Similarly the verb is the appropriate one everywhere 
for the “‘ paying” of a debt, or “restoring” of a due of any 
kind—P Eleph 1 (B.c. 311-0) (= Se/ections, p. 3) of a 
dowry, Ἡρακλείδης Δημητρίαι τὴμ φερνὴν ἣν προσηνέγκατο 
(δραχμὰς) A, an observance due to the gods P Giss I. 2719 
(ii/A.D.) ἵνα. . . Tots θεοῖς τὰς ὀφειλομένα[ς] σπονδὰς 
ἀποδῶ, rent 74. 464 (Hadrian) τὰ [ἐϊκφόρια οὐκ ἀπέδοσαν, 
P Oxy I. 373-8 (A.D. 49) (= Selections, p. 51) of wages for 
services that have not been fully rendered, ἀποδοῦσαν αὐτὴν 
ὃ εἴληφεν ἀργύριον, and 20. 11. 2695 (A.D. 57) of a loan of 
money, ἂς ἀποδώσω σοι τῇ τριακάδι τοῦ Κα[ισαρεί]ου 
μηνός. In P Grenf I. 437 Ὁ (ii/B.c.) [α]ὐτοῦ δὲ μηδ᾽ ἀπο- 
δεδωκότος ἡμῖν μ[ηδὴὲ ἵππον μηδὲ τὴν πορείαν αὐτῆς ἐπίιδε]- 
δωκότος, we have two compounds well distinguished. For 
some notes on its flexion see under δίδωμι. The middle 
ἀποδόσθαι ‘‘sell” (Ac 58 etc.) may be illustrated from P 
Tor I. 1iv-22 (B.c. 116) (=Chrest. 11. p. 34), %: 24 (p. 36) etc. 
Cf. MGr ἀποδίδω. 


The simplex (if we may so call what is already a compound) 
may be seen in Wiinsch A/ 3% (p. 12) (Carthage, leaden 
tablet) ἐξορκίζω ὑμᾶς κατὰ τοῦ ἐπάν[ω] Tod οὐρανοῦ θεοῦ, 
τοῦ καθημένου ἐπὶ τῶν Χερουβί, ὁ διορίσας τὴν γῆν καὶ 
χωρίσας τὴν θάλασσαν : the writer has got enough Judaism 
to curse with. For his grammar cf. Pro/eg. p. ὅ0 π.}. 

P. Giss I. 4711: (Hadrian) παραζώ[νἼιον γὰρ πρὸς τὸ 
παρὸν γνήσιον οὐχ εὑρέθη, ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ ἐδικαίωσα ἀγοράσαι 

ἀποδοχή 62 

ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι δυνάμενον, ‘a girdle-dagger suitable for 
the present purpose has not been found, and I have not 
thought it right to buy one that might be rejected.” On the 
use in I Pet 27 of the LXX ἀποδοκιμάζω instead of ἐξ- 
ουθενέω as in Ac 471 for the Heb DN?) in Ps 1 1872, as indicating 

a progress on Peter’s part in Greek ways and speech, see 
Ramsay Pauline Studies, p. 254f. Vettius Valens uses it 
twice: p. 27818 ἐὰν δὲ τοὺς κακοποιούς (sc εὕρωμεν χρημα- 
τίζοντας καὶ τὸν “Ἥλιον ἢ τὴν Σελήνην ἐπιθεωροῦντας [καὶ] 
τὸν ὡροσκόπον), ἀποδοκιμάζομεν τὴν γένεσιν, p. 31335 πρὸς 
τὸ μὴ πλέκεσθαί τινας ἢ ἀποδοκιμάζειν τὴν αἵρεσιν. 


Svil 371°! (Magnesia, i/A.D.) δεδόχθαι... τετιμῆσθαι... 
Tupavvov καὶ εἶναι ἐν ἀποδοχῇ τῷ δήμῳ. In 26. 65620F 
(Ephesus, ¢c. A.D. 148) an ἀγωνοθέτης named Priscus is styled 
ἀνδρὸς δοκιμωτάτου καὶ πάσης τειμῆς Kal ἀποδοχῆς ἀξίου. 
Field’s examples (ofes, p. 203) show how much of a formula 
this ἀποδοχῆς ἄξιος (as r Tim 115) had become. The inscrip- 
tion is quoted, with other epigraphic examples, by Bishop 
Hicks in CX i. p. 4, from which may be selected OG/S 
3391" (c. B.C. 120) τῆς καλλίστης ἀποδοχῆς ἀξιούμενος παρ᾽ 
αὐτῶι. Add Priene τοϑ3}5 (after B.c. 129), 10974 (c. B.C. 120) 
ἐν ἀποδοχῆι τῆι μεγίστηι εἶναι, ‘‘ to enjoy the highest esteem ” 
(see Fouillac, p. 39). 

The derivative ἀποδοχεῖον, which is found in the LXX, 
occurs in Rev L 317%, 32?, 5418 (p.c. 258), and is apparently 
to be restored in the much mutilated P Petr III 36 (4) ii 12 
(B.C. 252) βουκόλῳν κ(ώμης) ἀποδοχίῳ[ι], “in the granary 
of the herdsmen’s village.” So P Hib I. 852 (B.c. 261). 

The phrase μετὰ πάσης ἀποδοχῆς (cf 1 Tim 115) occurs 
in Cagnat IV. 1448 (Cyzicus, i/A.p.), of the ‘general 
appreciation” of an act of the Princess Antonia Tryphaena. 


BGU II. 606° (A.D. 306) πρὸς ἀ]πόθεσιν ἀχύρου. Sy// 
42018 (iv/A.D. zit.) τῇ ἀποθέσει τῶν στεφάνων, the ceremony 
of resigning a priesthood, the inauguration to which was 
παράληψις τοῦ στεφάνου (so Ed.). ᾿Απόθετος occurs in a 
petition P Oxy I. 71478 (4.p. 303), but unfortunately the 
passage is much mutilated. With the idea of 2 Pet 114 we 
might compare σῶ]μ᾽ ἀποδυσάμενος in Kabel 403° (iv/v A.v., 
but not Christian). 


The word is by no means so common as might have been 
expected. In the Indexes to Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1.-X. 
it is only noted once, namely P Oxy I. 43 versoili 29 (a.p, 
295). Seealso BGU I. 323, 2d. III. 8168 (iii/a.p.), and 2. 
9315 (iii/iv A.D.) ἐμετρήθη ἀπὸ ἀποθήκης τῆς μέσης ἐλαίου 
μετρητὰς y—these are the only occurrences in BGU I.-IV. 
In P Tebt 11. 347 (a banking account, ii/A.D.) the word is 
repeatedly prefixed to different items, ‘‘ the sums so indicated 
being apparently ‘deposited’ (in a bank ?)” (Edd.). Add 
Syl 7345) (Cos) μηδ᾽ ἀποθήκηι χρᾶσθαι τ[ῆι αὐλ]ῆι τῆι ἐν 
τῶι ἱερῶι, and Chrest. II. 96! ὁ (after A.D. 350), where counsel 
pleads that the defendant should give up } of δωρεᾶς kal 
ἀποθήκης, ἢ τὴν ἀποκατάστασιν ἡμῖν ποιήσασθαι τούτων : 
Mitteis (p. 116) explains these as ‘‘ donatio propter nuptias ?” 
and ‘ein Geschaftsladen.” Prof. Thumb notes that the 


noun survived in Romance (Span. bodegz, Fr. boutique): 
this reinforces its ancient Hellenistic record. 


appears twice in Vettius Valens: p. 16% ἀνεύφραντοι 
ἀποθησαυριζομένων, 18! ἡδέως ἀποθησαυριζόντων πρὸς τὰ 
μέτρα τῶν γενέσεων. 


P Tor I. 1. (Β.6. 116) (= Chrest. II. p. 32) οἱ ἐνκα- 
λούμενοι ἀποθλιβέντες τῶι μηθενὸς δικαίου ἀντέχεσθαι. 


On the reason why the perfect of this verb was τέθνηκα, 
hot ἀποτέθνηκα, see Pro/eg. p. 114. Marcus Aurelius, it is 
true, uses ἀποτέθνηκα, a natural result of levelling when the 
simplex had become obsolete ; but the editor of P Iand 09> 
(ii/A.D.) is not thereby justified in restoring ἀπο]τεθνῶτ[ος. 
No other part of the simplex survives, and no other com- 
pound. An interesting instance of the word occurs in P Par 
477® (c. B.C. 153) (= Selections, p. 22) οἱ παρὰ σὲ θεοὶ. . . 
ὅτι ἐνβέβληκαν ὑμᾶς εἰς ὕλην μεγάλην Kal od δυνάμεθα ἀπο- 
θανεῖν, “your gods (are false) because they have cast us 
into a great forest, where we may possibly die.” As a 
parallel to the Pauline usage in 1 Cor 15% may be noted the 
touching letter P Giss I. 179 (time of Hadrian), where a slave 
writes to her absent master, ἀποθνήσκομεν ὅτι οὐ βλέπομέν 
σε καθ᾽ ἡμέραν. The use of the present tense justifies one 
more citation, BGU IV. 1o2qiy-® (iv/v a.p.), where a ἦγε- 
μών, passing sentence of death on a man who had disinterred 
a corpse, says he is less than a beast, καὶ yap τὰ θηρία [τ]οῖς 
μὲν ἀνθρώποις πρόσισιν, τῶν δὲ [ἀ]Ἰποθνησκόντων φίδοντα[ι]. 
Here the meaning is ‘‘ spare them when they die”: the pres. 
is frequentative, as in Heb γ8 or Rev 1413, The MGr is 
ἀποθαίνω (or πεθαίνω etc.). 


For the meaning “" restore,” ‘‘ give back,” see P Petr III. 
53 (2)13, where in connexion with certain arrears into which 
a priest had fallen provision is made πρᾶξαι τοὺς éyytous 
αὐτοῦ καὶ ἡμῖν ἀποκαταστῆσ[α]ι, ‘that payment be ex- 
acted from his sureties and restitution made to us” (Edd.). 
P Rein 1715 (8.6. 109) may be cited for its grammar, note- 
worthy at this early date: ὅπως ot αἴτιοι ἀναζητηθέντες 
ἐξαποσταλῶ[σ]. ἐπὶ τὸν στρατηγόν, [καὶ] ἐμοὶ μὲν διαπε- 
φωνημένα ἀποκατασ[τα]θείη, οἱ δὲ αἴτιοι 
ἐξακολουθούντων. The passive ἀποκατασταθήσεται occurs 
in BGU IV. 106078 (B.c. 23-2). OGZ/S gol® (Rosetta 
stone—B.C. 196) ἀποκατέστησεν εἰς τὴν καθήκουσαν τάξιν. 
Syd 540%4 (B.c. 175-1) if a workman breaks a stone, ἕτερον 
ἀποκαταστήσει δόκιμον. P Revill Mél p. 295° (B.c. 131-0) 
(= Witkowski?, p. 96) μέχρι τοῦ τὰ πράγματ' ἀποκατα- 
στῆναι, P Amh II. 4810 (b.c. 106) καὶ ἀποκαταστησάτω 
els olko[v] [π]ρὸς αὐτὴν τοῖς ἰδίοις, “shall deliver it to her 
at her house at his own expense” (Edd.). P Oxy I. 3813 
(A.D. 49-50) (= Selecéions, p. 53) ὕφ᾽ od Kal ἀποκατεστάθη 
μοι ὁ vids, 16. II. 27817 (hire of a mill—a.D. 17) Kal μετὰ 
τὸν χρόνον ἀπίοκα]ταστησάτωι ὃ μάνης (the servant) τὸν 
μύλον ὑγιῆι καὶ ἀσινῆι, οἷον καὶ παρείληφεν, 26. VI. 929!" 
(ii/iii A.D.) ἀποκαταστῆσαί μοι εἰς ᾿Οξυρυγχείτην ἐξ ὧν 
ἔσχον τὰ προκείμενα πάντα, etc. In the long land survey 

τύχωσι τῶν 

ἀποκαλυπτω 63 

P Tebt I. 61(6)24 (B.c. 118-7) the question is asked with 
regard to certain land, et [ajith [ἀνταναι]ρετέα [ἄλλη δὲ] 
ἀπὸ ὑπολόγου ἀνταναιρεθεῖσα ἀποκαταστατέα, ‘whether 
it should be deducted (from the cleruchic land) and other 
land subtracted from that in the unprofitable list should 
be substituted ” (Edd.): cf. a land survey of the second 
century, where a holding that had become καθ᾽ ὕδατος 
ἀποκατεστάθ(η) τῷ ἐνεστ[ῶτι] (ἔτει), was ‘‘ reclaimed” in 
the year in which the survey was written (P Oxy VI. 918 
intr.). Note the passive in Vettius Valens, p. 6839 = ex 
captivitate redire (Ed.). 

For the double augment, which is found in the NT 
(Mt 1238, Mk 835. Lk 62°), cf. such an occasional occurrence 
in the inscriptions as Calder 8° ἀπεκατέστησεν, Letronne 
5258 (ii/A.p.) ἀπεκατεστάθη, and similarly A7chzv il. p. 436, 
no. 31 (i/A.pD.); also P Tebt II. 413% (ii/iii A.D.) ἀπεκα- 
τέστησα. By the Byzantine period it had become very 
common. See further Winer-Schmiedel G7. p. 103, and 
Brugmann-Thumb Gy. p. 311. Note the perf. ἀποκαθέστακεν, 
Syil 3657 (i/A.D.). 


For the literal sense of this significant word cf. P Gen 
I. 1638 (A.D. 207), as amended dad. p. 37, ὁ[πό]ταν ἡ 
τοια[ύ]τη γῆ ἀποκαλυ[φθ]ῇ, μισθοῦται καὶ σπείρεται : cf. 
BGU IL. 6407 (i/A.D.) βουλόμεθα μισθώσασθαι ἀποκαλυφης 
(Δ -elons) αἰγιαλοῦ, and CPR I. 239° (A.p. 212) βούλομαι 
μισθώσασθαι ἀποκαλυφείσης χέρσος αἰγειαλοῦ, both as 
amended by Spohr in his note on P Iand 275 (A.D. 100-1). 
He remarks that the phrase denotes ‘‘agri litorales,” which 
could only be cultivated when the water had receded. Since 
two of Spohr’s passages have αἀποκαλυφης (BGU II. 640 
and CPR 327) αἰγιαλοῦ, one is tempted to postulate rather 
an adjective ἀποκάλυφος, which would be quite regular in 
formation. A further instance might be sought in CPHerm 
45°, where we would read ὀψ[] pws ἀποκάλυφοί(ι) (ἄρουραι) 
é. We may add for the other form P Iand 30} (a.p. 105-6) 
ἐκ τῶν ἀποκαλυ[ζφέντω]ν ἀπ᾽ αἰγ[ια]λοῦ ἐδα[φ]ῶν. To the 
classical and late Greek instances of the verb given by the 
dictionaries may now be added the new literary fragment in 
P Oxy III. 4133 ἀ[ποκ]άλυψον ἵνα ἴδω αὐτήν. 


The Biblical history οἵ ἀποκάλυψις along with the 
foregoing verb is discussed by Milligan Thess. p. 149 ff. 
Jerome’s assertion (Comm. in Gal. 113) that the word 
“*proprie Scripturarum est; a nullo sapientum saeculi apud 
Graecos usurpatum” cannot, however, be substantiated, if 
only because of its occurrences in Plutarch, who, like the 
NT writers, drew from the common vocabulary of the time, 
see e.g. Mor. 70 F. 


For the verb see Polyb. xviii. 31 ἀποκαραδοκεῖν τὴν 
Ἀντιόχου παρουσίαν, α΄. Cf. the interesting sixth-century 
papyrus from Aphrodite in Egypt (cited by Deissmann Z4Z 
Ρ- 377 f. ; cf. Archiv v. Ρ. 284) in which certain oppressed 
peasants petition a high official whose παρουσία they have 
been expecting; assuring him that they await (ἐκδέχομεν) 
him—otoy of ἐξ “Αδου καραδοκοῦντες τὴν τότε τοῦ Χ(ριστοὴῦ 
ἀενάου θ(εο)ῦ παρουσίαν, ““ἀΞ those in Hades watch eagerly 


for the parousia of Christ the everlasting God.” While the 
perfectivized verb is well supported in literary Kow#, the 
noun is so far peculiar to Paul, and may quite possibly have 
been his own formation: cf. what we have said above under 
ἀπεκδέχομαι and ἀπέκδυσις, 


This subst., which in the NT is found only in Ac 3%, 
occurs in the sense of ‘‘restitution” in P Par 63Viii 40m, 
(B.C. 164) παντάπασιν δὲ μετὰ τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν πραγμάτων 
νυνεὶ ἀποκατάστασειν ὁρμῶμεν ἀπὸ βραχείων μόλεις εὐ- 
σχημονεῖν, Ρ Leid Bit 18 καὶ τούτων τὴν ἀποκατάστασιν 
ἡμῖν γενηθῆναι. So in Sy// 552 (late ii/B.c.) twice with 
reference to the ‘‘ renewal” of the temple cell of the goddess 
Artemis at Magnesia—*8 εἰς thy ἀποκατάστασιν τοῦ ναοῦ 
συντέλειαν εἴληφεν, and * συντελέσαι τὴν ἀποκατάστασιν 
τῆς θεοῦ, and in OG/S 4835 (ii/B.c.) of the ‘‘repair” of a 
public way—ékSoory ποιησάμενοι τῆς ἀποκαταστάσεως τοῦ 
τόπου. In P Oxy I. 67° (a dispute concerning property— 
A.D. 338) it is laid down, εἰ πρὸς τὴν τῶν ὑπὸ τῶν 
αἰτιαθέντων διακατέχεσθαι λ[εγ]ομένων olkom[é]S[wy] ἀπο- 
κατάστασιν κτλ., ‘if the accused persons protest against 
the restoration of the estates of which they are said to be 
in occupation,” etc. In the third century petition, P Oxy 
I. 70, the editors render 7°" συνέβη δὲ ἀποκατάστασίν pe 
ποιήσασθαι πρὸς αὐτὸν τῷ διελθόντι K (ἔτει), by ‘it hap- 
pened that a balancing of accounts took place between us 
in the past 20th year.” Add P Flor I. 4313 (a.p. 370) χειρο- 
γρα]φείαν ἤτοι ἀσφάλειαν τῆς ἀποκαταστάσεως τούτων, 
P Strass I. 267 (iv/A.D.) μετὰ τὴν ἀποκατάστασιν τούτων 
παρὰ Φοιβάμμωνος ἸΤαπνουθίου λάμβανε τὴν πρᾶσιν, and 
Chrest. Il. p. 117, printed above under ἀποθήκη. Another 
noun-formation occurs in P Tebt II. 4248 (late iii/a.D.) 
ὡς ἐὰ (Δ ἐὰν) μὴ ἀποκαταστασίας [δ]ὴ πέμψῃς [οἹῖδάς cov 
τὸ[ν] κίνδυνον, “so unless you now send discharges (of 
debts) you know your danger” (Edd.). To the literary 
record may be added Epicurus 89 (Linde Z/ic. p. 32). On 
the astrological use of ἀποκατάστασις (=the final point of 
agreement of the world’s cyclical periods) as underlying the 
NT idea, see J. Lepsius in Zx/. VIII. iii. p. 158 ff., where 
reference is also made to Brandes Abhandl. 2. Gesch. des 
Orients, Ὁ. 123, ‘‘ The Egyptian Apokatastasis-years. ” 


P Par 6315.47 (ii/B.c.) ἀπόκειται γὰρ παρὰ θ[εοῦ] μῆνις 
τοῖς μὴ κατὰ τὸ βέλτιστον [προαι]ρουμένοις ζῆν: there 
is a suggestion of Rom 2ὅ. Closely parallel with the NT 
use of the verb is OGZS 3831® (the important inscription of 
Antiochus I., the quasi-Zoroastrian King of Commagene 
in i/B.C.) ols ἀποκείσεται παρὰ θεῶν καὶ ἡρώων χάρις 
εὐσεβείας (see Dittenberger’s note). For a similar use of 
the simplex cf. A/ag7 11 515 (ii/A.D.) δ]ὰ ταῦτά σοι κείσεται 
μεγάλη χάρις ἐμ βασιλέως οἴκωι, and see ZNTIW xy, 
p- 94 ff. With Heb 957 cf. A@zbe/ 4τό5 (late, Alexandria) 
ὡς εἰδὼς ὅτι πᾶσι βροτοῖς τὸ θανεῖν ἀπόκειται : there are 
no signs of Christianity in the epitaph. A more literal use, 
serving as transition to the next, is in BGU IV. 10237 (a.p. 
185-6) γραφὴ θεακῶν (/. -yav: see reff. in Zed¢. Pap. I. 
p. 616) kal τῶν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ ἀποκειμένων. The word is com- 
mon in the sense ‘‘to be stored,” e.g. P Oxy I. 695 
(A-D. 190) ἀπὸ τῶν ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ ἀποκειμένων, BGU. 1. 275° 


(A.D. 215) ἐν ἢ αὐλῇ ἐστὶν ἀποκειμένη μηχανή, P Tebt II. 
34013 (A.D. 206) αἱ καὶ ἀποκείμεναι ἐν θησ(αυρῷ) ἐπὶ σφραγῖδι 
᾿Αμμωνίου, “which are stored at the granary under the 
seal of A.” (Edd.), and P Lond Inv. no. 18857 (A.D. 
114-5—published by Bell in Archiv vi. p. 102) τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ 
βιβλία ἀποκείμενα, documents ‘‘ housed ” in the βιβλιοθήκη 

In Deut 3254 οὐκ ἰδοὺ ταῦτα συνῆκται παρ᾽ ἐμοί, καὶ 
ἐσφράγισται ἐν τοῖς θησαυροῖς μου, Symmachus_ substi- 
tutes ἀπόκειται for συνῆκται. 


P Oxy II. 265!4 (a marriage contract, A.D. 81-95) μηδ᾽ 
ἀποκλεῖν (= ἀποκλείειν) μηδενὸς τῶν trapxdvte[y. (For 
the Hellenistic contraction of two z-sounds, see Pro/eg.® 
Ρ. 45.) 7/6. X. 1272° (A.D. 144) ἀπέκλεζισα τὴν θύ]ρ[αν 
τῆς... .] οἰκίας pov kal τὴν τοῦ πεσσοῦ (terrace) ᾿θύζραν. 


On this word, taken in the sense of Deut 23! (supported 
by several instances in literary Kowh—see Grimm-Thayer) 
Nageli has some good remarks (p. 78 f.): he brings together 
several phrases which show Paul using a more vernacular 
style in Gal than anywhere else, the startling passage 512 
being the climax—*‘ Der ziirnende Apostel lasst auch seiner 
Wortwahl freien Lauf; die starksten Ausdriicke der 
Umgangsprache sind ‘etzt die geeignetsten.” Cf. Pro/eg. 
pp- 163, 201. 


OGIS 335% (ii/B.c.) τὰ ἀποσταλέντα ὑπ᾽ [αὐ]τῶν 
ἀποκρίματα and 49 καθό[τ]ι καὶ αὐτοὶ διὰ τῶν ἀποκριμά- 
τω[ν] ἐνεφάνισαν. Still nearer in point of time to the sole 
NT occurrence of the word (2 Cor 19) is 7774 24 (Rhodes, 
A.D. 51) in which τὰ εὐκταιότατα ἀποκρίματα refer to 
favourable decisions of the Emperor Claudius (Deissmann, 
BS p. 257): cf. JG VIL. 2711 4f. (a.p. 37) προσενδεξάμενος 
κατὰ δωρεὰν [πρεσ]βεύσιν πρὸς τὸν Σεβαστὸν... 
Hvevkev ἀπόκριμα πρὸς τὸ ἔθνος πάσης [φιλαν]θρωπίας καὶ 
ἐλπίδων ἀγαθῶν πλῆρες. OG/S 49428 (? i/iiA.D.) joins 
ἐπιστολαί, ἀποκρίματα, διατάγματα: Dittenberger defines 
these successively in the context as dispatches addressed by 
the proconsul to the Emperor, the Senate, etc., replies 
given to deputations of provincials to him, and edicfa, or 
documents addressed to the people at large, and not to 
individuals. See also his note on Sy// 3685 (i/A.p.), where 
C. Stertinius, chief physician to the Imperial family, is also 
ἐπὶ τῶν ᾿Ἑἰλληνικῶν ἀποκριμάτων. In P Tebt II. 2861 
(A.D. 121-18) ἀ. is a ‘‘rescript” of Hadrian. Paul (/.c.) may 
be taken as meaning that he made his distressed appeal to 
God, and kept in his own heart’s archives the answer— 
“ἀποθάνῃ τὸ δὲ ἀποθανεῖν κέρδος," as we might recon- 
struct it. 


Syil 928°? (Magnesia, early 11,8.6.) περὶ ταύτης τῆς] χώρας 
τῆς παρὰ IIpinvéwy ἀποκεκριμένης οὔσης shows the old 
ἀποκρίνω in passive. For the combination of pf. partic. and 
ὦν, cf. Col 12. In P Ryl II. 122" (a.p. 127) εἰς τὸ κἀμὲ 
δύνασθαι ἀποκριθῆναι τῶι δημοσίωι, ‘enabling me thus to 
fulfil my duties towards the Treasury” (Edd.), we have an 



isolated ex. of the passive aor. not meaning ‘‘answer.” This 
latter, so overwhelmingly predominant in NT, is rather 
surprisingly uncommon in the non-literary Kow#. Early 
inscriptional instances are Sy// 328" (8.6. 84) ἀπεκρίθην 
κα]λῶς [αὐτ]όν [τε δεδωἸκέναι kal KrA., 24. 307%! (B.C. 150-47) 
ἔδοξεν... τούτοις φιλανθρώπως ἀποκριθῆναι, 25. 9305: (B.C. 
112), same phrase: the last two are senatus consulta, starting 
in Latin. Similarly the dialectic Sy// 654° (Ὁ ii/B.c.) ἀποκρι- 
θῆμεν τοῖς πρεσβευταῖς διότι KTA. Mayser, p. 379, pro- 
nounces it ‘‘die eigentliche kowvy-form,” but he only has 
five instances, P Par 3419 (B.c. 157), 35%° (B.c. 163), 15°5 
(B.c. 120), P Leid Uiii-14 (ji/p.c.), and P Grenf I. 3714 (8.6. 
108—éxp(@n for ἀπεκρ.): he cannot, however, quote any 
cases of ἀπεκρινάμην. On the other hand we cannot find 
any more instances of ἀπεκρίθην from later papyri, except 
P Lond ra2r®*® (iii/A.p.) (=I. p. 95), and two Christian 
documents, P Grenf 11. 112° (a Festal Epistle, a.p. 577 Ὁ) 
and PSI 261 (see Addenda) (v/A.D.—acts of a martyr- 
dom). Since MGr ἀποκρίθηκα shows that it lived on, its 
disappearance in the post-Ptolemaic period outside NT is 
hard to explain. It is not, however, replaced by ἀπεκρι- 
νάμην, as to which subsequent information has antiquated 
the statement in Pro/eg. p. 161 f. (corrected in Einleztung 
p- 254 n.'). For the middle aorist occurs very often in 
papyri, but they are without exception legal reports, in which 
ἀπεκρείνατο (so usually—also ptc. or inf.) means “replied,” 
of an advocate or a party in a suit. The references had 
better be appended: P Hib I. 31:5" (ες. B.c. 270)... . ἀἸπεκρίνα- 
[ro . . . , no context, but the whole document proves its 
connotation), P Amh IT. 6637 (a.p. 124), P Catti- 22 (= Chrest. 
Is jp: 219) (u/Asp:); Pt Oxy; 11: 237 vi 25.28 (Α Ὁ: Ὑ86) 
76. 111. 653 (A.D. 162-3), BGU I. 114: 8 (ii/a.p.), 13615 
(AD. 135), and 36r18622 (ji/a.p.), zd. ID. 388i 17.30 
(ii/iti A.D.), 2b. IIT. 969126 (a.p. 142?). P Lips I. 321,56 
(iii/A.D.), 7. 33 1. 16 and 365 (iv/A.D.), Chres¢. II. 78°(p. 86, 
A.D. 376-8), P Théad 144 (iv/A.p.) δι éppnvélws] ἀπεκρεί- 
vav[ro (in a procés verbal), BGU III. 93615 (a.p. 426), 
PSI 5233 (vi/a.p.) and 6138, 62%4 (early vii/A.D.)—all three 
πᾶσιν τοῖς πρὸς αὐτὸν (or -ὴν) ἐπιζητουμένοις ἀποκρίνασθαι. 
The only one that need be noted specially is P Giss I. 401. 8 
(A.D. 212), where Caracalla says ἵνα μή τις στενότερον 
παρερμηνεύσῃ τὴν χάριτά pov ἐκ τῶν ῥηϊμά]των το[ῦ] 
προτέρου διατάγματος, ἐν ᾧ οὕτως ἀπεκρινάμην κτλ. 
This may represent 7escr7psz, but in any case we cannot miss 
the formal and weighty tone of the verb. 

We proceed to compare these facts with those of Biblical 
Greek. Thackeray tells us (G7. p. 239) that ἀπεκρίθην “is 
employed throughout the LXX: the classical ἀπεκρινάμην 
in the few passages where it occurs seems to be chosen as 
suitable for solemn or poetical language.” Such a passage as 
3 Regn 21, the last charge of King David to his heir, 
might be compared with Caracalla’s use of the form. The 
fairly clear use in the fragment of a law report from P Hib 
above tells us that the legal use was already possible at the 
time when the LXX was growing. So we may take its 
meaning thrcughout as being (1) “uttered solemnly,” (2) 
“replied in a court of law.” These two meanings cover all 
the NT passages: (1) accounts for Lk 375, Jn 5779, Ac 332, 
(2) for Mt 2712, Mk 14%, Lk 23%, with Jn 5%! (N*) not far 
away. With the absence of ἀπεκρίθην from the Pauline and 
other Epistles, and the Apocalypse except for one passage, 

> , - 
αποκρισις 65 

we may compare the silence of the papyri after ii/B.c. We 
are inclined to suggest that the word belongs only to early 
Hellenistic, whence it was taken by the LXX translators 
to render a common Hebrew phrase, passing thence into 
the narrative parts of NT as a definite “" Septuagintalism.” 
From the Gospels and Acts it passed into ecclesiastical 
diction (cf. Reinhold, p. 77), and so ultimately into MGr. 
The contrast between the two halves of the NT will thus be 
parallel with that noted above under ᾷδης. 


Syld 27638 (Lampsacus, ¢. B.C. 195). + - ὅταν παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ 
λ]άβωσιν ἀποκρίσεις τὰς ἁρμοζούσας τί. . ., 70. 177% 
(Teos, B.C. 303) οἰόμεθα δὲ [δεῖν ἀποδειχθῆ]ναι τρεῖς ἄνδρας 
εὐθὺς ὅταν [ἡ] ἀπόκ[ρι]σις ἀναγνωσθῆι, 16. 314° (11,8... 
Messenian dialect) ἔδοξε τοῖς συνέδροις ἀπόκρισιν δόμεν 
διότι κτὰ.» 25. ο2831 (Magnesia, ii/B.c. ἐγ24.) τὴν Μυλασέων 
ἀπόκρισιν to the praetor M. Aemilius. From the papyri 
we can only cite P Oxy VI. 941° (vi/A.p.), and other 
late exx.: like the verb, this word for ‘‘ answer” clearly 
suffered eclipse, and returned into the language at a late 


P Strass I. 4217 (census return—A.D. 310) ὄμνυμει θεοὺς 
ἅπαντας . . . μηδένα ἀποκεκρυφέναι. Sy// 801 (Ephesus, 
vi/B.c.) has the verb thrice, of a bird flying out of sight : 
this early Ionic lies far behind the Hellenistic period, but 
may be added to the literary record of the verb, which we 
have not noticed in our sources. Vettius Valens has it 
Ρ. 152° (not in index) ζητητικαὶ τῶν ἀποκεκρυμμένων.-οἵ. 
Paul’s use of the participle. 


is a favourite word with Vettius Valens. It denotes p. 21° 
the “‘hidden” organs of the body (τῶν ἐντὸς a.). The in- 
fluence of Gemini (p. 739) produces κριτικοὶ κακῶν kal ἀγαθῶν, 
φρόνιμοι, περίεργοι, ἀποκρύφων μύσται, etc. In p. 108% 
περὶ δεσμῶν Kal συνοχῶν καὶ ἀποκρύφων πραγμάτων καὶ 
κατακρίσεως καὶ ἀτιμίας it suggests unknown disasters of 
the future. P. 1765 περὶ θεμελίων ἢ κτημάτων (? κτισμάτων 
ed.) ἢ ἀποκρύφων ἢ περὶ νεκρικῶν, subjects on which signs 
are sought ἀπὸ τοῦ imoyelov. In p. 1705 (so 3015}, 3354) 
μυστικῶν ἢ ἀποκρυφων πραγμάτων suggests “ὁ mysteries ” 
again. The adverb is joined with ἐφθονημένως p. 3015, of 
“mystifying and grudging” expositions. See also Aazhe/ 
1028? (Andros, iv/A.D., a hymn to Isis) ἀπόκρυφα σύνβολα 
δέλτων εὑρομένα. P Leid W is Μούσέως ἱερὰ βίβλος ἀπό- 
κριφος (Vill) : of, 1:18. 


P Magd 45 (iii/B.c.) ἀπέκτειναν, P Par 23° (B.C. 165) 
ἀποκτῖναι, 72. 11 verso * (B.C. 157) ἀποκτέναι (see Mayser, 
p- 70). The verb only occurs eleven times in Sy// index. 
In later papyri we can quote P Oxy VI. 903° (iv/a.p.) 
ἀποκτίνας αὐτοὺς τῶν πίλ]ηγῶν ‘half killed them with 
blows” (Edd.), PSI 2774 (v/a.p., Acts of a martyr), P 
Lips 1. gout? (law report, iv/v A.D.) ἠθέλησεν αὐτὸν ἀπο- 
κρῖναι (sic), P Gen I. 497° (iv/a.D.) [w]Anyés ἀπέϊκτ]εινάν pe 
—as in P Oxy VI. 903, the complainant was obviously not 
“kilt entoirely” ! P Lond 240 (a p. 346) (ΞΞ 11. p. 278) 

Part I, 

> , 

ἀπέκτινέν μέ τε εἰ μή γ᾽ ἐς φυγὴν ἐχρησάμην, BGU IV. 
το 4111. 8° (iv/v A.D.) ξίφι ἀπέκζτεινε. For five centuries then 
we have no trace of this supposed common verb from popular 
sources : yet in the middle of this period it abounds in the 
NT texts, developing a whole series of curious forms in the 
present stem. Meanwhile it was flourishing in literature, to 
which perhaps it owes its return to the popular speech in 
the Byzantine age. A more extensive search in the ruder 
inscriptions outside Egypt is desirable, as it might prove 
that the word was in popular use in other countries. Indeed 
the NT is evidence of this by itself. 


BGU IT 665%-19 (i/A.p.) ἡτοιμάσθη αὐτῇ πάντα [π]ρὸς 
[τ]ὴν Aox[e]fav αὐταρκῶς, ἐρωτῶσι δὲ] καί, κύριε (sc. 
πάτερ), [ἢ] μήτηρ [αἸὐτοῦ, ὅπως ὁὀποκυήϊσήῃ οἱ... The 
word, accordingly, notwithstanding Hort’s attempt (on 
Jas 15) to apply it specially to cases of abnormal birth, 
would seem to have been an ordinary synonym of τίκτω, 
but definitely ‘‘ perfectivized ” by the ἀπό, and so implying 
delivery. For the simplex cf. Sy// 797° (ii/B.c.) τὸ παιδάριον 
ὃ ᾿Αννύλα κύει, 8023, 80327. 


The use of ἀπολαβέσϑαι in Mk 7° = “draw aside,” 
‘*separate,” is well illustrated by P Lond 4215 ἅ. (g.c. 168) 
(=I. p. 30, Selections, p. 10) ἐπὶ δὲ τῶι μὴ παραγίνεσθαί 
σε [πάντω]ν τῶν ἐκεῖ ἀπειλημμένων παραγεγονότων 
ἀηδίζομαι, ““ but that you did not return when all those who 
were shut up with you arrived distresses me ””—with reference 
to the ‘‘recluses” of the Serapeum. So P Vat A? (B.c. 168) 

= Witkowski’, p. 65) ἠβουλόμην δὲ kal σὲ παραγεγονέναι 

els τὴν πόλ[ι]ν, καθάπερ... οἱ ἄλλοι of ἀπειλη[μμένοι] 
am[a]vres. The word is of course very common. It is 
found in the sense of ‘‘ receive,” ‘‘ welcome” (as in the TR 
of 3 Jn’) in P Lips I. 1108 (iii/iv A.p.) εὐχόμενος ὅπως 
ὁλοκληροῦσάν σε Kal ὑγιαίνουσαν ἀπολάβω (cf. Lk 1527), 
and P Jand 1317 ἵνα pera χαρᾶς oe ἀπολάβωμεν. The full 
force of the amé—as pointing to a ‘‘ promise made centuries 
before ’—is probably to be retained in Gal 4° (see F. B. West- 
cott, S¢ Paul and Justification, p. 75). It is the ordinary 
correlative of ἀποδίδωμι. For the simple sense of ‘‘ receiv- 
ing” what is due, cf. P Tor I. rviii 28 (B.c. 116) (= Chrest. 
II. p. 38) τὴν τιμὴν ἀπολαβεῖν. 


OGZS 383} 8. (Commagene inscription, 1.8.6.) οὐ μόνον 
κτῆσιν βεβαιοτάτην. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀπόλαυσιν ἡδίστην ἀνθρώποις 
ἐνόμισα τὴν εὐσέβειαν, 20. κοινὴν ἀπόλαυσιν ἑορτῆς 
παρεχέτω, 70. 66ο" (i/A.D.) τά τε πρὸς σωτηρίαν καὶ τὰ 
πρὸς ἀπόλαυσιν, /G XII. iii. 32615 (Thera, time of Anto- 
nines) πρὸς [ἀπ]όλαυσιν. Cf. εἰς ἀπόλαυσιν in Didache 10°. 
A derived adjective occurs in Vettius Valens p. 1535 at δὲ 
ἑξῆς € (sc. μοῖραι) ᾿Αφροδίτης εὐκρατότεραι ἀνειμέναι 
πολύσοφοι ἀπολαυστικαί, “‘given to enjoyment.” 

For the verb cf. OG/S 6698 (i/A.D.) τὴν πόλιν ἀπολαύουσαν 
τῶν εὐεργεσιῶν ds ἔχει kTA., P Fay 125'°* (ii/a.p.) εὔχομαι 
[yap] μείζονος ἀξίας γενέσθαι [ἀφ᾽ o]d ἀπολαύομεν τῶν 
δώρων], “‘for I hope to be better off now that we are 
enjoying presents (?)” (Edd.), BGU I 24814 (ii/a.p.) τῶν ἠθῶν 
σου ἀπολαῦσαι, P Oxy I 418 (ili/iv A.D.) πολλῶν ἀγαθῶν 


ἀπολείπω 66 

ἀπολαύομεν. The sepulchral inscr., Pretsigke 2004, 
Avtwveive, πάντων ἀπέλουσας, must presumably mean 
ἀπέλαυσας. Sy// 891'®—a curious funeral inscription com- 
posed for a heathen by a proselyte, who quotes the LXX— 
μηδὲ καρπῶν ¢rodator. CPHerm 119 verso il6 (jii/a.D.), 
where Aelius Asclepiades receives ἄφεσις from public 
services from Gallienus ἵν]α διὰ τὴν [τῶν προγόνων] ἀρετὴν 
ἀπολαύσῃ τῆς ἐμῆς φιλανθρωπίας. 


P Par 225 (ii/B.c.) ἡ γὰρ δηλουμένη Νέφορις ἀπολιποῦσα 
τὸν πατέρα ἡμῶν συνῴκησε Φιλίππῳ τινί. Vhe word is 
apparently a ¢erv. techn. in wills, etc., 6. g. P Oxy I. 10554 
(A.D. 117-37) κληρόνομον ἀπολείπω τὴν Bvyarépaly] μου 

. τὰ δὲ ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ ἀπολειφθησόμενα σκεύη KTA., P Catt’ 9 
(ii/a.D.) (= Chrest. II. p. 421), BGU IV. 1098 (c. B.c. 18), 
26. 11487 (B.C. 13), 26. 116418 (B.c. 15-1), and Afichel 1001" 4 
(c. B.C. 200—the Will of Epicteta). In BGU IV. 1138'? 
(B.c. 19-18) (= Chrest. IL. p. 123) ἀπόλευιπέ μοι τὸν Tamia 
(2. 4. -av) ἐκ τῆ(9) pvAaKi(s), a jailor reports what the 
offending party said ‘to him, asking him to ‘‘leave” the 
imprisoned debtor to him. The verb occurs in a Phrygian 
tombstone of A.D. 114, C. and B. 590 (i. p. 656) bods ὑπὲρ 
yijs ἀπολιποῦσ[α] τέσσαρας kal θυγατέρα. It is MGr. 


One or two instances of the literal use of this common 
verb will suffice—P Petr III. 51° τὸ ἀργύριον ὃ ὥιοντο 
ἀπολωλέναι, “the money which they thought had been 
lost,” P Oxy IV. 743°% (B.c. 2) ἐγὼ ὅλος διαπον[ο]ῦμαι εἰ 
Ἕλενος χαλκοῦς ἀπόλε[σ]εν, “1 am quite upset at Helenos’ 
loss of the money” (Edd.). In P Fay 111° (a.p. 95-6) we 
have it of destroying life: μένφομαί σαι μεγάλως ἀπολέσας 
X[v]piSia δύω ἀπὸ τοῦ ckvApod τῆς ὡδοῦ, “1 blame you 
greatly for the loss of two pigs owing to the fatigue of the 
journey” (Edd.). (Probably the writer meant ἀπολέσαντα, 
but the nom. will construe.) So in the dreams of Ptolemy, 
son of Glaucias, the helper of the Temple twins, P Par 50° 
(p.c. 160) Λέγω: Μηθαμῶς ἐργῇς (?) ἢ ἀπολέσῃ σου τὸν 
παῖδα’ κύριος οὐκ ἀπολύει (-- ἀπολλύει, presumably) τὸν 
αὑτοῦ παῖδα. Cf. P Petr III. 36 (a) verso*® δεόμενος μή pe 
ἀπολέσηι τῶι λιμῶι ἐν τῆι φυλακῆι : so Lk 1517. In the 
curious nursery acrostic, P Tebt II. 2785. belonging to 
early i/A.D. in which the story of the loss of a garment is 
told in lines beginning with the letters of the alphabet in 
order, we find : 

λέων ὃ ἄρας 
μωρὸς ἀπολέσας 

ἐέᾳ lion he was who took it, a fool who lost it” (Edd., who 
would read ὃ @., as in the other lines). In P Ryl II. 141%4 
(A.D. 37) Kal ἀπώλεσα ἃς εἶχον ἀπὸ τιμ(ῆς) ὀπίου ““1 lost 
40 silver drachmae which I had with me from the sale of 
opium” (Id.), it connotes robbery; and so in Sy// 2377 
(iii/B.C.) χρήματα τῶι θεῶι ἐμάνυσαν ἃ ἦσαν ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ 
ἀπολωτα (4. ἀπολωλότα) ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀναθέματος τῶν Φωκέων, 
καὶ ἐξήλεγξαν τοὺς ἱεροσυληκότας. The -μι forms of the 
mid. are unchanged: thus P Petr Il. 4 (1)" (B.c. 255-4) 
γυνὶ δὲ ἀπολλύμεθα (quarrymen ‘‘worked to death” over 
exceedingly hard stone), P Tebt 11. 2787® (see above) 
ἀπόλλυται, etc. 

’ , 


has σϑη. ᾿Απολλῶτος in an inscr. from the Serapeum at 
Memphis. See /Pretstgke 1917, who accents the nom. 
᾿Απολλῶς : since it is probably short for ᾿Απολλώνιος (which 
occurs in Codex Bezae), this accords with analogy. The 
name can be quoted from Osty 1319 (B.C. 7), 1577 (A.D. 132), 
Preisighe 1113 (A.D. 147-8), P Lond g2944,% (ii/iii A.D.) 
(ΞΞ ΠῚ. p. 42 f.), 2b. 12338 (A.D. 211) (ΞΞ 111. p. 58), where 
the editors would like to make ᾿Απολλῶς gen., and P Goodsp 
37,1420 (a.p. 143) ᾿Απολλῶτι. 

Without seeking for more 
we may observe that ᾿Απολλώνιος was an extra- 
ordinarily common name, no fewer than 39 persons bearing it 
in the inscrr. of Sy//. (Naturally the abbreviated name does 
not figure in the more formal inscriptional style.) ᾿Απολλόδω- 
pos has over 50, and ᾿Απολλωνίδης (-Sas) half as many: 
᾿Απολλῶς might be a short form of these also. So apart 
from the very precise identification available we might not 
be sure that there was only one Apollos in NT. 


A good example of this judicial verb is afforded by 
P Par 3534 ff (a petition to King Ptolemy Philometor, B.C. 163) 
ἐάν σοι φαίνηται, συντάξαι καταστῆσαι ἐπί σε ὑπὲρ μὲν 
[ἐμοῦ ἀπολογιούμενον Δημήτριον ‘‘to make my defence” : 
cf. P Strass I. 51° (A.D. 262) ἀπολ]ογησομένους πρὸς τὰ [a Jel 
α[ἰ]ρόμενα αὑτοῖς and OG/S 609% (A.D. 231) μή τις ὡς 
ἀγνοήσας ἀπολογήσηται. Vettius Valens p. 2091 βασιλεῖ 
ἀπολογήσεται, καὶ ἐὰν μὴ ὑπὲρ ἑαυτοῦ, ὑπὲρ ἑτέρου δέ (cf. p. 
2697°). Cf. fora cognate verb P Petr III. 53 (7)8 (iii/B.c.) (= 
Witkowski?, p. 45) πρὸς αἰτίαν, ὑπὲρ ἧς ἀπ]ολογίζεται, ‘to 
meet a charge against him, and make his defence” (Edd.), 
OGTIS 315% (B.C. 164-3) καὶ αὐτὸς ὑπὲρ ὧν ἔφησεν ἔχειν τὰς 
ἐντολὰς διὰ πλειόνων ἀπελογίσατο, P Leid A* (Ptol) 
ἀπολογίσωμαι (needlessly corrected to -ἥσωμαι by Lee- 
mans), α΄. See Hatzidakis #zz/. p. 395, ‘‘sagte man 
auch im Alterthum sowohl ἀπολογέομαι als ἀπολογίζομαι,᾽" 
and Mayser G7. p. 83f. The verb is found in MGr. 


P Tor I. 1}.1 (8.6. 116) (= Chrest. IL. p. 36) τὴν δ᾽ αὐτὴν 
ἀπολογίαν ἔχειν, BGU 11. 531% 24 (ii/a.b.) ἀπέχεις οὖν τὴν 
ἀπολογίαν, P Lips I. 5815 (a.p. 371) αὐτὰ τὰ ἐν[τ]άγια πρὸς 
ἀπολογίαν ἐπὶ τοῦ δικαστηρίω (= tov), and for ἀπολογισμός 
in a weakened sense, P Oxy II. 2973 (Α.Ὁ. 54) καλῶς 
ποιήσεις γράψεις διὰ πιττακίων τὸν ἀπολογισμὸν τῶν 
[πἸρ[ο]βάτων, ““Κίπα!ν write me in a note the record of the 
sheep” (Edd.). ᾿Απολογία occurs several times in Vettius 


This common verb, in the sense “" dismiss,” ‘‘send away 
ona mission” (as Ac 13°, and probably Heb 1333) may be 
illustrated by P Par 49! (B.c. 164-58) (= Witkowski? 
p- 70) ἀπέλυσα εἴπας αὐτῶι ὀρθρίτερον ἐλθεῖν. In P Lond 
4276 (see above under ἀπολαμβάνω) it is used of departure 
from seclusion in the Serapeum—trép τοῦ ἀπολελύσθαι σε 
ἐκ τῆς κατοχῆς : cf. P Petr II. ττ(1)8 (iii/B.c.) (= Selections, 
p- 7) ὅπως τῆς ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος σχολῆς ἀπολυθῶ, “in 
order that I may be relieved from my present occupation,” 
BGU I. 2714 (ii/a.p.) (= Se/ectéons, p. 101) ὥστε ἕως σήμερον 
μηδέν᾽ ἀπολελύσθαι τῶν μετὰ σίτου, “so that up till to-day 


no one of us in the corn service has been let go.” Release 
from prison is implied in P Giss I. 65a‘, 66% (ii/A.D.): 
see Kornemann’s note. P Oxy X. 1271° (A.D. 246) is in a 
request to the Prefect for a permit to leave the country by 
ship from Pharos: ἀξιῶ γράψαι σε τῷ ἐπιτρόπῳ τῆς Φάρου 
ἀπολῦσαί με κατὰ τὸ ἔθος. The sense of ‘‘ grant an amnesty 
to” underlies P Par 63 *iii-2 (B.c. 165) ἀπολελυκότες πάντας 
τοὺς ἐνεσχημένους ἔν τισιν ἀγνοήμασιν ἢ ἁμαρτήμασιν, and 
P Tor I. 1Yii-18 (p.c. 116) (= Chest. II. p. 37) : see Mitteis z7 
Joc. Akin to this is the use in BGU IV. 1106%4 (B.c. 13) πλὴν 
συνφανοῦς ἀπωλήας, ἧς Kal φανερᾶς γενηθείσίης ἀ]πολε- 
λύσθω. In P Tebt II. 490% (B.C. 92 or 59) ἀπολύσομαι τὸν 
χαλκόν the verb is used in the sense of ‘‘pay,” cf. P Rein 
547 (iii/iv A.D.) διεπεμψάμην σοι (κτήνη) . - . ὅπως γεμίσῃς 
αὐτὰ οἴνου ἐκ τῶν ἀπολυθέντων μοι ὑπὸ ᾿Ισχυρίωνος, ‘afin 
que tu les charges de vin, acheté sur la somme que m’a rem- 
boursée Ischyrion” (Ed.): so elsewhere of delivering goods. 
The index to OG/S gives a long list of citations in various 
senses, which need not be further illustrated. But the idea 
of a veteran ‘“‘released” from long service, suggestive for 
Lk 229, may be noted in the 4.2. ἀπολύσιμος ἀπὸ στ[ρ]ατείας, 
CPR 18 (A.D. 83-4): cf P Tebt 11. 2925 (a.D. 189-90) 
ἱερέως ἀπολυσίμου, P Lond 345* (A.D. 193) (= II. p. 114) 
ἀπολυσί(μων) τῆς Aaoyp(adias). We may also compare 
Wiinsch AF 4% (iii/A.b.) ὁρκίζω σε τὸν θεὸν τὸν τὴν 
κοίμησίν σοι δεδωρημένον καὶ ἀπολύσαντά σε ἀπὸ δεσμῶν 
τοῦ βίου Νεθμομαω, and a tombstone of ii/A.p. (Alexandria), 
Preisigke 2477 ᾿Ἡλιόδωρε overpavé ἐντείμως ἀπολελυμένε, 
εὐψύχει : the perfect here might perhaps encourage us to 
take the phrase metaphorically—or literally, with a secondary 
application. It occurs with the aorist in Preisigke 423°, 

seemingly a ii/A.D. papyrus: οὐετρα[νῷ] τῶν ἐντείμως 
ἀπολυθέντων. Whether or no we may recognize the figur- 

ative sense in the veteran’s epitaph above, we may certainly 
illustrate the eee démittis by this familiar term of military 


though not a NT word, claims attention because of Justin’s 
calling Gospel records ἀπομνημονεύματα τῶν ἀποστόλων 
(οί. i. 673). It may be cited from PSI 85 (a fragment on 
rhetoric, iii/A.D.), where ἡ xpela—later described as so 
called because it is xpe5ys—is defined as ἀπομνημόνευμα 
σύντομον ἐπὶ προσώπου τινὸς ἐπενετόν. The fragment pro- 
ceeds διὰ τί ἀπομνημόνευμα ἡ χρία ; ὅτι ἀπομνημονεύεται 
ἵνα λεχθῇ. 1{ἐκταθέν it may become διήγησις (cf. Lk 11), 
and ifnot ἐπὶ προσώπου τινός it may become γνώμη ἢ ἄλλο τι. 
The note of the ‘‘ memoir” accordingly is that it is practical 
(χρεία). covcese (σύντομον), intended for oral delivery (ἵνα 
λεχθῇ), and relating to some ferson (ἐπὶ προσώπου τινός). 
All this suits excellently Justin’s description of the Gospels 
as read in the Church meeting on Sunday morning. The 
epithet ἔπαινετόν may possibly be taken actively, so that it 
excludes criticism or invective. See also P Leid W*%- τὸς 
and for the verb a very fragmentary Ptolemaic inscr. in 
Archiv v. p. 416 (Wilcken), where line 1° has Ἱπαρὰ τῶν 
σεμνοτάτων βασιλέων ἀπομνημονεύϊ --- apparently ‘* that 
[somebody or something] may be had in remembrance.” 


In P Oxy I. 71.3 (Α.Ὁ. 303) a Prefect is praised as 
rendering to all their due—maor τὰ U[S]ta ἀπονέμις : cf. 70. 


> , 

IX. 1185 (c. A.D. 200) τὰς περὶ τῶν γυμνασιαρχιῶν καὶ 
ἀγορανομιῶν ἐφέσις τοῖς κρατίστοις ἐπιστρατήγοις ἀπένειμα, 
the ‘‘ assigning” of appeals to the strategi. See also OG/S 
go!” (Rosetta stone, B.C. 196) τὸ δίκαιον πᾶσιν ὀπένειμεν, 
76. 11619 (ii/B.C.) ἐπ᾽ [αὐταῖς τὰς ἀξίας] χάριτας ἀπονέμοντες 
[del τοῖς εὐεργετήσασιν], and Sy// 325% (i/B.C.) βουλόμενος 
τὰς τῆς evoeBel(]as χάριτας Tots θεοῖς ἀπονέμειν, which 
come near the use in I Pet 37. 


Sy/Z 8028 (iii/B.c.) : a fraudulent patient at the Asclepieum 
is told to take off the bandage and ἀπονίψασϑαι τὸ πρόσωπον 
ἀπὸ τᾶς Kpdvas, in which he sees the penalty of his deceit 
branded on his face. 


This word, which in the NT is found only once (Ac 918) 
in its literal meaning of ‘‘ fall off,” occurs in a derived sense 
in P Par 4737 (c. B.C. 153) (= Witkowski? p. 90, Se/ections p. 
23) ἰ καὶ αὑτοὺς δεδώκαμεν kal ἀποπεπτώκαμεν “(one can 
never again hold up one’s head in Tricomia for very shame), 
if we have both given ourselves up and collapsed.” Wit- 
kowski compares Polyb. i. 871 πίπτω ταῖς ἐλπίσιν. The 
verb also occurs in the philosophical fragment P Flor II. 
T131i 19 (ji/A.D.) ἀποπείπτειν τὰ ὦϊτα Kal αὐ]τὰς axpelous 
γενέσϑαι : cf. Archiv vi. p. 239. 


Herwerden cites from BCA xvi. p. 384, no. 81, a deed 
of manumission from Delphi in which the inhuman clause 
is inserted—ei δέ τι γένοιτο ἐγ Διοκλέας τέκνον ἐν τῶι τᾶς 
παραμονᾶς χρόνωι, εἴ κα μὲν θέλη. ἀποπνεῖξαι, ἐξουσίαν 

ἔχειν. A literary citation may be added from the new 
fragments of Callimachus, P Oxy VII. ro11®f (late 

ὡς δὴ μί᾽ ἡμέων od μή με ποιῆσαι 
εὔστεκτον, ἢ γὰρ γειτονεῦσ᾽ ἀποπνίγεις 

which Prof. Hunt renders, ‘‘ Don’t you prescribe patience to 
me, as if you were one of us; your very presence chokes 



P Oxy IIL. 4728 (c. A.D. 130) ὑπὸ δανειστῶν ὥλλυτο καὶ 
ἠπόρει, “he was ruined by creditors and at his wit’s end” 
(Edd.): cf. the Christian letter of a servant to his master 
regarding the illness of his mistress, P Oxy VI. 93978 
(iv/a.D.). (= Selections, p. 130) viv δὲ πῶς πλίονα γράψω 
περὶ αὐτῆς ἀπορῶ, ἔδοξεν μὲν γὰρ ὡς προεῖπον ἀνεκτότερον 
ἐσχηκέναι, ‘but now Iam αἱ ἃ loss how to write more re- 
garding her, for she seems, as [ said before, to be in a more 
tolerable state.” Sy// 30318 (Abdera, c. B.C. 166) ἀρατὴν 
ἅμα καὶ σωτήριον [περὶ τῶ]ν ἀπορουμένων ἀεὶ πίρο]τιθέντες 
γνώμην “perplexed matters” (passive). The adj. ἄπορος, 
from which the verb is a denominative, occurs in the sense 
ἐς without resources,” which may be absolute or relative. 
Thus P Ryl II. 75° (late ii/a.p.) "Apx[éA]aos ῥήτωρ εἶπεν" 
"Απορός ἐστιν ὁ Γλύκων καὶ ἐξίσταται ““. has no revenue 
and resigns his property”: so the editors render, explain- 
ing in the introduction the legal conditions of what answers 
roughly to a bankruptcy certificate. In P Lond gti? (A.D. 


149) (ΞΞ 117. p. 127, Selections, p. 80) the editors, following 
Wilcken’s original suggestion, incline to make γραφῆς 
ἀπόρων ‘a certificate of poverty,” qualifying for ἐπιμερισμὸς 
ἀπόρων, ‘poor relief.” Now Wilcken makes it rather a 
list of men who have insufficient πόρος, ‘‘income,” for the 
performance of public “‘liturgies,” entailing an additional 
levy, ἐπιμερισμὸς ἀπόρων, upon the εὔποροι: see Archiv 
iv. p. 545, also p. 548, where Wilcken points out (on P Lond 
8469, = III. p. 131) that the ἄπορος is no pauper, but a 
weaver depending on his craft for livelihood, which he claims 
to be insufficient to qualify him for the presbyterate of a 
village. If this interpretation be adopted, it can readily be 
applied to three passages in P Fay where the same tax is 
mentioned—viz , 53° (A.D. 110-1), 5413 (A.D. 117-8), and 
256 (ii/A.D.)—and also to BGU III. 8817 (ii/A..D) as 
amended in Berichtigungen, p. 7, ἐπι(μερισμοῦ) ἀπόρωί(ν). 
See also under ἀπορία. 


γώ 5208 (i/B.c.) τῶν μὲν διὰ τὴν ἀπ[ο]ρίαν ἐκλελοιπότων 
τὴν πόλιν, τῶν δὲ διὰ τὴν γενομένηϊν λοι]μικὴν περίστασιν 
καὶ τὰς ἀρρωστίας μὴ δυναμένων [φυ]λάσσειν τὴν πατρίδα, 
where we naturally think of ἀ. as = ‘‘poverty,” but the inter- 
pretation given in the last article is applicable. In P Fay 20° 
(an imperial edict, iii/iv A.D.), which is restored εἴ ye μὴ 
τὸ τῆς π[α]ρὰ τοῖς Kal τοῖς δημοσίας ἀπορίας ἐμποδὼν 
ἣν, πολὺ ἂν φανερωτέραν τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ μεγαλοψυχίαν 
ἐπιδεικ[ν]ύμενος, the editors translate ‘‘if the fact of the 
public embarrassment existing in various parts had not stood 
in my way, I should have made a much more conspicuous 
display of my magnanimity;” but they remark that the 
δημοσίους of the ill-spelt text should perhaps be emended 
δημοσίοις, with a lost word after the first tots. Cf. also P 
Lips I. 367 (a.p. 376 or 378). In CPHerm 6° we have 
ἀπορίᾳ δὲ πλοίων ‘from shortage of ships.” 


In a petition regarding the division of a piece of land, 
P Magd 29 (p.c. 218), the appellant asks that the de- 
fendant should be forced to give him a proper entrance and 
exit (εἴσοδον καὶ ἔξοδον) instead of throwing him into a 
hidden corner—els ἐσώτερόν pe ἀπερρίφθαι. Another peti- 
tion, P Lond 106! and 58 (p.c. 261 or 223) (=I. p. 61), 
gives us both ἐκρίπτω and ἀπορρίπτω --τά τε σκεύη μου 
ἐξέρριψεν εἰς τὴν ὁδὸν. .., ἐγὼ δὲ τὰ σκεύη τὰ ἀποριφέντα 
μου εἰς τὴν ὁδὸν εἰσήνεγκα. See also Moulton in CA xx. 
p. 216, where the fairly accessible warrant of Ac 27* is 
produced against two classical scholars who strained at 
ἀπορρίπτειν intrans. in Charito iii. 5°. 


For the subst. see the important P Par 63%' 9 (B.c. 165) 
καὶ τὰς ἀποσκευὰς τῶν ἐν τῆι πόλει περισπᾶν, where 
Mahaffy (P Petr III. p. 27) renders, ‘‘and that you should 
distrain the furniture of those in the city”; cf. 26 vi.% 
ταῖς ἀποσκευαῖς αὐτῶν ἐπιγεγράφθαι γῆν. The verb is not 
a NT word (Ac 2115 in 33 and a few cursives). 

With this compound we may compare ἀποσκότωσις in 
Vettius Valens, p. 270", of the waning moon. Mayor (on 



Jas 17) quotes ἀποσκιασμός from Plut. Peric/. 7, γνωμόνων 
ἀποσκιασμούς of shadows thrown on the dial, and ἀποσκιάζω 
from Plato ef. vii. 532C: the -μα form is a. εἰρ. 


For the use of this verb in Ac 20 ἀποσπᾶν τοὺς μαθητὰς 
ὀπίσω ἑαυτῶν, cf. P Petr IIT. 43(3)?? (iii/B.c.), ἔγραψάς μοι 
μὴ ἀποσπάσαι τὸ πλήρωμα ἐκ Φιλωτερίδος ἕως οὗ τὰ 
ἔργα συντελέσαι, “you wrote me not to withdraw the gang 
(of workmen engaged in the copper mines) from Philoteris 
before they had finished the work” (Edd.).  ‘‘ Withdraw,” 
with no suggestion of violence, though with breach of con- 
tract, is the sense in numerous formal documents. Thus P 
Oxy IX. 120618 (A.p. 335) in a case of adoption. BGU IV. 
1125° (B.C. 13), in the indenture of a slave: οὐκ ἀποσπάσω 
αὐτὸν ἀπὸ σοῦ [ἐντὸς τοῦ χρόνον. P Oxy II. 275%(a.D. 66), 
where in ἃ contract of apprenticeship a father is not to have 
the power of removing his son from his master until the 
completion of the period—ovk ἐξόντος τῷ Τρύφωνι ἀποσπᾶν 
τὸν παῖδα ἀπὸ τοῦ ΤΙτολεμαίου μέχρι τοῦ τὸν χρόνον 
πληρωθῆναι, so and 26. IV. 724! (Α.Ὁ. 155), also X. 
her son from a man in whose charge he had been left. Add 
the illiterate P Gen I. 54”, [ο]ὐκ αἰδυνήθημεν ἕνα ἄνθροπον 
ἀποσπάσαι ἐκεῖθεν, and BGU I. 176° (Hadrian), In the 
marriage contract, P Oxy III. 496° (A.p. 127), provision 
is made that in the event of a separation taking place, the 
bride shall have the power to ‘‘ withdraw” a certain female 
slave, who forms part of her dowry—érre[Sav] ἡ ἀπαλλαγὴ 
[γ]ένηται γαμφυ[μέϊνη (sc. ἢ γ.) μὲν ἀποσπάτω τὴν δ[ο)ύλην, 
and so 15, Perhaps the verb itself must not be credited with 
the stronger sense imparted by the context in P Oxy I. 37:14 
(A.D. 49) λειμανχουμέν[ο]υ τοῦ σωματίου ἀπέσπασεν 
ὁ Πεσοῦρις, ‘fas the foundling was being starved Pesouris 
carried it off,” so 11- 1. and still more in 24. 38° (A.D. 49-50), 
ἐπικεχειρηκότος ἀποσπάσαι εἰς δουλαγωγία[ν] Tov ἀφήλικά 
μου υἱόν. The passive, as in Lk 224, Ac 211, appears in 
an inscr. from the Fayim (B.c. 57-6) in Chrest. I. 704 
(p. 99), οὐ δυνάμενοι δὲ τοῦ ἱεροῦ ἀποσπᾶσθαι, which in 
Wilcken’s opinion means no more than the detention of 
these priests in the temple by ritual duties, preventing them 
from appearing in person. It would seem that the ordinary 
use of this verb does not encourage the stronger meaning 
Grimm finds in the Lucan passages, where the RV is 
adequate. For ἀποσπᾶν c. acc. vei, see Gosp. Petr. 61 (ed. 
Swete), ἀπέσπασαν τοὺς ἥλους. 


The noun ἀποστάτης (cf. LXX Dan 3%) occurs in P 
Revill Mél (B.c. 130) (= Witkowski,? p. 96) χρήσασθαι 
δ᾽ αὐτοῖς ὡς ἀποστάταις (sc. Tots ἐν “Εἱρμώνθει ὄχλοις), whom 
a certain Paon μετὰ δυνατῶν ἱκανῶν is sailing up the Nile 
to reduce (καταστῆσαι). So in Sy// 930% (B.C. 112) τινες 
τῶν ἐγ Βοιωτίας ἀποστάται] γεγενημένοι. In P Amh II. 
320 (ii/B.c.) we read of the burning of title-deeds 
by Egyptian ‘“‘rebels,” ἠναγκάσθην ὑπὸ τῶν Αἰγυπτίων 
ἀποστατῶν ἐνέγκαι τὰς συνγραφὰς καὶ ταύτας κατακαῦσαι. 
The old word ἀπόστασις, equivalent to -σία (cf. 1 Macc 2}, 
Ac 213}, and see Nageli, p. 31), occurs in P Par 3615 (ii/B c.), 
where a temple recluse petitions the strategus against the 
conduct of certain persons who had forced their way into 

ἀποστάσιον 69 

the temple, βουλόμενοι ἐξσπάσαι pe kal ἀγαγῆσαι, καθάπερ 
kal ἐν τοῖς πρότερον χρόνοις ἐπεχείρησαν, οὔσης ἀποστά- 
σεως. For the adj. ἀποστατικός, see P Tor 8 (8.6. 119) 
ἀποστατικῶι τρόπωι. In the same line αὐτοκρασίαι occurs, 
an illustration of the Hellenistic tendency to form new nouns 
in -σία: see Lobeck, Paverxga. p. 528 f. 


BGU IV. τοο ᾽ν (B.c. 55, a copy of a demotic bill of sale 
“ἐ μεθηρμηνευμένης κατὰ τὸ δυνατόν ) has ἀποστασίου 
συνγραφή, ‘“‘bond of relinquishing” (the sold property). 
The phrase is found as early as B.C. 258 in P Hib I. 96°, 
“*a contract of renunciation” between two military settlers, 
one of whom at least was a Jew. 
““This expression has hitherto always been found in con- 
nexion with the translations of demotic deeds concerning the 
renunciation of rights of ownership, the (συγγραφὴ) ἀπο- 
στασίου being contrasted with the πρᾶσις, the contract 
concerning the receipt of the purchase-price; cf. Wilcken, 
Archiv ili. p. 143 and pp. 388-9” [and now iv. p. 183]. 
This note does not seem to cover the passage in P Grenf 
I. 1119 (p.c. 157) kal ἀποστασίου ἐγράψατο τῶι Ilavai 
μὴ ἐπελεύσεσθαι, μήθ᾽ ἄλλον μηθένα τῶν παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ, ‘he 
had a bill of ejectment drawn against Panas, that neither he 
nor any person connected with him should trespass on the 
property.” We may add P Ryl II. 1609 (a. Ὁ. 28-9) mpa[ojts 
καὶ ἀπωστα[σίου] μέρη (/. μερῶν) KTA, ‘sale and cession of 
two parts out of five” (Edd.).—so other documents in this set : 
also P Tebt IT. 561 (early i/A.D.) πρᾶ]σις καὶ ἀποστασίου 
δούλου . ., and Preisigke 995 (B.C. 245-4) συνγραφή, ἣν 
ἐποιήσατο Kams Ἰαστῖτι ἀποστασίου περὶ ὧν ἐν[εκά]λει 
αὐτῆι. In Ρ Giss I. 3651 (ii/B.c.) we have καὶ ἀνενη]νόχατε 
συγγρα(φὰς) ὠνῆς kal ἀποστασίου kar’ αὐτῶν, and in BGU 
III. 919%8 (ii/A.p.) we have ἀκολ[ο͵]ύθως ᾧ π|α]ρεθ[ἐ]μ(ην) 
tpilv ἀϊντιγρίάφῳ) ἀποστασίου τοῦ πα]τρός pov Ὄνησι- 
κράτους κληρον[όμου τ]ῶν προγεγραίμμένων) μου ἀδελφῶν 
τετ[ελ(ευτηκότων)]. In this last instance ἀποστασίου may 
be short for συγγραφῆς ἀποστασίου, or it may be the gen. 
of ἀποστάσιον used as in Mt 5%, an abbreviation of the 
fuller phrase. (It might even be conjectured that in Mt ὁ c. 
the original reading was ἀποστασίου and not -ov: in its 
presumed original, Deut 241, βιβλίον was expressed.) A 
good parallel for this kind of abbreviation is ἡ ἀπερίσπαστος 
in P Oxy VI. 89818 (a.p. 123), for what is called in 15 
γράμματα ἀπερ[ισπΊ]άστου ; it is ‘a deed of indemnification, 
distinguished by the formula ἀπερίσπαστον παρέξεσθαι or an 
equivalent phrase” (Edd.)—just as we talk of zzs¢ preus 
actions. The specializing of this term for divorce is not 
paralleled in our documents, but it was clearly the nearest 
word to use to represent the Hebrew phrase. See also 
Wilcken Archiv iv. p. 456. 

It may be added that in Coftic Ostraca 72 (ed. Crum), 
as translated on p. 13, we find an abbreviation of ἀποστά- 
σιον used with reference to ‘‘a deed of divorce” in an 
episcopal circular. 

The editors remark, 


The verb is common in the sense of mz¢¢o. Thus P Par 
32°° (B.c. 152) (= Witkowski?, p. 68) Καβάτοκον δ᾽ ἐπιτηρῶ, 
ἂν κατα[π]λῇ, ἀποστεῖλαί σοι, P Oxy IV. 744° (B.C. 1) 
(= Selections, p. 33) ἐὰν εὐθὺς ὀψώνιον λάβωμεν ἀποστελῶ 

᾽ , 

σε ἄνω, “Sas soon as we receive wages I will send them up 
to you,” and P Oxy I. 8738 (a.p. 342) ἀπαντῆσαι ἅμα τοῖς 
εἰς τοῦτον ἀποσταλῖ[σ]ι [ὀϊφίφικιαλίοις), “to proceed with 
the officers sent for this purpose,” which may illustrate 
the frequent NT sense of ‘‘commissioning,” e. g. Mt 112°, 
13%, Jn 2077, Rev 1. So BGU IV. 1141" (c. B.c. 13) 
ἐρώτα ods ἀπέσταλκας καθ᾽ ἕκαστον εἶδος, and in passive 
CPHerm to1® (ii/A.p. or later, apparently) ἐνγράφω[ς 
ἀπεσταλμένος ὑφ᾽ ὑμῶν. “Τὸ send for” something is 
ἀ. ἐπί c. acc. in P Flor II. 1268 (a.p. 254) ἐπεὶ αὔριον 
αὐτοὺς βούλομαι ἀποστεῖλαι εἰς Βερνεικίδα ἐπὶ τὸν σῖτον. 
Cc fe 2 vetsighe 174 (iii/B.C.) ἀποσταλεὶς ἐπὶ τὴν θήραν τῶν 
ἐλεφάντων τόδε δεύτερον. 

For ἀποστέλλω = vescribo, see P Par οὐ ἢ (B.c. 154) 
(= Witkowski 5, p. 78) ἀπόστιλόν μοι, πόσον ἔχει Τ͵ετευσο- 
ράπιος καὶ ἀπὸ ποίου χρόνου, P Oxy IV. γ4251 (B.c. 2) 
ἀπόστειλόν μ[ο]. πόσας δέσμας παρείληφας, “‘send me 
word how many bundles you have received” (Edd.). 

For the possibility that in Ac γ5 ἀποστείλω NABCDE 
is not a hortatory conjunctive (cf. Kiihner-Gerth p. 219), 
but a present indicative, see Thumb Ae//ex. p. 18, where 
reference is made to a present form στείλω in the Pontic 
dialect. The form ἀφέσταλκα (e¢ sz.) may be seen in the 
Kowy: Meyer G7. 326 gives five inscriptions containing it— 
add OG/S 596 (B.c. 311—letter of Antigonus to Scepsians), 
ὦ. 6% (their reply), and J/agz 46°, 87° (after B.C. 159). 
It does not seem impossible, despite the late date of its 
appearance, that this form should be the survival of the 
original ἔστ. (for σεστ.). 


In the Cnidian defixio, δν1 814°, we find τοὺς λαβόντας 
mapa A. παραθή[καν] καὶ μὴ ἀποδιδόντας ad[A]’ ἀποστε- 
ροῦντας : this brings together correlate verbs. ΤῈαραθήκην 
&. will answer to the phrase in Pliny’s letter to Trajan (967) 
on the Christians’ oath ‘‘ne depositum appellati abnegarent.” 
C. H. Turner (/7S xi. p- 19 n.%) notes that in Mk 10%% 
reads ‘“‘ne abnegaveris,” and ac ‘‘non abnegabis,” which he 
regards as the key to the formula in Pliny. For a. absolute, 
as in Mk ἃ c. and 1 Cor 7°, ef. the petition of the Serapeum 
Twins P Par 26% (p.c. 163-2) (= Selections, p. 17) ἕτεροι 
τῶν ἐκ τοῦ ᾿Ασκληπιείου ὄντες πρὸς χειρισμοῖς, Tap’ ὧν 
ἔθος ἐστὶν ἡμᾶς τὰ δέοντα κομίζεσθαι, ἀποστεροῦσιν, ‘others 
connected with the Asclepieum in the administration, from 
whom it is usual for us to receive what we need, are defraud- 
ing.” It is construed with an acc., as I Gorn Ὁ. τὴ ἘΣ Par 
313 (ii/B.c.) ἀποστεροῦντες [ἡμ]ᾶς : ε΄. P Oxy II. 237.122 
(A.D. 186) τῆς ὑπολειπομένης ἐμοὶ κατοχὴν τῆς οὐσίας ἵνα 
μ᾽ αὐτὴν ἀποστῆται (/. -στερῆ-) “ἃ desire to deprive me of 
the right which I retain over the property” (Edd.). For 
the more normal constr. c.‘acc. pers. and gen. rei, see 
BGU IV. τοραῖν 18 (iv/v A.D.) ποίας δὲ ἔσχεν ἐνθυμήσεις τὸν 
ἤδη κληθέντα (for κλιθέντα “‘ lying dead”) καὶ THs ἐσχάτης 
ἐλπίδας (1 -ος, of sepulture) ἀποστε[ρ]ῆσαι; P Kyl II. 
11428 (c. A.D. 280) οἰκίωται δὲ τῷ προκειμένῳ Σ. [ἐμὲ τὴν 
χήρα]ν μετὰ νηπίων τέκνων ἀεὶ ἀποστερεῖν, 20. 161° (A.D. 
194) βουλόμενοι ἀποστερέσαι τῶν ἐμῶν. ‘The simplex occurs 
in the earliest dated papyrus, P Eleph 17 (B.c. 311-0) (= 
Selections, p. 3) στερέσθω Sp προσηνέγκατο πάντων. For 
the subst. see P Oxy I. 712° (a.p. 303) ἐπὶ ἀποστερέσι TH 
ἡμετέρᾳ, ‘to my detriment” (Edd.). 

’ , 
αποστολὴ i 


P Tebt I. 112®(an account—B.c. 112) ὄψου εἰς ἀποστολὴν 
Μουσαίωι ρξ, P Oxy IV. 73612 (c. A.D. 1) μύρου eis ἀπο- 
στολὴν ταφῆς θυγατρὸς Φνᾶς, ‘perfume for the despatch 
of the mummy of the daughter of Phna;” and from the 
inscriptions δον. 92429 (end of iii/B.c.) ἐπὶ] Tat ἀποστολᾶι 
τοῦ ἀνδρός, 7). 92G% (?B.c. 139), 7. 210% (iii/B.C.) τῶν 
χρημάτων συναγωγῆς te kal ἀποστίολῆς. It is thus the 
nomen actionts of ἀποστέλλω. 


It is not easy to point to an adequate parallel for the NT 
usage of this important word, but it may be noted that in 
Herod. i. 21 (cf. v. 38) it is found = ‘‘ messenger,” ‘‘ envoy,” 
and with the same meaning in LXX 3 Regn 14° A ἐγώ εἰμι 
ἀπόστολος πρὸς σὲ σκληρός, cf. Symm. Isai 18%. Reference 
may also be made to the interesting fragment in P Par 
p- 411 f. (B.c. 191), where, if we can accept the editor's 
restoration of the missing letters, we read of a public official 
who had sent to a delinquent a messenger bearing the orders 
he had disregarded—erec|tadkétwy ἡμῶν πρός σε τὸν 
ἀπίόστολον]. Cf. also a lexical extract cited by Nageli, 
Pp. 23, ὃ ἐκπεμπόμενος μετὰ στρατιᾶς καὶ παρασκευῆς ἀπό- 
στολος καλεῖται : this is interesting as being coloured with 
the association found in Attic, though applied to a person. 

Apart from its use in Attic inscriptions, as Sy// 153 
(B.C. 325) = ‘‘fleet,” ‘‘naval expedition,” ἀπόστολος is 
used for a ‘‘ship” in P Oxy III. 522 (ii/a.p.). In this 
document (cf. also P Tebt IT. 486, ii/iii A.D.), which is 
an account of the expenses of corn-transport, it is of interest 
to notice that each ἀπόστολος is known by the name of its 
owner, e.g. λόγος ἀποστόλου Τριαδέλφου, ‘‘account—for 
the ship of Triadelphus.” In P Oxy IX. 119728 (A.D. 211) a 
different sense is required—oméray ta ἐξ ἀποστόλων πλοῖα 

παραγένηται, where Hunt renders, ‘whenever the boats 
collected in accordance with the orders of lading arrive,” 
and cites P Amh IT. 138!° (A.D. 326) (as amended by Mitteis, 
Chrest. I1., p. 391) ἐϊξ ἀποστόλου τῆς τάξεως, where a 
ship-master embarks certain loads ‘‘in accordance with the 
bill of lading of the Officium,” also P Lond 256(a)?°(A.D. 15) 
(=IL., p. 99) ἀκολούθως τῷ [18 letterslov ἀποστόλῳ, and 
CPilerm 611}. (cf. Wilcken Chres¢. I., p. 522) ἐπ[εὶ o]t σοὶ 
ἐπίτροποι τοὺς καλο]υμένους ἀποστόλους [. . . .. . δι] ὧν 
κελεύειν α[ὐτο]ῖς ἔθος [τὴν] τοῦ σείτου ἐμ[β]ο[λὴν ποιεῖσ)ται 
(2. -θαι). In P Oxy X. 125910 (A.D. 211-2) ἐξ ἀποστόλου 
τοῦ κρατίστου ἐπιτρόπου τῆς Νέας πόλεως ‘in accordance 
with the message of his excellency”’ (Edd.), the noun seems 
to be move general ; but the papyrus concerns the shipment 
of corn to Alexandria. See further Archiv ili. p. 221 f. 
Since in early times the non-specialized and etymological 
meaning is found in Herodotus, and the other only in Attic 
writers, we see in the NT use the influence of Ionic on the 
Kown: cf. Profeg. pp. 37, 81. 


We have no citations for this word, which is literary in 
classical and post-classical times. The difficulty in Lk 115% 
is the factitive sense, gs. ‘to make repeat answers,” for which 
the only adequate parallel in Wetstein’s long list is a use of 
the passive assigned by Pollux (i. 102) to Plato, = ὑπὸ τῶν 
διδασκάλων ἐρωτᾶσθαι τὰ μαθήματα, ὡς ἀπὸ στόματος 


> , 

λέγειν τὸ αὐτό. It may be added that Grimm’s reference 
to ‘‘oropar({o—not extant” is misleading: the verb was 
formed directly from ἀπὸ στόματος, just as ἐνωτίζομαι from 
ἐν ὠτί, ete. 


P Leid W*iv- 58 has the prayer Σάραπι. . μὴ ἀποστραφῇς 
pe. An amulet, the opening lines of which were published 
by Wilcken in Archiv i. 427, and tentatively dated iti/v 
A.D., is given in BGU III. 955, Κύριε Σαβαὼθ ἀπό- 
στρεψον am’ ἐμοῦ 'οτον (9) νόσον τῆς κεφαλῆς]. That these 
should be the only occurrences of so common a word we can 
cite from papyri is not a little perplexing. It occurs once in 
Syll 38914 (a.p. 129), where Ephesus offers thanks to [ladrian 
as ἀποστρέψαντά te καὶ τὸν βλάϊπτοντα τοὺς] λιμένας 
ποταμὸν Κάστρον. Its literary record is plentiful, and it 
requires nine columns in HR, with nine occurrences in NT, 
and a good number in the early patristic writers included 
in Goodspeed’s indices. It is also found in Apoc. Peter ὃ 

of men who ‘‘pervert” righteousness—amoortpéepovtes τὴν 


is ““ποῖ found in prof. auth.” (Grimm): it is as naturally 
not quotable from our sources. This is of course just the 
sort of word that would have to be coined for use in the 
Jewish community. 


For the NT meaning ‘‘take leave of,” “" bid farewell to,” 
as 2 
ἀπέλθῃς πρὸς Χαιρήμονα, ἀνά(βαινε) πρός pe, ἵνα σοι 
ἀποτάξομαι, ““τηαγ say goodbye to you,” P Oxy VII. τογοῦδ 
(iii/A.p.) Ev8[atpov] αὐτῷ ἀπετάξατο [λ]έγων ὅτι ἐν τῷ 
παρόντι οὐ σχολάζομεν ἑτέροις ἐξερχόμενοι, ““ Eudaemon 
parted with him, saying, ‘At present we are not at leisure 
and are visiting others’ (Ed.). The meaning is stronger in 
P Oxy 11. 298% (i/A.p.) ἐπεὶ ἀποτάξασθαι αὐτῷ θέλω, where 
the context shows that the idea is “ get rid of.” 

The active ἀποτάσσω, which is not found in the NT, is 
“to appoint,” as in P Oxy ΠῚ. 47577 (a.p. 182) ἀποτάξαι 
ἕνα τῶν περὶ σὲ ὑπηρετῶν εἰς THY Σενέπτα, and in passive P 
Fay 1257 (c. B.C. 103) τοὺς ἀποτεταγμένουΞς τῆι κατοικίᾳ 
χρηματιστάς, ““1π6 assize-judges appointed for the settle- 
ment,” or ‘‘command,” BGU IV. ro61® (B.c. 14) τὴν 
ἀποτεταγμένην πρὸς τῆι τηρήσει θυρωρόν, P Fay 207° 
(iii/iv A.D.) εἰ ἀποτέτακται τὸν Αὐτοκράτορα ὁρᾶν πᾶσιν 
αὐτοῖς... τὰ τῆς βασιλείας διοικοῦντα, ““1Γ they have all 
been commanded to watch the Emperor administering the 
affairs of his kingdom.” 


The ver occurs P Tebt IT. 276 (ii/iii A.D.), an astrological 
document, describing the effects (ἀποτελέσματα) due to the 
positions of the planets. Thus ™ Jupiter in conjunction with 
Mars (etc.) μεγάλας [βασιλεία]ς Kal ἡγεμονίας ἀποτελεῖ, 
‘*makes.” This is in accord with the use in Lk 13%? ἰάσεις 
ἀποτελῶ, and also in Jas 115 ἡ δὲ ἁμαρτία ἀποτελεσθεῖσα 
ἀποκυεῖ θάνατον, where Hort (ad Δ) has shown that a. is 
“fully formed” rather than ‘‘ full-grown.” In PSI ror 
(ii/A.D.) ἀποτελεσθῆαι (/. -ναι) yap τὴν κώμην πάλαι ἀπὸ 
ἀνδρῶν KL, vuvel δὲ εἰς μόνους κατηντηκέναι ἄνδρας Υ (who 


had emigrated from inability to meet the heavier taxation) 
it seems to mean “‘the village once had a full strength of 27 
contributors.” (It should be noted that Prof. Hunt, in 7ze 
Year’s Work for 1912, p. 135, included this document among 
transcriptions which “show signs of inexperience.”) 


The phrase of Mt 143 (LXX a/.) is found nearly in P 
Eleph 12 (B.C. 223-2) γεγράφαμεν . . . τῶι φυλακίτηι . .. 
ἀποθέσθαι αὐτοὺς εἰς THY φυλακήν. The label on a mummy, 
Preisigke 3553, has ἀποτεθ(ειμένη) following ἔνδον ἐστίν, ““ 15 
enclosed within.” In P Flor II. 1252 (A.D. 254) τὰ ἀπο- 
τεθέντα γένη ἐν Φιλαγρίδι is “ the goods that were stored at 
P.” So P Ryl II. 125*4 (a.p. 28-9) τὰ ὑπὸ τῆς μητρός 
μου ἀποτεθειμένα ἐν πυξιδίῳ ἔτι ἀπὸ τοῦ ts [ἔτους) Καίσαρος͵ 
“certain articles deposited ina little box by my mother as far 
back as in the 16th year of Augustus” (Edd.). A weakening 
of the sense of the verb is seen in the fourth century P 
Oxy I. 120!%; παραμένοντά pot ἄχρις ἂν γνῶ πῶς τὰ κατ᾽ 
αἰμαὶ ἀποτίθαιται, ““ἴο stay with me until I know the 
position of my affairs” (Edd.). 


The verb is very common—P Petr I. τό (2.13 (iii/B.c.) ἐὰν 
δὲ μὴ διαγράψω [kal] μὴ παράσχωμαι Td λοιπὸν ἐμφανὲς 
ἀποτείσω ἡμιόλιον, P Par 131} (B.c. 157) ἀποτίνειν αὐτὸν 
τὴν φερνὴν παραχρῆμα σὺν τῇ ἡμιολίᾳ, P Oxy I. 101% 
(lease of land, a.p. 142) ὃ δ᾽ ἂν προσοφειλέσῃ ὁ μεμι- 
σθωμένος ἀποτεισάτω μεθ᾽ ἡμιολίας, 26. 1V. 730° (A.D. 130) 
al. Inan interesting contract of apprenticeship, P Oxy II. 
27527 (A.D. 66) (= Selections, p. 57) the father comes under 
a ‘* forfeit” for each day of his son’s absence from work— 
ἀϊπο]τεισάτω ἑκάσίτ]ης ἡμέρας ἀργυρίου [δρ]αχμὴν μίαν. 
The verb is thus stronger than ἀποδίδωμι, and carries with 
it the idea of repayment by way of punishment or fine (cf. 
Gradenwitz Zzm/f. i. p. 85 n‘4), a fact which lends emphasis 
to its use in Philem?% For the contrast between the two 
verbs, see P Gen I. 2174 (ii/B.c.), as restored by Wilcken 
Archiv iii. p. 388, ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀποδῶι καθὰ γέγραπται, 
ἀποτε[ι]σάτω [παραχ]ρῆμα ἡμι[όλιον, cf. BGU I. 190%, 
2nd fragment (Domitian), ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἰσαποδῶι, ἀποτισάτωι 
παραχρῆμα μεθ᾽ ἡμιολίας], and a similar use of προσαπο- 
τίσω in P Leid C1}. 

From the inscriptions cf. A@zbe/ 5092 where a certain 
physician of Nicaea records—7roA|A]iv θάλασσαν] καὶ γαῖαν 
[π]Ἰερι[νο]στήσας τὸ πίεπρωμένον ὧδ᾽ [amé}rewa, 7. ε. “1 
died here,” Sy/Z 737°? (ii/A.D.) of an ἰόβακχος “ fined,” etc. 
The word occurs in P Said Khan 14-28 (B.c. 88) ἐὰν [δὲ κ]αὶ 6 
Τ᾽ αθάκης ὀλιγωρήσῃ τὴν [ἄμπεϊλον Kal μὴ ποιήσῃ αὐτὴ[ν] 
ἔπαφον(9), ἀποτειννυέτω τὸ αὐτὸ ἐπί]τειμον : Radermacher 
Gr. p. 81 πῇ mentions ἵέννυμι for ζέω, and ἀποτίνυμι in 
Passio Scillitanorum 6. 


Dittenberger prints the verb in Sy// 80355, but the context 
is so mutilated that the citation is at best only probable. 
The word has warrant from classical and Hellenistic literature. 

A rather curious use of the noun occurs in BGU ΙΝ. τφοϑὲ. 17 
(B.C. 27) τ]ὴν ἀποτομίαν τῆς ἀναβάσεως (the inundation of 

1 Y Mi 

the Nile). P Oxy II. 237%! 40 (a.p. 186) παρ᾽ οἷς ἄκρατός 
ἐστιν 7 τῶν ν[ὄμων ἀποτομ[(]α, ‘amongst whom the severity 
of the law is untempered” (Edd.). Counsel is pleading a 
native statute, admittedly harsh, which he claims was enforced 
rigidly: the word does not suggest straining a statute, but 
simply exacting its provisions to the full. Wilcken (Archiv 
ili. p. 303) compares with this passage BGU IV. 1024.8 
(iv/v A.D.—a collection of judgements in capital cases), where 
he reads évépicas λανθάνειν τὴ]ν νόμων (he would emend 
τῶν Vv.) ἀπο[τ]ομίαν καὶ τὴν τοῦ δικάζοντος ἐξουσίαν. Cf. 
Plutarch De /éderis educ. 18 (p. 13D) δεῖ τοὺς πατέρας τὴν 
TOV ἐπιτιμημάτων ἀποτομίαν TH πρᾳότητι μιγνύναι. A 
further literary citation may illustrate the harsher side of the 
word—Demetrius De Z/oc. 292 (ed. Roberts) kata Φαλάρι- 
δος τοῦ τυράννου ἐροῦμεν καὶ τῆς Φαλάριδος ἀποτομίας, 
“we shall inveigh against the tyrant Phalaris and 



For the adj. in its literal sense ‘‘ cut off,” cf. an inscription 
from Delos BCH xxvii. p. 102"! (B.C. 250) τῶν στροφέων 
ἀπότομον μῆκος πήχεων πέντε. In Cayzat III. 360° (Pam- 
phylia, Imperial) ὀξέσι σιδηροῖς Kal ἀποτόμοις is believed 
to describe regular sharp weapons dealt out to gladiators for 
combat, in place of the blunt ones which the d/asé populace 
found insufficiently exciting. In Wisd 111° it denotes God’s 
retributive purposes towards Egypt, in contrast with His 
fatherly attitude to Israel at the Exodus. 


P Giss I. 205 (ii/a.D.) ἡ ἐπιστολή σου τὴν [μέριμναν 
?... ] που ἀπέτρεψεν [. . . 11 15 unfortunate that this solitary 
citation for a verb common in literature should have no 
reliable context ; but it is something that the word itself 
seems clear, and occurs in a woman’s private letter, which 
proves it vernacular. 


For ἀ. in the NT sense of ‘‘absence” (Phil 213), see 
P Amh IT. 1355 (early ii/a.D) μὴ ἀμελεῖν μου ἐν ἀπουσίᾳ 
τοιαύτῃ, “᾿ποΐ to forget me in my long absence,” BGU I. 
195%8 (A.D. 161) κατα φ]ρονηθεὶς ἐκ τῆς περὶ [τὴ]ν στρατίαν 
ἀπουσία [9] pov, 26. 2425 (Commodus) κατὰ τὴν ἐμὴ[ν] 
ἀπουσίαν, P Gen I. 34 (a.p. 175-80) κατὰ ἀπουσίαν. 
E:]sewhere it is used in the sense of “‘ waste,” ‘‘ deficiency,” 
e.g. BGU IV. 1065! (A.D. 97) δώσει ἑκάστου μναϊαίου 
[ὑπ]ὲρ ἀπουσίας τετάρτην μίαν, P Oxy X. 1273% (a.p. 
260—a marriage contract) τ]ὴν τούτων πάντων τρῖψιν Kal 
ἀπουσίαν εἶναι πρὸς τὸν γαμοῦντα “the responsibility for 
the wear and loss of all these’’ (Edd.). Cf. the use of the 
corresponding verb in Artem. I. 78, ὃ δὲ εἰς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ 
θυγατέρα ἀπουσιάσει, cited by Suidas Zex., where ἀπρεπές 
is given as a meaning of ἀπόν. ᾿Απουσία was borrowed in 
Syriac to express a similar sense, as in the Acts of Thomas 
(iii/A.D.), according to Prof. R. H. Kennett (in a letter). 
‘The corresponding Greek (Acta Thomae, ed. Tischendorf, 
p- 196) has βρῶσιν μηδεμίαν ὅλως ἀπουσίαν ἔχουσαν. 
But as late as P Oxy IX. 1223 (late iv/a.p.) διὰ τὴν 
ἀπουσίαν Tov yeovxXov 15 still ‘owing to the absence of the 
landlord” (Ed.). 





P Par 4933:.- (B.c. 164-58) (= Witkowski?, p. 71) διὰ 
τὸ εἰς τὴν πόλιν pe θέλειν δοῦναι ἀπενεγκεῖν. The verb 
(= Selections, p. 102 1.), e.g. καλῶς ἐποίησες οὐκ ἀπένηχές 
(2. ἀπήνεγκες) pe pet ἐσοῦ εἰς πόλιν, “So kind of you 
not to have taken me off with you to town!” For the 
verb with the added idea of violence, as Mk 151, see P Oxy 
I. 37438 (a.p. 49) (= Selections, p. 50) βούλεται ὀν[ό]ματι 
ἐλευθέρου τὸ σωμάτιον ἀπενέγκασθαι, ‘she wishes to (de- 
fend herself on the ground) that the foundling was carried 
off in virtue of its being freeborn,” BGU I. 227°" (a.v, 
114) (= Selections, p. 76) ἀνέβη εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν μου, ἀπενέγκατο 
οἰχό(μενοΞ) κίμενον ζεῦγος WeAAlw(v) ἀργυρῶν, ‘he went up 
into my house, and carried off with him a pair of silver 
bracelets that were lying there”: cf. also P Magd 1° (B.c. 
221) κατέσπειραν (τὸν κλῆρον) σησάμωι καὶ σίτωι Kal ἀπε- 
νηνεγμένοι εἰσὶν παρὰ πάντα δίκαια. (The editor would 
read τὰ δίκαια.) Similarly P Ryl 11. 151} (A.D. 66) κατα- 
σπείροντας Kal ἀποφέροντας τὰ περιεσύμεν[α] ἐκ TLovTH]y, 
and P Leid Bii-17 (ii/p.c.), where two persons are reported 
to have carried some oil off for their own use (ἀπενηνεγμένοι 
εἰσίν), BGU IV. 10607 (B.c. 14), a/. Theactive seems to be 
used in the same sense in CPHerm 910, but the context is 
fragmentary. For the subst. see P Tebt IT. 4248 (late iii/a.D.) 
ἴσθι δὲ ὅτι ὀφίλις φόρους καὶ ἀποφορὰς ἑπτὰ ἐτῶν, “let me 
tell you that you owe seven years’ rents and dues.” (Edd.) 

P Ryl IL. γγ39 (a.p. 192) ἀναδεξάμενος τὴν μείζονα ἀρχὴν 
οὐκ ὀφείλει τὴν ἐλάττον᾽ ἀποφεύγειν. 


occurs thrice in Vettius Valens, where the editor renders 
vaticinari: p. 753} ἐν ἱεροῖς κάτοχοι γίνονται ἀποφθεγ- 
γόμενοι ἢ καὶ τῇ διανοίᾳ παραπίπτοντες, 121° ἀποφθεγ- 
γομένους ἢ μανιώδεις ἢ προγνωστικοὺς ἀποτελοῦσιν, and 113} 
μανιώδεις ἐκστατικοὺς πτωματικοὺς ἀποφθεγγομένους ἀπερ- 
yafovrat—he refers to Manetho i, 237. This is an extension 
in malam partem of the mantic note which Winer (a/. 
Grimm-—Thayer) finds in the verb. 


One or two instances of the verb ἀποχράομαι may be 
cited to illustrate the expressive ἀπόχρησις, which is found 
in the Greek Bible only in Col 255. OG/S 6651® (A.D. 49) 
ὑπὸ τῶν πλεονεκτικῶς Kal ἀναιδῶς ταῖς ἐξουσίαις ἀποχρω- 
μένων = abutentibus: the Prefect Cn. Vergilius Capito issues 
an edict against the abuse of the ἀόεγα /egatéo. P Hib I. 
527 (c. B.C. 245) κ[αὶ ὥ]ντινων κλήρων ἀποκέχρηνται ταῖς 
νομαῖς, “*the holdings in which they have used up the 
pastures ” (Edd,). 


In the interesting census return P Lond 260} (a.p. 72--3) 
(ΞΞ 11. p. 51) reference is made to the son of a man who had 
acquired the Alexandrian citizenship and ἀποκεχώ eis τῇ 
ἰδίαν, ‘‘ had returned to his own country,” who consequently 
was to be reckoned as Alexandrian. Cf. P Lond 4438 (B.c. 
161) (=I. p. 34) ἀπεχώρουν, and the illiterate P Fay 116° 


(A.D. 104) αἰὰν [ἀπο]χωρῶν πέμσωι πρὸς [σὲ el]va σε 
ἀσπάσωμαι, ‘if I leave I will send to you to greet you.” 


In the letter of a slave to her master, P Giss I. 178 ἢ: 
(Hadrian) ἠγωνίασα, κύριε, οὐ μετρίως, ἵνα ἀκούσω ὅτι 
ἐνώθρευσας, ἀλλὰ χάρις τοῖς θεοῖς πᾶσι ὅτι σε διαφυλάσ- 
σουσι ἀπρόσκοπον, the context implies that @. must be 
understood in the sense of ‘‘free from hurt or harm.” 
So in the same family correspondence, 2. 22° ἀ[ναλ]αμ- 
βανούσης σε ἀπρόσίκοπΊἼ]ον kal ἱλαρώτατον. In the same 
again, 7d. 791.8 ἵνα μετὰ φιλίας καὶ ἀπροσκόπως ἐξέλθωμεν 
ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν ém ἀγαθῶι “in Freundschaft und ohne Arger 
und Anstoss” (Ed.). Under the form ἀπρόσκοπτος, it 
is found in the late (apparently heathen) inscription from 
Messana, 7GSZ 404 ᾿Ανδρόβιος Λύκιος ναύκληρος ἔζησε 
ἀπρόσκοπτος ἔτη ἃς: (see Nageli, p. 43) in the metaphorical 
sense of Phil 17° ‘‘ blameless.” 

It is clear that we need not be longer concerned with 
Grimm’s note, already discounted by Thayer, that the adj. 
is ‘‘not found in profane authors.” 


naturally does not appear. It is witness only to the firm 
hold of πρόσωπον λαμβάνειν as a fern. techn. in the vocabu- 
lary of Jews, derived from a literal translation. 


In the lack of other citations this NT ἅπ. elp. (Jude *4) 
may be illustrated from M. Aur. ν. 9 τὸ ἄπταιστον Kal 
εὔρουν ἐν πᾶσι, ‘the security and happy course of all 
things,” which depend on the faculty of understanding and 
knowledge. See also 3 Macc 659 6 τῶν πάντων δυνάστης 
ἀπταίστους αὐτοὺς ἐρρύσατο ὁμοθυμαδόν. 


The sense of eagerness comes out well in the royal letter to 
Attis, priest of Pessinus, OG/S 315°° (B.c. 164-3) μετὰ δὲ 
ταῦτα ἐν ἄλλαις καὶ ἄλλαις ἡμέραις ἀεὶ διασκοποῦσιν (for 
-otvtwy) ἥπτετο μᾶλλον ἡμῶν, “urged his view upon us.” 
In Sy// 8495 (Delphi, B.c. 177-6, in dialect) εἰ δέ τίς κα 
ἅπτηται Σωσίχας ἐπὶ καταδουλισμῶι, it means ‘lay hold 
of, appropriate.” The active sense of ‘‘kindle,” “set fire 
to,” is illustrated by the magical papyrus P Lond 121° 
(iii/A.D.) (=I. p. 101) ἅπτε δὲ λιβάνῳ, and appears thrice 
in a very illiterate iv/a.D. letter, P Oxy X. 12977? ἀπέστιλά 
σοι. . . διὰ Ἴλιτος σφυρίδιον ἕν, ἅψαι αὐτὸν κεῖται (so 
7.47) “1 sent you . . by Ilis one basket for you to burn” 
(Edd.). The middle occurs in the recently recovered Greek 
Acts of the martyr Christina—PSI 27/8 (v/A.D.) εὐχαριστῶ 
colt ὁ] πατὴρ τοῦ Kv Iv Xv, μὴ ἐνκατα[λίπῃς pe εἰς] τὸν 
αἰῶν[α], ἀλλὰ ἔκίτεινον] τὴν χεῖράν σου καὶ ἅψαι τοῦ πυρὸς 
τούτου καὶ σ]βέσον τὸ ἐπ[αναστὰν] ἐπάνω μου, [μ]ήποται 
ἐπιχαρῇ Οὐρβανὸς ὁ τύραϊννος em ἐμέ]. The familiar ἅπτε- 
σθαι of healing wrought by touch may be illustrated by Sy/Z 
803% (iii/B.c.—the Asclepieum at Epidaurus) ἐδόκει αὐτᾶι 
. .. τὸν θεὸν &pac[BJat οὗ τᾶ[ς κοιλίας * ἐκ τούτου Tat 
᾿Ανδρομάχαι (the suppliant) v[t]ds ἐξ ᾿Αρύββα ἐγίνε[τ]ο 
‘The opposite sense occurs in 26. 80478 (2 έαϊεγε, perh. ii/A.D.) 
ἥψατο δέ μου (sc. ἡ νόσος) καὶ τῆς δεξιᾶς χιρὸς Kal τοῦ 
μαστοῦ. MGr has ἀνάφτω ‘‘kindle,” and the simplex in a 
special phrase, ἅψε σβύσε. 



To the examples from the inscriptions of this Phrygian 
proper name given by Lightfoot Co/ossians® p. 306 f. add 
Perg Il. 513 ᾿Ιουλίαν ᾿Απφίαν Λικιαννήν, and C. and B. 
no. 309 (ii. p. 470—Apamea, pagan) ᾿Απφία ΠΙαπίου μήτηρ. 
In /BL xxvii. pt. ii. p. 145 Hatch cites three instances of the 
form’ Ad(a from PAS iii. 482, 508, 594 (Pisidia and Phrygia) 
In noting that the name is not to be found in the Magnesian 
inscriptions Thieme (p. 39) quotes Κα. Buresch Aus Lydien, 
Leipzig, 1898, p. 44, to the effect: ‘‘ Der Name (‘Adtas) 
gehért einer grossen in W/(est)-Kleinasien und besonders 
N(ord)-Lydien sehr verbreiteten Namenfamilie an, deren 
Mitglieder mit wa, re, bd, Φ geschrieben erscheinen.” See 
also Radermacher Gy. p. 40 n+, who supports from an early 
Lycian inscr. the spelling ᾿Αφφία (found in D). 


occurs in P Fay 124” (ii/a.p.) ἄνευ νομίμων ἡμᾶς 
ἀποθεῖσθαι: the editors render “illegally ousted.” The 
compound προσαπωθέω is found in a papyrus of Magdola 
(B.c. 221—published in AZéanges Nicole, p. 283) προσαπώ- 
σατό pe els THY φυλακήν. 


The weaker sense of a. is illustrated by P Tebt II. 276% 
acquired certain possessions ἐξωδιασμὸν αὐτῶν [ποιήσ]εται 
καὶ ἀπώλειαν, ‘will spend and lose them” (Edd.). Simi- 
larly in a series of nursing-contracts of the time of Augustus 
in BGU IV. we find the phrase ἐκτίνειν τὴν ἑκάστου ἀξίαν 
πλὴν συμφανοῦς ἀπωλείας, e.g. 1058") (= Chres¢. II. 170), 
1106, a/. For the stronger meaning which we associate 
with NT usage, cf. the close of an ancient Coptic spell from 
the iii/A.D. Paris magical papyrus 224° (= Se/ections, p. 114) 
ἔξελθε δαῖμον, ἔπεί σε δεσμεύω δεσμοῖς ἀδαμαντίνοις ἀλύτοις, 
καὶ παραδίδωμί σε εἰς τὸ μέλαν χάος ἐν ταῖς ἀπωλίαις, ‘give 
you over to black chaos in utter destruction.” 


For εἰ ἄρα, sz forte, as in Mk 115, Ac 855, cf. P Petr II. 
13 (19)® (middle of iii/B.c.) (= Witkowski, p. 19) εἰ 8 ἄρα 
μὴ ὁρᾶις ὃν δυνατόν, P Hal ri 172 (middle of iii/B.c.), 
εἰ δὲ ἄρα δεῖ αὐτοῖς σταθμοὺς δίδοίσθ᾽αι πία]ρὰ τῶν 
οἰκονόμων, διδότωσαν α[ὐ]τοῖς τοὺς ἀναγκαίους. See also 
P Oxy VII. τογοῦῦ (iii/A.D.) μὴ ἀμελήσῃς μὴ ἄρα ποτὲ 
θέλῃς μ[εἸτὰ σ[ο]ῦ [ρ]αείδι τὴν τήρησιν τῆς ὅλης οἰκίας 
παραδιδόναι, “do not neglect this, lest indeed you choose 
to hand over the keeping of the whole house to Herais” 
(Ed.): cf. P Amh 11. 84” (ii/iii A.D.) . . . Jpevos μὴ ἄρα τι 



The interrogative dpa occurs in a curious interview with 
a Roman emperor, P Oxy I. 3315: (late ii/A.p.), where a 
condemned man asks who had recalled him, dpa ἡ σύνκλητος 
ἢ σὺ ὁ λήσταρχος ; ‘‘ Was it the senate, or you, the arch- 
pirate?” (Edd.). For the MGr use of dpa (&paye[s]) in 
questions implying doubt (or refusal), see Thumb’s Hanubook, 
p- 180 ἢ. 

Part I. 



A sepulchral inscr. from S.W. Phrygia, C. and B. no. 466 
(ii. p. 565), which Ramsay thinks Christian, mainly because 
of the name Amerimnos, has ἐὰν δέ τις αὐτῶν μὴ φοβηθῇ 
τούτων τῶν καταρῶν, τὸ ἀρᾶς δρέπανον εἰσέλθοιτο εἰς τὰς 
οἰκήσις αὐτῶν καὶ μηδίναν ἐνκαταλείψετο. Here apa might 
represent κατάρα, by the principle illustrated for verbs in 
Proleg. p. 115; but this does not apply in the closely similar 
no. 563 (Akmonia), where Jewish origin is argued. The 
noun may be quoted from a source where no suspicion of 
Jewish or Christian influence can come in—the end of the 
great inscr. of Antiochus I. of Commagene, OG/S 383% 
(i/B.C.), παρανόμων δὲ γνώμηι κατὰ δαιμόνων τιμῆς Kal 
χωρὶς ἡμετέρας ἀρᾶς παρὰ θεῶν ἐχθρὰ πάντα: cf. Magn 
105°° (ii/B.C.) νόϊμοις γ]ὰρ ἱεροῖς καὶ ἀραῖς καὶ ἐπιτίμοις 
ἄνωθεν διεκεκώλζυ)το ἵνα μηθεὶς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ τοῦ [Διὸς]... 
[μ]ήτε ἐννέμῃ κτλ. For ἀρατός see Sy/Z 303'7 (ii/s.c.), 
ἀρατὴν ἅμα καὶ σωτήριον [περὶ τῶ]ν ἀπορουμένων ἀεὶ 

πίρο]τιθέντες γνώμην. 


For ᾽Α. as the name of an Egyptian nome situated on 
the east side of the Nile, see P Lond 4010 (B.c. 116-11) 
(=II. p. 14), P Oxy IV. 709° (¢c. A.D. 50). There would 
seem to be a reference to an ᾿Αραβία ἄνω in PSI 5614 
(A.D. 107), where see the editor’s note. 


In P Petr Il. 4 (9)* (B.c. 255-4) certain quarrymen 
complain νυνὶ δὲ ἀργοῦμεν διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν σώμ[ζα]τα ὥστε 
ἀνακαθᾶραι τὴν ἄμμον, “but now we are idle (‘playing’) 
for want of slaves to clear away the sand”: cf. 2d. 9 (3)? 
(B.C. 241-39), ἐὰν ἀργῶσιν, and 14 (1a)*. Later instances 
of the verb are afforded by P Lond 131* (farm-accounts, 
A.D. 78) (=I. p. 190 f.), P Oxy IV. 725% (a.p. 183), a 
contract of apprenticeship where provision is made that the 
apprentice shall have twenty days’ holiday in the year, 
ἀργήσει δὲ ὁ παῖς εἰς λόγον ἑορτῶν κατ᾽ ἔτος ἡμέρας εἴκοσι : 
εἴ, 2. ἐὰν δὲ πλείονας τούτων ἀργήσῃ, if he exceeds this 
number from idleness he is to make it good afterwards, 
7b. 1. 1217°% (iii/A.D.) μὴ ἀφῇς αὐτοὺς ἀργῆσε ὅλους, “‘do 
not let them be wholly idle,” and P Fay 13115 (iii/iv A.D.) 
τὰ ταυρκὰ (1 -ἰκὰ) μὴ ἀργείτωι. Add P Flor I. τοιῦ (late 
i/A.D.) ἐὰν ἀργήση[ται 2] εἷς ἐξ ἡμῶν, P Lond 1170 zerso® 
(A.D. 258-9) (=III. p. 194) λόγος ἐργατῶν ἀργησάντων, 
76. 1173}0 (A.D. 125) (=III. p. 208) αΛ΄ For apy in P 

Lond 131 vecfo# (a.D. 78-9) (=I. p. 171) the editor con- 
jectures ἀργίζει, or some other variant of ἀργεῖ, in the sense 
of ‘‘taking holiday”: cf. Mayser, Gy. p. 84. The absence 
of the suggestion implied in our ‘‘idle” is well seen in 
P Oxy VIII. 11601 (iii/iv A.D.) διμήνου δὲ ἤργηκα ὧδη, εἰ 
μή, ἤμελλα ὑμῖν mae (2.ε. πᾶσι) ἄλλα πέμπιν, where there 
is no thought of apology for the two months. The word 
may be used of inanimate things, as of ships in P Petr II. 
208-1 (B.C. 252) ὅπως . . - μὴ ἀργῆι τὰ πλοῖα, and of a 
garden in P Flor II. 2628 (iii/A.D.) ἐπὶ ὁ κῆπος ἀργεῖ : this 
is correlate with the use of the causative katapyet in Lk 137. 
In MGr the verb means ‘‘delay, come too late,” an easy 
development from the idea of ‘‘idling, dawdling” : this might 

indeed be taken as corroborative evidence for the connotation 



of blameworthy ‘‘idling” which appears in NT, but not in 
our vernacular sources, as noted above. 


The various connotations of the verb appear in its source, 
the adj. ἀργός (aFepyds), the opposite of ἐνεργός, ‘‘at 
work”). Thus in P Lond 9158 (a census-return of A.D. 
160-1) (= III. p. 27) a certain Apollonius is described as 
belonging to the ‘‘leisured” class of Memphis (τῶν ἀπὸ 
Mépdews ἀργῶν, a ‘practically certain” reading): cf. for 
the same description ΒΟῸΣ III. 8335 (A.p. 173-4). In 
BGU IV. 1078** (a.p. 39) a man writes to his sister, ἐὰν 
λάβω τὰ κερμάμια (Ὁ κεράμια), ὄψομαι τί pe Set ποιεῖν" οὐ 
γὰρ ἀργὸν δεῖ με καθῆσθαι. Ῥ Lond 1170 τεγεοῖτ» 488. (see 
below) has ὄνος ἃ ἀργός, ‘‘ travelling light,” as against 
others with loads. In P Flor I. 1*@ and P Amh II. 97° 
(both ii/A.1.) ἐλαιουργίου ἀργοῦ = ‘fan oil-press which is 
out of working order”; similarly P Oxy X. 1269%* (early 
ii/A.D.) ἑτέρα (sc. κιβωτός) ἀργή “another out of use” 
(Edd.). In νι. 533° (iii/A.D.), τὸ ἀργόν is opposed to τὸ 
πεφυτευμένον : so 7. 233° (soon after B.C. 229) τῆς χώρας 
διὰ] τοὺς πολέμους ἀργοῦ Kal ἀσπόρου οὔϊσης. In MGr 
ἀργά = ‘‘too late”: cf. the note on the development of 
MGr apy above. 

The derived noun ἀργία “holiday” may be seen in P 
Petr III. 40 (α)γ- 15, and in a diary of Heroninus, steward 
of property at Theadelphia (A.D, 258-9), P Lond 1170 
verso*4 ete. (= III. p. 202): against each day of the month 
is entered the work done thereon, but we have the roth, 
21st, and 24th marked ἀργία. It is open to question whether 
this neutral meaning should not be applied in Wisd 133%, 
where ἀργίας and ἀνέσεως seem to stand by parallelism alike 
for ‘‘leisure”: cf. RV mg. and our note on ἄνεσις. In that 
case the workman spends his working hours and the best 
parts of the wood in making something useful: the leavings 
of the wood are carved into an idol by his “holiday dilig- 
ence” and the ‘‘skill of his spare time.” Notice might be 
taken of the neat word-play on ἀργὰ... ἔργα in the 
context (14°): it recalls Henry Bradshaw’s brilliant and 
convincing emendation in 2 Pet 3}, τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ ἔργα « ἀργὰ > 


The adj. in its contracted form (as in 2 Tim 259, Rev 939) 
is found in P Lond 191" (an inventory of household furniture, 
A.D. 103-17) (= II. p. 265) φύλλια ἀργυρᾶ ὀκτώ: cf. P. 
Lond 1245 (iv/v A.D.) (=I. p. 122). Constant associa- 
tion with χρυσοῦς produced a mixture of flexion in the fem. : 
thus ἀργυρὴ BGU 11. 388 4 ** (jii/iii a.p.), τῆν P Leid W 
xxiii 22 (jj/iii A.D.), but χρυσᾶν Rev 118, P Lond 1246 
(iv/v A.D.) = I. p. 122). For the uncontracted forms, which 
do not seem to occur in the Ptolemaic papyri (Mayser G7. p. 
293), see I Esr 67 A τὰ χρυσᾶ καὶ τὰ ἀργύρεα (ἀργυρᾶ B), 
and cf. the long British Museum magic papyrus P Lond 
121°! (iii/A.D.) (=I. p. 102) ἐπιγραφόμενον ἐπὶ χρυσέου 
πετάλου ἢ ἀργυρέου, and OG/S 480° (Ephesus, ii/B.C.) 
Αρτεμιν ἀργυρέαν kal εἰκόνας ἀργυρέας δύο. See further 
Helbing G7., p. 34 f. 

The form ἀργυρικός = ‘‘ of money ” generally is common 
both in the papyri and the inscriptions, e.g. P Amh 11. 31° 
(B.C. 112) τὴν σιτικὴν μίσθωσιν Kal τὴν ἀργυρικὴν πρόσοδον 

74. opyupos 

‘rents in corn and taxes in money ” (Edd.), P Grenf I. 211% 
(B.C. 126) ὑπάρχοντά μοι πάντα σύμβο(λά) τε σιτικὰ [κα]ὶ 
ἀργυίρικά) ““41}1 contracts belonging to me of corn and of 
money,” OG/S 90% (the Rosetta stone, B.C. 196) δαπάνας 
ἀργυρικάς Te kal σιτικὰς peyddas: cf. BGU 1. 14%)? (a.p. 
255) λόγος ἀργυρικὸς λημμάτων Kal ἀναλωμάτων, 16. 151 15 
(A.D. 194) πράκτορα ἀργυρικῶν. 


In the marriage contract P Eleph 11 (Β.6. 311-10) 
(= Selections, p. 3) provision is made that in certain circum- 
stances the bridegroom shall repay the bride ἀργυρίου 
᾿Αλεξανδρείου (δραχμὰς) A, ‘1000 drachmas of Alexander’s 
coinage.” According to the editor, this is ‘‘perhaps the 
earliest documentary mention of Alexander’s coinage,” unless 
Syll 176 is about two years older. In P Amh II. 405 
(ii/B.c.) mention is made of a bribe consisting of ἀργυρίου 
σταί(τῆρας) ἢ», ‘eight staters of silver,” by means of which a 
certain Epiodorus secured a fresh division of land in the 
interests of the temple: of Socnopaeus. For a similar use 
of ἀργυρισμός and ἀργυρίζομαι see Wilcken Archiv iv. 
Ρ. 174. 


For this designation in Ac το 2" (cf. LXX Jud 174, Jer 639) 
ΟἹ Demetrius, who was probably master of the guild for the 
year, see Ramsay Ολ᾽ 85, p. 128, and cf. an order of pay- 
ment of early i/A.D. published by Milne amongst the Hawara 
Papyri, Archiv v. p. 382, no. 68, χρημάτισο(ν) "A [.. ] 
᾿Απολλωνίου ἀργυροκ[όπῳ], and BGU III. 781*¥-® (i/a.p.) 
ἄλλα (sc. πινάκια) ὠτία μὴ ἔχοντα, κατασκενασθέντα ἐν 
᾿Αρσινοίτηι διὰ ᾿Απολλωνίου ἀργ[υρο]κόπου, P Giss I. 47% 
(Hadrian) Διονυσζου τοῦ ἀργυροκόπου. P Flor I. γι" 59, 
P Oxy VIII. 114612, P Lond ο83} (ΞΞ III. p. 229) (all 
iv/A.p.), and Sy// 8731 (ἢ συνεργασία τῶν ἀργυροκόπων 
καὶ χρυσοχόων) also show it. For ἀργυροκοπεῖον see C/A 
11. 476°° (c. B.C. 100). 


The distinction between ἄργυρος “5. ver” and ἀργύριον 
“< silver used as money,” which in classical Greek has excep- 
tions on both sides, is generally observed in NT: ἀργύριον 
in 1 Cor 3!2 and ἄργυρος in Mt τοῦ are the only clear excep- 
tions. In the papyri ἄργυρος is as rare as ἀργύριον is 
ubiquitous. It figures frequently in P Leid X, a very long 
document dealing with metallurgical subjects (ili/iv A.D.). 
P Par 60 δὲ:33 (c. B.C. 200) has ἀργύρου στατήρων, and BGU 
IIT. g92it 52° (B.c. 160) χαλκοῦ πρὸς ἄργυρον, but in P 
Lips I. 6427 (iv/a.p.) &(py)vpov (curiously abbreviated) is 
“Geld”. Silverasa metal is thus the prevailing sense in the 
few occurrences we can report from papyri, while ἀργύριον 
for money appears many hundred times. The differentiation 
affects a well-known compound in C. and δ. no. 300" (ii. 
p. 466—Apamea) ἀργυριοταμιεύσαντα for dpyvpot. There 
are sundry derivatives of ἄργυρος, of which we might mention 
ἀργυρώνητος, occurring in P Said Khan 178 (B.c. 88) τὴν a. 
ἄμπελον, P Lond 1984 (A.D. 169-77) (= II. p. 173), BGU 
ΙΝ. 1105 (8.6. 11) καθυβράει Kal τὰς χεῖρας ἐπιφέρων 
χρῆται ὡς οὐδὲ ἀργυρῳνήτωι “treats me as he would not 

treat a thing he had bought ”—the reading is not certain. 



Αρεοπαγίτης 7 
In the LXX the disparity between the frequency of ἄργυρος 
and ἀργύριον is just what it is in papyri. In MGr ἄργυρος 
is the metal. 

The form ᾿Αρευπαγίτης is found Michel 68753 (end of 
ili/B.c.), 76. 8237 (B.C. 220). 


For the bad sense which prevails in classical writers 
(see Lightfoot on Col 119) a new literary citation may be 
made from Philodemus (i/B.c.) Ilept κολακείας (in Αἰ λείη. 
Mus. li. 623) ἄνευ τῆς τοιαύτης ἀρεσκείας. But P Oxy 
IV. 729%4 (A.p. 137) is a close parallel for Paul’s use: 
ποι]ήσονται τοὺς ποτισμοὺς τοῦ [κτή]ματος καὶ τῆς καλα- 
plelas] πεμπταίους πρὸς ἀρεσκί[αν] τοῦ Σαραπίωνος, “΄ they 
shall irrigate the vine-land and the reed-land every fifth day 
to the satisfaction of Sarapion” (Edd.). (We spell -ea on 
historical grounds, regarding the MSS. as inadequate wit- 
nesses for εἰ and u: see Proleg. p. 47). Deissmann BS p. 
224 cites an additional witness from an inscription, testifying 
with many passages in Philo to a use of ἀρέσκεια in a good 
sense—including even a relation towards God—wholly inde- 
pendent of NT. We may compare his inscription with a 
nearly identical phrase in Priene 1137 (i/B-C.) τελειῶν δ᾽ ὃ 
μετὰ ταῦτα χρόνος ἐθεωρεῖτο πρὸς τὴν εἰς τὸ πλῆθος] 


For the idea of service in the interests of others which 
underlies several of the NT occurrences of this verb 
(« Th 25, Rom 15, 1 Cor 10%), we may compare its use 
in monumental inscriptions to describe those who have 
proved themselves of use to the commonwealth, as OG/S 
641 (A.D. 246-7) ᾿Ιούλιον Αὐρήλιον. . . οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ 
κατελθόντες . . . ἀνέστησαν ἀρέσαντα αὑτοῖς, τειμῆς χάριν, 
ib. 646135 (iii/A.p.) Σεπτίμ[ιον Οὐορώδην] . . . ἀναλώσαντα 
καὶ ἀρέσαντα τῇ τε αὐτῇ βουλῇ καὶ τῷ δήμῳ. For ἃ wider 
sense see the interesting petition of a Jew of Alexandria in 
the 26th year of Augustus, who, after describing himself as 
μεταλαβὼν καθ᾽ ὃ δυνατὸν καὶ τῷ πατρὶ [τῆ]ς ἀρεσκούσης 
παιδείας, goes on to state that he runs the risk τῆς ἰδίας 
πατρίδος στερηθῆναι (BGU IV. 1140°*), In PSI 94° 
(ii/A.p.) a woman writes gratefully ὅτι ἤρεσε καὶ τῷ παιδὶ ἡ 
ποδίς, καὶ προσεδρεύει is τὰ μαθήματα: cf. BGU IV. 11417* 
(Aug.) ὡς δοῦλος ἐπ᾽ ἐλευθερίᾳ θέλει ἀρέσαι οὕτω κἀγὼ τὴν 
φιλίαν σου θέλων ἄμεμπτίον] ἐματὸν ἐτήρησα. In P Oxy 
VIII. 115325 (i/A.p.) a man sends his son ἃ piece of fabric, 
telling him to show it to a third man and write as to the 
colour, ἐὰν αὐτῷ ἀρέσκῃ. Similarly in P Giss I. 207 \ii/a.p.) 
ὁποῖον δέ σοι χρῶ[μ]α ἀρέσκει, [δήλω]σον δι᾿ ἐπι[σἸ]τολῆς 
ἢ μεικρὸν ἔρ[γο]ν αὐτοῦ π[έμψο]ν---α woman is writing to 
her husband about some wool she is working for him. 
(Ought we perhaps to supplement ἔρ[ιο]ν from the previous 
line, instead of ép[yo]v, ‘‘a little wool of that (colour) *’?) 
The same lady’s mother writes to the husband in 2213 
ταῦτα Kal θεοῖς [ἀρέ]σκε[ι}, but then unfortunately becomes 
illegible, though a small space suggests to the editor that the 
sentence ends there: in that case ταῦτα is her earnest wish 
to see her son-in-law safe home. The verb remains in the 



vernacular to-day with meaning unchanged, but (normally) 
a less irregular present ἀρέζω. 


The adj. is very common. P Hib I. 514 (p.c. 245) 
πριάμενος λάμβανε ἀρεστὰς τ[ι]μῶν ὑπογεγραμμένων, 
“ἐδοσερί, if satisfactory, and buy at the prices below 
written” (Edd.). P Grenf II. 2414 (B.c. 105) παρεχέσθω 
(sc. τὸν οἶνον) μόνιμον Kal ἀρεστὸν ἕως ᾿Αθὺρ a, “wine that 
will keep and be satisfactory till Athyr Ist.” P Ambh II. 
488 (B.C. 106) χορηγοῦντες κενώματα ἀρεστά, ““ providing 
acceptable vessels” (Edd.). In P Tebt II. 34217 (late 
ii/A.D.) a pottery is described as λίθοις ἀρεστοῖς ἐξηρτι- 
σί(μένον), “‘newly fitted with stones in good order”: so 33,3 
Cf. Syl 522%? (iii/B.c.) οἴνο[υ] παρέχειν ἀρεστόν, and for the 
adverb A/ichel 45615 ™ (ii/B.c.) ἀποδεδείχασιν of ἐπιμεληταὶ 
τῆι βουλ[ῆι] συντετελεσμένα πάντα τὰ ἔργα ἀρεστῶς, BGU 
IV. 11197! (B.C. 5) τὰ προσήκοντα ἔργα πάντα καθ᾽ ὥρα[ν] 
καὶ κατὰ καιρὸν ἀρεστῶς. The collocation of εὐάρεστος 
and δόκιμος in Kom 1475 is closely paralleled in P Amh 
II. 898 (A.D. 121) τὸ (2. Tov) δὲ ἀργυρικὸν φόρον δόκιμον 
ἄριστον (1. ἀρεστόν), if the editors’ certain emendation be 
accepted. So P Flor I. τῇ (A.D. 153) ἀργύριον δόκιμον 
νομειτευόμενον ἀρεστόν: P Lond 938° (A.v. 225) (=III. 


| Ρ- 150), αἰ. 


The form ‘Apéras (for rough breathing see WH 7»ν7.3 
Ρ- 313) instead of “Apé8as may, as Deissmann (AS p. 183 f.), 
following Schiirer Geschichte i. p. 738, has suggested, be due 
to a desire to Hellenize the barbaric name by assimilation to 


The limitation of this word to four occurrences in NT— 
and two of them in 2 Pet—may possibly be connected with 
the very width of its significance in non-Christian ethics : 
it had not precision enough for large use in Christian lan- 
guage. If Brugmann is right in connecting it with ἀρέ-σκω 
Kurzgef. vergl. Gr. p. 519), this vagueness was there from 
the first. Our ‘“‘ virtue” is too narrow for a word which had 
nearly all the forces of our adj. ‘‘ good”’: cf. Prof. G. Murray, 
Greek Epic, p. 57. Some ΚΚοινή instances may be quoted. 
P Hib I. 1585 8. (a rhetorical exercise, about B.c. 280-40) : 
the younger men are exhorted to employ their hodies 
εὐκαίρως τὴν ἀπόδειξιν ποιησαμένους τῆς αὐτῶν ἀρετῆς, “in 
a timely display of their prowess” (Edd.) In the ordinance 
of Ptolemy Euergetes II., P. Tebt I. 516° (8.6. 118), certain 
officials are warned not τὴν ἐν ἀρετῆι κειμένην βα(σιλικὴν) 
γῆν παραιρεῖσθαι τῶν γει. ἱργῶν) μηδὲ ἐπὶ ἐγλογῆι γεωργεῖν, 
“to take the richest Crown land from the cultivators by 
fraud or cultivate it at choice.” The editors quote Hesy- 
chius ἀρετῶσιν " ἀρεταίνωσιν, εὐδαιμονῶσιν, ἐν ἀρετῇ ὦσιν. 
It is thus possible that we have here earlier evidence for 
ἀρεταί = /audes in the LXX (see Deissmann BS p. 95f., 
Hort 7 Pet p. 128 f.), as if “land in esteem.” The other new 
meaning brought out by Deissmann (zéé sepa) ‘‘ manifestation 
of power” (as 2 Pet 18) may also be further illustrated. 
Thus in Sy// 784? (iv/B.c.) ᾿Αθηνάαι Μένεια ἀνέθηκεν ὄψιν 
ἰδοῦσα ἀρετὴν τῆς θεοῦ, Dittenberger quotes with approval 
Foucart’s definition of ἀρετή as signifying ‘‘ vim divinam 

ἀρὴν ͵ 

quae mirabilem in modum hominibus laborantibus salutem 
afferret.” Cf. 2, 806% (Crete, early Empire) πλείονας 
Gpeta[s τοῦ θεοῦ] and 74. 807° (c. ii/A.D.) where after a 
miraculous restoration of a blind man the people rejoice ὅτι 
ζῶσαι ἀρεταὶ ἐγένοντο ἐπὶ τοῦ Σεβαστοῦ ἡμῶν ᾿Αντωνείνου. 
There is suggestive force in this rejoicing of the pagan crowd 
to find that *‘ powers” of Asclepios were still ‘‘alive” in 
those dark days. 

A few miscellaneous references may be added. With the 
list of virtues in 2 Pet 1°f, cf. OGZS 438®® (i/B.c.) ἄνδρα 
ἀγαθὸν γενόμενον καὶ διενένκαντα πίστει καὶ ἀρετῇ Kal 
δ[ικ]αιοσύνῃ καὶ εὐσεβείαι καὶ περὶ το(ῦ κ)ο(ι)ν[οὔἹ] συν- 
φέροντος τὴν πλείστ[η]ν εἰσενηνεγμένον σπουδήν (see BS 
p- 360ff, ZLAZ p. 322). In the invitation to celebrate 
Hadrian’s accession to the Imperial throne, the new Emperor 
is described as one ὧι πάντα δοῦλα [δι ἀρετὴν κ[αὶ] πατρὸς 
τύχην θεοῦ (Ρ Giss I. 357). A sepulchral epigram from 
Hermupolis (PSI 17%, iii/A.p.) begins—[O]¥ yap ἐν ἀνθρώ- 
ποισιν ἐὼν ἐβάδιζεν ἐκείνην τὴν ὁδὸν ἣν ἀρετῆς οὐκ ἐκάθηρε 
θέμις. And in the later papyri the word is frequent as a 
title of courtesy, e.g. P Oxy I. 604 (A.D. 323) ἀκολούθως 
τοῖς κελευσθῖσι ὑπὸ τῆς ἀρετῆς τοῦ κυρίου pov διασημοτάτου 
ἡγεμόνος Σιαβινιανοῦ, 74, 7111.18 (A.p. 303) εἴ σου δόξειεν τῇ 
ἀρετῇ : cf. P Lips I. goii-2.iii 918 ‘iv/y a.p.), P Grenf II. 
go" (vi/A.D.) a’. The same usage is found in Jos. Av/t. xii. 
53: cf. our “ Excellency.” 


Of the nominative of this word (ξαρήν, declined accord- 
ing to the primitive model still normal in Sanskrit, and 
traced in κύων κυνός, caro carnis, etc.), we have no occur- 
rences except in early times (Attic, Coan and Cretan inscrip- 
tions): see Searles, Lexicograthical Study (Chicago, 1808), 
p- 21. The oblique cases, although there is only one occur- 
rence inthe NT (Lk τοῦ ἄρνας), are by no means obsolete 
in the Kow#: thus ἀρνός P Tebt I. 1178° (B.c. 99), and 
even P Lond 125 versu* (magical, v/A.D.) (=I. p. 123) 
αἵματι ἀ[ρ]νὸς μέλανος ; ἄρνες P Hib I. 32! (B.c, 246) : 
ἄρν(ασι) P Amh IT. 735 (A.D. 129-30) ; ἄρνας BGU TI. 1338 
(ii/a.D.), PSI 40% (a.p. 129), P Oxy I. 742 ete. (a.m, 116) ; 
PSI 568 (A.p. 107) ἄρνες, and so P Hawara 3228 (Antoninus) 
(in Archiv v. p. 394). Mayser’s instance from P Magd 214 
must be dropped: see the new edition. Aazlel 103858 
(Attalia, an oracle of Cybele) ὡ]ς dpva[s] κα[τ]έχουσι λύκοι : 
ef. Lk 10%. The replacing of this irregular noun by the only 
formally diminutive ἀρνίον is normal. The distinction in 
use between this word and ἀμνός seems beyond our power to 
trace: van Herwerden (s.v. ἀρήν) cites a grammarian who 
makes this a lamb less than a year old, ἀμνός one over 
a year. 


The ordinary use of the verb is for ‘“‘payment”: cf. 
P Giss 1. 85 (A.D. 119) τὴϊν συμ]φωνηθεῖαν (1. -σαν) τιμὴν 
τῷ ᾿Απολλωνίῳ ἀρ[ιθ]μήσας, 1 Oxy IIT. 486% (a.p. 131) 
ἀριθμήσασα τιμὴν αὐτῶν, P Lille 1. 34 (ifter B.c. 240) 
καλῶς ποι(ήσεις) [συ]ντάξας ἀρ[ι]θμῆσαι ἡμῖν τὸ γινόμενον 
ὀψώνιον] τοῦ «Λωίο[υ μ]ηνός, α΄. In P Leid ΟἹ 19 (p, 118) 
(the dream of Ptolemaeus, ii/B.C.) οἴομαι ἀρειθμεῖν με seems 
to refer to ‘‘counting” days: ten lines higher the verb 
means ‘*pay.” BGU II. 6205 (ii/A.D.) ἠριθμήθημεϊν has a 


lacuna following, but has reference apparently to numeration. 
The subst. ἀρίθμησις occurs in P Kyl 11. 9915 (iii/A.D.) 
διαγράψω... ταῖς εἰθισμέναις ἀριθμήσεσιν ‘in the customary 
instalments” (Edd.). It is common in the phrase εἰς ἀρίθμησιν 
μηνός, as BGU I. 25%, 41° (both ii/iii A.p.), Precsigke 1090° 
(ostracon, A.D. 161). There is a further derivative ἀριθμητι- 
κός : Wilcken (Osér. i. p. 351, cf. Archiv iv. p. 174) makes 
τὸ ἀ. an impost for the maintenance of the ἀριθμηταί, but 
GH (P Tebt II. p. 197) regard it rather as a tax on land: 
cf. BGU I. 236%, 3307 (both ii/a.p.). It is MGr, as is 
ἀριθμός. We may take the opportunity of noting the 
remarkable parallel to Mt 10%°, Lk 127 in the new fragment 
of Alcaeus (vii/vi B.c.), P Oxy X. 1233, fr. 81° . .Js mapa 
μοῖραν Alos οὐδὲ τριχί . . (see the note). 


P Petr IT. 1613. (middle 111,..6.) (= Witkowski®, p. 12) 
ἠκούσαμεν ἀριθμὸν ἔσεσθαι ἐκ τῶν ᾿Αρσινοε[ίω]ν, P Gen I. 
1622 (A.D. 207) τοὶ τούτου ἀδελφοὶ ὄντες τὸν ἀριθμὸν πέντε. 
For the LXX ἀριθμῷ = ‘‘few” in Num 929, Ezek 1216 
(Thackeray, Ο. 7. Gram. p. 39), cf. P Oxy IV. 7427 (B.c. 2) 
(= Witkowski’, p. 128) παράδος δέ τινι τῶν φίλων ἀριθμῳ 
αὐτάς (sc. δεσμάς), ‘deliver a few of them,” rather than 
‘‘deliver them accurately counted” (as Wilcken αὐ. Wit- 
kowski). But note the combination in P Oxy X. 1270%6 
(A.D. 159) ἀριθμῷ πλήρϊεις : so 20. 127374 (A.D. 260) with 
ἀριθμοῦ, and 126129 (A.p, 325). Another use appears in BGU 
IV. 108525 (A.D. 171) where P. M. Meyer restores περὶ τῶν... 
ἀρι]θμῷ τριάκοντα ἔντυχε τῷ στρατηγῷ] : ἀριθμῷ is ““α kind 
of rubric ”—‘‘ heading πο. 30,” or the like. ΟΟ15. 266° 
(iii/B.c). ὑπὲρ τῶν τὸν ἀριθμὸν ἀποδόντων τὸν κύριον, ‘as 
regards those who had completed the fixed number of years.” 
It may be worth while to call attention to Wessely’s paper on 
Gnostic numbers in the 4/z/¢hezJungen of the Rainer Collection 
1.1. p. 113 ff.: thus 99 is the ἀριθμός of ἀμήν (a + p+ ἡ Ἐν -- 
99) and the mystic ᾿Αβρασάξ is the number of the year, since 
its letters numerically total 365 (see P Leid W*¥-%). For 
the application of this principle to the ‘‘ nuniber” of the Beast 
(Rev 1318), with illustrations from Greek graffit2 from Pompeii 
(so before A.D. 79), see Deissmann LAZ p. 276f.: one of 
them is φιλῶ ἧς ἀριθμὸς dpe, “1 love her whose number is 
545.” The case for a Greek rather than a Hebrew gematria 
in a Greek book is undeniably strong. Deissmann, /.c. refers 
to the dictionaries under todos. We may cite from 
Cagnat IV. 7437 (= C. and B. no. 232—a metrical epitaph 
by a Jew of the time of Alexander Severus) a good instance 
of the gematria in Greek—todynpos δυσὶ τούτοις Γάιος ὡς 
ἅγιος ὡς ἀγαθὸς προλέγω : both adjectives total 284, agree- 
ing with the number of his own name. 


For the phrase ἐξ ἀριστερῶν (as Lk 2535} cf. P Ryl IT. 
15347 (A.D. 138-61), BGU I. 8657 (ii/a.v.), P Gen I. 434 
(A.D. 226). The adj., it need hardly be said, is very common 
in the personal descriptions of appellants, witnesses, etc., in 
legal documents. Cf. also for the sake of the curious side- 
light which it throws upon the daily life of Arsinoe the com- 
plaint which a woman lodges against Petechon, the male 
attendant in the women’s baths, that he threw hot water over 
her and κατέκαυσεν τήν τε κοιλίαν Kal τὸν ἀριστερὸν μηρὸν 

ἕως τοῦ γόνατος (P Magd 33 recto’, B.c. 221). The adj. is 
sull in use. 

A widely spread name: cf. Michel 3725 (Leros, ii/B.c.), 
7b. 59429 (Delos, B.C. 279), Magn 3044, Priene 313°. 


P Oxy III. 51917 (ii/A.D.) παιδίοις ἀρίστου ὀβί(ολοὶ) > is 
presumably the account of a meal, which from the price was 
probably a light one! So 26. 1V.736*8 (c. A.D. 1) πράσων 
ἀρίστῳ γερδί(ου) (ὀβολός) ‘leeks for the weaver’s breakfast ” 
(Edd.). P Tebt I. 112 introd.?? (B.c. 112) ἀρίστου σὺν 
᾿“Ἡλιοδώ(ρωι) ᾿Αθηί ) K, 26. 1τ688 (late ii/B.c.) σῦκα ἐπὶ 
ἀρίστου t. A more considerable meal seems intended in 
P Tebt I. 1208 (i/B.c.) els τὸ Ἰσιῆν τοῦ ἀρίστ[ο]υ te—it 
was a repast in the temple of Isis. 20. 121% (i/B.c.) ὄψου 
ἔπ᾽ ἀρίστῳ —. We have not noticed the verb ἀριστάω. 


To the occurrences of this rare word we can now add 
BGU I. 33° (ii/iii A.D.) περὶ τῶν λοιπῶν] ἔργων σου ἀρκετὸς 
y[elvod. We seem to have the adverb in the mutilated 
conclusion of BGU II. 5314-24 (ii/a.p.) ἐὰν δὲ. ol | 
apkeros [ἔϊχηι [. .- . Vettius Valens, p. 304%, has καὶ ἣν 
ἀρκετὸν κατὰ τοὺς λοιποὺς ἐᾶσαι. Aaibel Praef. 288c\° 
shows ἀρκετὰ tpt[—these three deaths suffice: the god is 
entreated to be satisfied. (The word is MGr.) 


For an impersonal use of ἀρκέω, as in Jn 145, see Τ 
Lond 9641* (ii/iii A.D.) (= III. p. 212) λαβὼν κοτύλας 
τ[όϊσας φακῶν ἵνα ἀρκέσ[ῃ] ἡ[μ]ῖν, and cf. the late P Oxy I. 
1311! (vi/vii A.D.) where, with reference to a disputed in- 
heritance, it is stated that a father bequeathed half an acre 
of his land to a son, saying that it ‘‘is enough” for him— 
ὅτι ἀρκεῖ αὐτῷ Td ἡμιαρούριον. For the middle and passive, 
cf. P Giss I. 6815 8. (ii/A.D.) ἠγόρασα yap ἐνθάδε τριακοσίων 
δραχμῶν κ[α]ὶ οὐκ ἀρκεῖται, and P Goodsp 5% (ii/A.D.) 
ἀρκουμένων ἡμῶν τῇδε τῇ διαστολ(ῇ) with the simple 
dative, as Lk 315: so P Lips I. 334 (a.p. 368) Νεμεσίλλᾳν 
καὶ Διονυϊσίαν] ἀρκεσθῆναι προ[ι]ξεὲὲ β[ο]υλόμενος, CP 
Herm 91 οὐδὲ τούτοις ἀρκεσθέντες, αἰ. It has ἐπί ᾽ς 3 Jn!) 
in P Lond 451" (B.c, 160-59) (= I. p. 36) οὐκ ἀρκεσθέντες 
ἐφ᾽ ols ἦσαν διαπεπραγμένοι, and P Tor I. 111:18 (p.c. 116) 
(= Carest II. p. 32) οὐκ ἀρκεσθέντες δὲ ἐπὶ τῶι ἐνοικεῖν ἐν 
τῆι ἐμῆι οἰκίαι, ἀλλὰ καὶ κτλ. (indic.). Add P Amh 11. γγ,}9 
(A.D. 139) πλείσίτ]α[ιἰς πληγαῖς pe ἠκίσατο, καὶ μὴ 
ἀρκεσθε[λ]ς ἐπή[ν]εγκέ μοι KTA., P Ryl 11. 145}9 (Α.Ὁ. 38) ἔτι 
καὶ μὴ ἀρκ[εσ]θεὶς κτλ., ‘not content with heaping insults 
on my dependants,” etc. (Edd.) (following a present pte.), 
P Oxy I. 114" (ii/ili A.D.) ἐὰν οὖν μὴ ἀρκεσθῇ τὸ κέρμα, ‘if 
the cash is not sufficient.” With the last citation under 
ἀρκετός cf. Aaibe/ 4137 ἄρκεο μοῖρα θανόντι νέω[ι]. 


“Apxos for ἄρκτος, as in Rev 1535 (cf. τ Regn 1735) is found 
in the later inscriptions, as in a Praenestine mosaic, 7GS7 
1302 (= C/G 111. 61316) (time of Hadrian ?) : cf. 74. 2325, 
2328, 2334. The still more contracted ἄρξ occurs in the 



« , 
Silko inscription OG/ZS 20117 (vi/A.D.), ἐγὼ yap els κάτω 
μέρη λέων εἰμί, kal εἰς ἄνω μέρη ἄρξ εἰμί : where see Dit- 
tenberger’s note. MGr ἀρκούδα ‘‘she-bear,” as Thumb 

remarks, owes its origin to this by-form: he also (Hazdb. 
Ῥ. 320) gives ἄρκος as current in Pontus. 


P Petr. II. 25(a)® εἰς ἅρματα τὰ ἀκολουθοῦντα αὐτῶι. 
OGTS 5331 (i/B.C.) ἁρμάτων καὶ κελ[ή] τ)ων. A/agn 127" 
(i/B.c.) ἅρματι τελείωι. A half-literary citation from P 
Giss I. 3 may be permitted in view of the interest of the 
document, which is a call to celebrate the accession of 
Hadrian. The sun-god Phcebus Apollo is the speaker, and 
announces himself as having just come from accompanying 
Trajan on high in his white-horsed chariot— 

“Ἄρματι λευκοπώλωι ἄρτι Τραϊαν[ῶι] 
συνανατείλας ἥκω σοι, ὦ δῆμ[ε], 
οὐκ ἄγνωστος Φοῖβος θεὸς ἄνα- 
κτα καινὸν ᾿Αδριανὸν ἀγγελῶν]. 


We tave found no direct parallel ἴῃ the Κ οινή to the use of 
ἡρμοσάμην in 2 Cor 117, where the middle is probably used 
purposely to bring out the Apostle’s deep Zersonal interest 
in this spiritual προμνηστική (see Pro/eg. p. 160) ; but the 
use of μνηστεύεσθαι in P Flor I. 364 (iv/a.p. zit.) of a 
mother making a match (μνηστευσαμένου pov) for her son 
with a cousin, is essentially on the same lines. In P Oxy VI, 
906? (a deed of divorce, ii/iii A.D.) it is provided that the 
separating parties shall be free to marry as they choose 
without incurring any penalty—dé1d δὲ τοῦ νῦν ἐξεῖναι τῷ 
Διογένει καὶ τῇ ΠΠλουτάρχῃ ἑκάτερος αὐτῶν ἁρμόζεσ[θαι] ὡς 
ἐὰν αἱρῆται γάμῳ ἀνευθύνῳ ὄντι. In ΜΟΥ ἁρμοστός-ἡ is the 
name of a betrothed pair. Cf. also Aristeas 250 πῶς 
ἁρμόσαι γυναικί (where the fact that the archaic optative is 
“incorrect” does not justify the editors in inserting ἄν). 

In the active the verb is common = ‘‘to be suitable, 
fitting.” P Fay 12% (c B.C. 103) περὶ αὐτῶν γ]ενομένης 
[ἀἸνάγκης ἁρμοζούσης διὰ δημοσίων, “suitable pressure 
being applied on this account by public officials” (Edd.). 
OGTS 335'® (ii/i B.c.) τοὺς ἁρ]μόζοντας λόγους, 24. 383°5 
(i/B.C.) ὡς ἥρμοζεν ἕκαστος. BGU IV. 1120% (B.c. 5) τὴν 
ἁρμόζουσαν ἐπιμέλ(ειαν). P Lond 256 recto? (A.D. 11-5) 
(=II. p. 97) τοῖς ἁρμόζουσι [κατὰ καιρὸν σπέρ]μασι. 
P Giss I 67° (ii/a.D.) δι ἧς (sc. ἐπιστολῆς) τὰ πρέποντά 
cov τῇ ἀξίᾳ Kal [τῷ] ἤθει ἁρμόζοντά δηλοῖς. P Lips 1. 
381.3 (A.D. 390) at ἐκ νόμων ἁρμό! ζἸουσαι δικαιο[λ Joylat, etc. 
The prominence of the participle reminds us of our own 
fitting: it has its adverb ἁρμοζόντως, as in P Par 631-77 
(ii/B.c.), Tots καιροῖς πρεπόντως καὶ τοῖς ἀν[θρ]ώποις appo- 
ἵόντως, Sy// 2589 (c. B.C. 200) ἁρμοζόντοις (/. -ws) ty τοῖς 
(4. rot) ψαφίσματι γεγραμμένοις. On the forms ἁρμόζειν 
and -ττειν, see Cronert Wem. Herc. pp. 135, 245: the former 
is the true Hellenistic. 


Syl 538° (2 B.c. 353) συντιθέντα τοὺς ἁρμοὺς στερίφους, 
ἁρμόττοντας πανταχῆι, of the walls of ἃ temple. 170. 540108 
(B.C. 175-1) ἐκ τοῦ προσιόντος ἁρμοῦ : see Dittenberger’s 
note. The word occurs in connexion with wrenching limbs 
out of their sockets (ἐξ ἁρμῶν ἀναμοχλεύοντες) in 4 Macc 10°. 

ἀρνέομαι ἵ 


Syll 35655 (B.c. 6—a letter of Augustus) αὐτὸς μὲν γὰρ 
ἐνέμεινεν ἀρνούμενο[ς] ‘persisted in his denial.” OG/S 48451 
(ii/A.D.) ἅπερ ἀρνουμένων αὐτῶν ἡδέως ἐπίστευον. For the 
aor. midd. (rare in Attic: cf. Veitch Grk Verbs s.v.) cf. 
BGU 1. 195 (ii/A.D.) ὑπὲρ δὲ τοῦ μὴ ἀρνήσασθαι ἐφ᾽ ἑκάστῳ 
τοῦτον .. ., P Flor I. 611}: 49 (4.D. 86-8) ἠρνήσατο οὗτος 
[τὴ]ν κλη[ρ]ονομίαν τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ ἐγὼ τὴν (these three 
words interlineated) τοῦ ἰδίου πατρός. See also Helbing 
Gr. p. 99, and Mayor £/. of Jude, p. 72, where it is stated 
that ἀρνέομαι (denego) with acc. of a person (‘‘to disown”) 
is unclassical, and seems to be confined to Christian literature. 
The verb is MGr. 


P Theéad 814 (A.D. 306) ἀρνία ἐνιαύσια,15 ἀρνία καὶ ἐρύφια. 
BGU II. 3775 7 (early vii)A.p.), with other animal names, 
many in the -tov form—kKapyAt(a), ὀρνίθ(ια), perh. χοίρ(ια), 
ete. P Strass I. 247% (A.p, 118) ἀρνίων ἐπιγονῆ(ς) . - - 
ἀριθμῶι ἀρνίω(ν). P Gen I. 687 (Α.Ὁ. 382) ἀρνία ἕνδεκα. 
Its choice by the author of the Apocalypse as an exclusive 
term, for very frequent use, is part of a general tendency of 
the vernacular, in which nouns in -ίον multiplied fast: it is 
interesting to note that he has followed that tendency much 
earlier than our papyrus writers did in the case of this word. 
The complete absence of diminutive force in ἀρνίον as 
against ἀρήν may be noted. (MGr ἀρνί.) 


is found P Petr IIT. 317 τοῦ ζεύγους τῶν βοῶν μου πορενο- 
μένου ἐπὶ τῆς βασιλικῆς ὁδοῦ ὥστε ἀροτριᾶν. It is some- 
times replaced by ὑποσχίζω, see the editors’ note on P Lond 
1170 verso*® (A.D. 258-9) (=III. p. 200). The verb is 
found in the derived sense of ‘‘ devise,” like Heb. vin, in 
Sir 74: 


occurs in P Rein 1739 (B.c. 109) ἄροτρον ἃ ζυγὸν ἃ (or 
ἄροτρον ἄζυγον a), P Flor II. 134! (A.D. 260) τὸ ταυρικὸν 
ἅμα τῷ ἀρότρῳ, P Strass I. 32° (a business letter, A.D. 261) 
Mécéipov . . . ἀπέστειλα πρὸς σέ, ἵνα αὐτῷ ἄροτρον γένηται. 
᾿Αροτήρ (contracted dp’) is found in P Lond 2572 (a.p. 
94) (=II. p. 26): cf OGZS 5197! (iii/A.D.) τοὺς ἀροτῆρας 
βόας, where Dittenberger refers to Hesiod Of. 405 βοῦν 
ἀροτῆρα. MGr ἀλέτρι starts from ἀρέτριον, as Prof. humb 


Syll 928% (Magnesia, 11,8... 227.) ἢ τῶν κτηνῶν ἁρπαγὴ 
γεγενημένη. BGU IIT. 871° (ii/A.p.) β[ας καὶ ἁρπαγ[ῆΞ]. 
P Lips I. 645) (c. A.D. 368) δι᾽ ἁρπαγῆς. 


occurs in the MS. of Vettius Valens, p. 1221, ἐὰν "Ἄρης 
κληρώσηται τὸν δαίμονα, Σελήνη δὲ τὸν γαμοστόλον, ἁρπαγ- 
pos ὁ γάμος ἔσται. Kroll says “‘nempe ἁρπάγιμος,᾽" but 
why not render ‘‘the marriage will be one of force,” or 
perhaps ‘‘will be a great catch”? The closely parallel 
ἅρπαγμα, which modern commentators generally regard as 
a practical synonym of the rare ἁρπαγμός in Phil 25, may be 
cited from a magical text. The leaden tablet from Adru- 


metum, printed with a commentary by Deissmann, BS pp. 
274-300, and with slightly amended text by Wiinsch 47 
no. 5, has in 1. 3, δι’ ὃν ὁ λείων ἀφείησιν τὸ ἅρπασμα, the 
noun denoting the lion’s ‘*‘ prey” as in LXX of Ezek 2235, 
One apt though not exact literary parallel seems to have 
escaped Lightfoot’s net: Pindar Pyth 855 ἁρπαλέαν δόσιν 
“‘a gift to be eagerly seized” (Gildersleeve, who compares 
Phil ἃ c.), ‘the keen-sought prize” (Myers). This comes 
very near to the meaning 7s vapzenda (rather than ves rapa) 
by which ἁρπαγμόν seems best explained if really equivalent 
to ἅρπαγμα “spoil, prize.” Against the solitary profane 
instance of ἁρπαγμός, in Plutarch 2. 12 A τὸν ἐκ Κρήτης 
καλούμενον ἁ., “‘seizme, rape,” may be set a very close 
parallel also quoted by Lightfoot, οὐκ ἐστὶν ἁρπαγμὸς 7 
τιμή (from a ca/ena on Mk τοῦ! 5). Without discussing 
the crux interpretum, we might supply a list of the -pés 
nouns parallel to apmaypes in formation, as found in 
NT, such as may be cited to support the practical 
identity of 4. with ἅρπαγμα, and its distinctness from it, 
respectively. (1) Nouns which are or may be passive, like 
ἅρπαγμα = τὸ ἁρπακτόν or τὸ ἁρπακτέον : ὑπογραμμός, 
ψαλμός, θερισμός, ἱματισμός, ἐπισιτισμός, χρηματισμός. 
In these the abstract has become concrete, as our w77/z2, 
clothing, warning have done, so that they are what the 
noun in -4a would have been. (Brugmann-Thumb pp. 218, 
222, defines the -μός and -μή nouns and the -μα as ‘verbal 
abstracts” and ‘*nomina actionis” respectively ; but both 
““partially pass into names of things.”) (2) By far the 
larger number, some forty or more, denote the action of the 
verb— βρυγμός ‘‘enashing,” σεισμός “shaking,” which in 
concrete development produces ἀσπασμός ‘‘a greeting,” 
δεσμός “chain,” etc. The statement that Plut. J/or. p. 12 
is ‘the only instance of its use noted in prof. auth.” as a 
matter of fact overlooks an instance of the identical ἁρπα- 
σμός given in Wyttenbach’s zzdex verborum—viz. p. 644 A 
(Symposiaca 11. 10), where ὑφαίρεσις Kal ἁρπασμὸς Kal 
χειρῶν ἅμιλλα καὶ διαγκωνισμός are mentioned as conduct 
not tending to friendliness or convivial enjoyment ; we may 
render ‘‘snatching and grabbing, fisticuffs and elbowing.” 
Here again, therefore, the word is a zomen actzonis, as in 
the other Plutarch passage. 


P Lond 3578 (A.D. 14-5) (=II. p. 166) ἁρπάσαι τὰ 
ἐπιβάλλοντα. OG/S 66518 (A.D. 49) ὅτι ἀναλίσκεταί τινα 
ἁρπαϊζόντων ἀδεῶς τῶν ἐπὶ ταῖς χρείαις. In P Par 688t (a 
document relating to the Jewish war of Trajan, ii/A.D.) we 
have τινὰς ἐπὶ κωστωδίαν ἥρπασαν Kal [τοὺς ἁρπασθέν- 
tlas ἐτραυμάτισαν : cf. BGU I. 3413, which deals with the 
same events, ἐκ κωστω]δίας ἥρπασαν. In |. 13 of the last 
papyrus ἡρπάγησαν is the true reading: see Berichtigungen 
p- 359. A common use may be illustrated by the petition 
ΒΟ. III. 759% (A.p. 125) ὅπως παραστήσω[σ]ι τοὺς 
αἰτ[ί(ους Kal] ἀποτείσωσι τὰ ἡρπασμένα. According to 
Wilcken (47chzv i. p. 164) the verb is to be understood 
causatively in P Lond 4081: (c. A.D. 346) (=II. p. 284) 
ἥρπαξας αὐτοὺς ὡς ἐν ἀνομίᾳ, ‘du hast sie pliindern lassen.” 
On this general tendency, cf. Hatzidakis £72/. p. 200 f. 
For ἁρπάζω, used of death, see the epitaph in BCH xxvii. 
Ρ- 370, no. 101, ὑπὸ σκορπίου ἡρπά[σθ]η. The compound 
ἀφαρπάζω is found P Oxy I. 37}}7 (A.D. 49) τὸ σωμάτιον 


ἀφήρπασεν, “carried the foundling off,” P Strass I. 515 
(A.D. 262) τὰ τετράποδα τὰ ἡμέτερα ἀφήρπασία]ν. and 
often in petitions complaining of robbery. For the double 
conjugation of this and similar verbs—due to the fact that 
both dental and guttural before -Ύω will make -f®—see 
Proleg. p. 56. The verb survives in MGr. 


Deissmann (1.4.8 p. 321 π ἢ) notes that ἅ. was current as 
a loan-word in Latin comedy: in Paul ‘‘it should probably 
not be translated ‘robber’ but rendered by some other word 
like ‘swindler’ (‘ extortioner,’ AV, RV).” 

ἀρραβών. / 

A word of undoubted Semitic origin (Ileb. pay, cf. 
Lagarde A/ittei/, I. p. 212, Lewy Hremdwirter p. 120), 
spelt ἀρραβών and ἀραβών : see Pro/eg. p. 45 and Thackeray 
Gr. I. p. 119, and cf. P Lond 3341" * (a.p. 166) (=II. 
p- 211 f.), where both forms occur. The meaning of 
‘*earnest-money” (Scoftice ‘‘arles”’) is well illustrated by 
P Par 581 (ii/B.c.) (= Witkowski 3, p. 81), where a woman 
who was selling a cow received 1000 drachmas as ἀραβῶνα. 
Similarly P Lond 143}5 (a.D. 97) (ΞΞ 11. p. 204), a receipt 
for 160 drachmas, being the residue of the earnest-money 
(200 drachmas) for 234, arourae of land, ἀπὸ λόγου appa- 
βῶνος κλήρου κτλ., P Fay gt! (A.D. 99) ἀργυρίου Spax [pds] 
ϑέκα ἕξ appaBova ἀναπόριφον, “τό drachmae of silver as 
unexceptionable earnest-money” (Edd.), P Oxy II. 2995’: 
(late i/A.D.) Λάμπωνι μνυοθηρευτῇ ἔδωκα αὐτῷ διὰ σοῦ 
ἀραβῶνα (δραχμὰς) ἢ ἵνα μυοθηρεύσει ἔντοκα, “‘regarding 
Lampon the mouse-catcher I paid him for you as earnest 
money 8 drachmae in order that he may catch the mice 
while they are with young” (Edd.), 2. VI. 920%? (ii/iii 4.D.) 
is Ady(ov) apaBa(vos) στρουτί(οῦ) (“ostrich”) (δραχμαὶ) iB, 
Syll 2263 (Olbia, iii/B.c.) ἐνέγκας εἰς τὴν ἐκλησίαν χρυσοῦς 
πεντακοσίους εἰς τοὺς ἀρραβῶνας. Additional examples are 
Ostr 1168, P Magd 26° (B.c. 217), P Lond 12290}5 (Α.Ὁ. 
145) (=III. p. 143), 2d. 1170 verso 1533 (A.D. 258-9) (= III. 
p- 196), BGU I. 2408 (ii/a.p.), 26. 11. 601" (ii/A.D.), and 
P Grenf II. 6717 © (a.D. 237) (= Se/ectzons, p. 109) where in 
the engagement of certain dancing girls for a village festival 
provision is made that they are to receive so many drachmas 
ὑπὲρ ἀραβῶνος [τῇ τ]ιμῇ ἐλλογουμέν[ο]υν, “by way of 
earnest-money to be reckoned in the price.” The above 
vernacular usage amply confirms the NT sense of an 
“earnest,” or a part given in advance of what will be 
bestowed fully afterwards, in 2 Cor 1%", 5°, Eph 14 

It may be added that in MGr ἡ ἀρραβωνι(α)σμένη = 
“the betrothed bride,” ‘‘an interesting reminiscence,” as 
Abbott (Songs, p. 258) remarks, ‘‘of the ancient custom of 
purchasing a wife.” In the same way ἥ ἀρραβῶνα is used 
for ‘the engagement-ring.” In the island of Cyprus we 
find the form ἀραῶνα (Thumb e//e7., p. 23). 


is common in sacred inscriptions, e. g. A/ichel 99271 (Man- 
tinea, B.C. 61) ἐσκέπασεν kal εὐσχημόνισεν τὰ περὶ τὰν 
θεὸν ἄρρητα μυστήρια. The word is thus associated with 
the Mysteries, and in 2 Cor 124 (ἄρρητα ῥήματα) suggests 
words too sacred to be uttered. Vettius Valens p. 19! has 
περὶ τὰ ἄρρητα ποιητικαί. P Leid W*" 16, with κρυπτόν. 




SyiZ 8 5817 (Delphi, in dialect, ii/B.c.) ἀτελὴς ἁ ὠνὰ ἔστω, 
εἰ μὴ ἄρρωστος γένοιτο Σιῶσος. 
noticed any instance of the adj. in the papyri, but both verb 
and subst. are common. For the verb cf. P Petr I. 30(1)4 
(middle of iii/B.c.) (= Witkowski *, p. 5) τὸν ὄν[τ]α ἐν 
Μέμφει ἀρρωστοῦντα, P Hib I. 731° (B.c. 243-2) εἰ οὖν μὴ 
ἠρρωστήσαμεν, P Par 4051 (B.c. 164-58) (= Witkowski *, 
P- 71) ἀγωνιῶ, μή ποτε ἀρ[ρ]ωστεῖ τὸ παιδάριον, P Kyl II. 
6δ15 (B.c, 89) ὥ[στε] διὰ τὰς πληγὰς ἀρρωστήσασα κατα- 
κεῖσαι (2. 6. -σθαι) κινδυνεύουσα τῶι βίωι (which shows that 
ἀ. may represent something very serious), BGU IV. 1125 
(time of Augustus) ἃς (sc. ἡμέρας) δὲ ἐὰν ἀρτακτήσηι (/. 
ἀτακτήσηι) HL ἀρρωστήσηι. For the subst. see the very 
interesting petition which the priests of the temple at 
Socnopaei Nesus present to the Strategus, asking for certain 
favours at his hands, seeing that ‘‘in his sickness” he was 
healed by their σοα-- ἐπεὶ οὖν σέσωσαι ἐν τῆι ἀρρωστίαι 
ὑπὸ τοῦ Σοκνοπαῖτος θεοῦ μεγάλου (P Amh II. 3553, B.c. 
132), also P Tebt I. 445 ζ (B.C. 114) χάριν τῆς περιεχούσης 
με ἀρρωστίας, ‘on account of the sickness from which I am 
suffering,” 70. 521° (c. B.c. 114) δι pe (/. διὰ τό pe) ἐν 
βαρυ[τέϊρᾳ (see Proleg. p. 78) ἀρρωστίᾳ κῖσ[θαι] ἐνδεὴς 
οὖσα τῶν ἀναγ[καίων], “since I am seriously ill, being in 
want of the necessaries of life” (Edd.), and P Hawara 
5615 δ. (probably late i/A.D.) (= Archiv v. p. 382) μαρτυρήσει 
δέ σί(οι) [1]σίδωρος, ὅτι ἀρρωστίαν ἰσοθάνατο(ν) [ἐξ]ήν- 
τλησα. See also 5y/// 490° (iii/B.C.) ἐν[π]ετόϊν]των πολλῶν 
ἄγίαν ὀλεθρί)ων Γἀρρω]στίηἹμάτων καὶ τῶν ἰατρῶν τῶν 
[δαμ])οσ{ιευόν]των ἐν Tat πόλει ἀρρωσστησάντων. The adj. 
is MGr, as are the derived verb and noun. 

We do not happen to have 


According to Nageli (p. 46) this word is first found among 
the poets of the Imperial period, e. g. Epigr. adesp. Az¢hol. 
Pal. 1X. 686°. Cf. for the verb Or. Szé. ii. 73 μὴ ἀρσενοκοι- 
τεῖν, μὴ συκοφαντεῖν, μήτε φονεύειν. 


The form ἄρσην, which WH read throughout, is illus- 
trated by P Oxy IV. 744° (B.c. 1) (=Se/ections, p. 33) 
where with reference to the birth of a child it is directed 
ἐὰν ἣν (ὁ ἢ) ἄρσενον ἄφες, ἐὰν ἦν (/. ἦ) θήλεα ἔκβαλε: 
cf. also P Gen I, 355 (A.D. 161) κ[αμήλους] [τε]λείους 
ἄρσενας δύο λευκούς. In P Oxy I. 3717 (A.D. 49) (= Selec- 
tions, p. 49) we have ἀρρενικὸν σωμάτιον, but in 74. 387 
(a document dealing with the same incident, A.D. 49-50) 
(= Selections, p. 53) it is ἀρσενικὸν σωμάτιον. For ἄρρην 
see further CPR 2813 (A.D. 110) τῶν δὲ ἀρρένων υἱῶν, BGU 
I, 885 (A.D. 147) κάμηλ(ον) ἄρρενον [A]evkdy, P Strass 1. 30! 
(A.D. 276) ἀρρενικὰ ἑπτά, P Lond 461% (magic, iv/a.D.) 
(=I. p. 68) θῆλυ καὶ ἄρρεν. Ostr 1601 has παιδίου 
ἀρσενικοῦ : cf. P Oxy IX. 1216" (iiili A.D.) q Kal ἀρσε- 
νεικὸν ἡμῖν ἀφίκαταί[ι :), “Have you produced us a male 
child?” (Ed.), and the MGr ἀρσενικός. There is an im- 
portant investigation into the rationale of the variation 
between po and pp in the Κοινή in Wackernagel He//enistica, 
p. 12ff.: also see Thumb Hedlen., p. 77 f. A further ortho- 
graphic difference appears in P Petr III. 59 ὁ (iii/ii 8.6.) 
σώματα ἐρσενικά : see other instances, and a discussion on 

ἀρτέμων 80 

dialect points involved, in Mayser Gr. p. 5; and cf. Thumb’s 
Gr, Dial. (index s.v. ἔρσην). 


What particular sail is to be understood by ἀ. in Ac 274° 
is uncertain. Sir W. M. Ramsay (Hastings’ D&B V. p. 399) 
refers to the case mentioned by Juvenal (Sa¢ 1259) where a 
disabled ship made its way into harbour welo prorva suo, 
which the scholiast explains avtemone solo. According to 
this, the ἀρτέμων would be a sail set on the bow. See also 
Breusing Die Nautik der Alten, p. 79 f. (cited by Preuschen, 
ad Ac 274° in HZN7). 


For ἄρτι οἵ strictly present time (as Gal 19, r Th 35, etc.) 
cf. BGU II. 594° (c. a.p. 70-S0) λ]έγων ὅτι μετὰ τὸν 
θερισμὸϊν ἐργολ]αβήσομα[ι], ἄρτι yap ἀσθενῶν, P Lond 
937 ὁδ1 (iii/A.p.) (- 111. p. 213) δικάζομαι χάριν τῶν τοῦ 
ἀδελφοῦ μου καὶ οὐ δύναμαι ἄρτι ἐλθεῖν πρὸς σ[έ], Syl 
3878 Α.Ὁ. 127—a rescript of Hadrian) δίκαια ἀξιοῦν μοι 
δοκεῖτε καὶ ἀναγκαῖα ἄΓρ]τι ye-vopévy πόλει: Stratonicea 
(in Lydia) was just ‘‘incorporated.” The word is very 
common in magical formulas, e.g. P Lond 121978 (iii/A.p.) 
iat p: 96) ἐν ah ἄρτι ὥρᾳ ἤδη ἤδη ταχὺ ταχύ, 22. 548 ἐν 
τῇ σήμερον ἡμέρᾳ ἐν τῇ ἄρτι ὥρᾳ, and the incantation in the 
long Paris papyrus 5747235 (iii/A.D.) (= Sedectéons, p. 114) 
ἔξελθε, δαῖμον, . .. Kal ἀπόστηθι ἀπὸ τοῦ Silva) ἄρτι 
ἄρτι ἤδη, ““ἀερατί from so and so at once, at once, now.” 
For the combination of Mt 117, etc., cf. P Oxy VI. 93678 
(iii/A.D.) οὐκ ἔχω ἄρτι σεῖτον οὐδὲ τὰ βιβλίδια amnp[r]orar 
ἕως ἄρτι, ““1πε petitions have not yet been got ready” 
(Edd.). According to Moeris p. 68: "Aprtu, of μὲν ᾿Αττικοὶ 
τὸ πρὸ ὀλίγου, of δὲ “EAAnves Kal ἐπὶ τοῦ viv λέγουσι. 
See also Lobeck Phryz, p. 18 ff., Rutherford VP, p. 70 ff., 
and Nageli, p. 78, where the word is cited as a mark of the 
non-literary Kown. 


Cf. the late imperial inscr. in Avchzv v. p. 166 (πο. 1γ3-- 
a metrical epitaph) Σαραπίωνα νέον τε kal ἀρτιγένειον ἔοντα. 
Lucian is sufficient warrant for Poter's_adj. ( (Ὁ ἘΕΕ 22)" See 
also Hlerwerden Lex. 5.7 


For ἄ. -- τέλειος, see Aailel Praef 222 64 ἐτῶν ἀριθμὸν 
ὀγδοήκοντ᾽ ἀρτίων. In the difficult passage Herodas iy. 95, 
Nairn renders ἀρτίης μοίρης, ‘‘adequate’’ share. The com- 
panion adjectives help to define the word in Vettius Valens, 
p. 141%, at δὲ ς-᾿᾿Αφρωδίτης (sc. μοῖραι) ἱλαραί, εὔτεχνοι, 
διαυγεῖς, ἄρτιοι, καθαροί, εὔχροοι. The adverb is found in 
P Lips I. gotii-28 (iv/v a.p.) where a scribe is directed 
ἀκολουθεῖν TO νυκτοστρατήγῳ ἀρτίως κατὰ πρόσταγμα τῆς 
σῆς [λ]α[μ]π[ρότητος], and BGU III. 7495 (Byz.) ἀπὸ 
νεομηνίας τοῦ ἀρτίως [ἡ ἀρχομένου] μηνός. 


is frequently found with καθαρός = ‘pure or ‘‘ white 
bread,” e.g. P Tebt II. 468 οἴνου κε(ράμιον) ἃ, ἄρτων 
κα(θαρῶν) ἃ (= 10 Choenices? Edd.). P Oxy IV. 736%6 (a 
lengthy private account, ¢. A.D. 1) ἄρτου καθαροῦ παιδ(ῶν) 
ἡμιωβέλιον) ‘pure bread for the children $ obol,” P Giss 


1. 14° (ii. A.D.) ἔγραψάς μοι περὶ ἔρτων καθαρῶν πεγμφθῆναί 
σοι διὰ Διοσκύρου. ()ther instances of the word are P Leid 
Bi? (ji/b.c.) ἄρτων πεπτῶν (in provision claimed for the 
Serapeum Twins), P Oxy VI. 936'®* (iii/a.D.) σφυρίδιον 
Κανωπικὸν ὅπου ζεύγη ἄρτων 8, ““α Canopic basket with 
four pairs of loaves,” P Gen I. 7435 (probably iii/a.p.) 
λήκυθον ἐλαίου καὶ ἄρτους μεγάλο[υ]ς τέσσαρας. In P 
Oxy VI. 908##f-(A.D. 199) ἀρτοκοπεῖον = ““ bakery "---ὥστε 
id’ ἑκάστου ὑμῶν ἀρτοκοπεῖον ἕν ἀπαρτισθῆναι. “Aptos is 
the common and only word for ‘‘ bread”’ during the period 
we are concerned with: towards the end of it ψωμίον (g. v.) 
begins to acquire this meaning and takes its place. 


For ἀρτύω = ‘‘season,” and not ‘‘restore” in Mk οὔθ, 
Lk 14*, as in Col 45, Wackernagel (72ZZ 1908, col 36 πἴ) 
cites Athen. III. 113. 13 ἄρτος ἁπαλός, aptudpevos γάλακτι 
ὀλίγῳ kal ἐλαίῳ kal ἁλσὶν dpKerois. Dioscor. Il. 76 ἀρτυτοῖς 
(ἀρτυτικοῖς ἢ) ἁλσί, salibus condimento inservientibus. P 
Tebt Il. 375%? (A.D. 140) ζύμης ἠρτυμένης. ᾿Αρτύματα 
““spices”” are mentioned in an account P Amh II. 126% 
(early ii/a.D.): cf. P Giss I. 47! (ii/a.p.) τὰ δύο μάτια 
(=% artaba) τῶν ἀρτυμάτων (δραχμῶν) 7. A subst. 
ἀρτυματατᾶς occurs BGU IV. 1087%i-® (iii/a.p.): cf. 2. I. 
οἷν. δ: cf. also ἀρτυματοπώλης on a tombstone, Preisighe 699 
(i/A.D.), and ἀρτυτήρ in Arche! 1001 ΐῖν- 87. ν. ὁ (Epicteta’s 
Will, Thera, c. B.c. 200). Ina lexicon to //éad xviii., P 
Ryl I. 251° (ii/a.D.) ἤρτυε is glossed [kateokeva]fe: for 
supplement see Hunt’s note. 


‘This title, which is found in the Greek Bible only in 1 Th 
415, Jude ®, passed into the magical papyri, e.g. P Lond 
I. 1219? (ili/a.p.) (=I. p. 92) τῷ κυρίῳ pov τῷ ἀρχαγγέλῳ 
Μιχαήλ, and the Paris papyrus 57412 (iii/A.D.) ὃ κτίσας 
θεοὺς kal apxayyéAous. In addition to other references to 
the syncretic literature of the Imperial period Nageli (p. 
48 n?) cites a gnostic inscription from Miletus C/G 2895 
ἀρχάγγελον φυλάσσεται ἡ πόλις Μιλησίων. That the 
word was coined in Judaism to express a Jewish idea is of 
course obvious: it need only be mentioned that the prefix 
apy (y. v.) could be attached to any word at will. On 
Grimm’s note upon the archangelic Heptad reference 
might be made to the Hibbert Lectures (1912) on Zarly 
Zoroastrianism, Pp. 241. 


That this word retains in general the sense of orzginal, 
as distinguished from παλαιός -- o/d, is seen commonly in 
vernacular sources asin the NT. Thus Ac 211%, where Mnason 
is described as an ἀρχαῖος μαθητής, ‘‘an originad disciple,” 
one who belongs to the “‘beginning of the Gospel” (Phil 
4}5), is illustrated by A/agn 2154, a contemporary inscription, 
where an ἀρχαῖος μύστης inscribes an ἀρχαῖος χρησμός: 
the ‘‘ancient initiate” is opposed to the neophyte, the 
“‘ancient oracle” to one just uttered—the citation is 
made by Thieme, p. 26. So BGU III. 992%-® (B.c. 160) 
καθὰ καὶ of ἀρχαῖοι κύριοι ἐκ[έκ]τηντο, “‘the original 
owners.” It is from the meaning “ original” that τὸ ἀρχαῖον 
becomes a term for ‘‘capital,” as in Epicteta, A/ichel 
Toorvili.8 (Thera, c, B.C. 200), or ‘‘ principal,” as Sy// 5176f 

» ΄ 


(ii/B.c., Amorgos), opposed to τόκος. For the more general 
sense of ‘ancient,’ recurrent in Mt 524, etc., we may com- 
compare the horoscope P Oxy II. 2355 (A.D. 20-50) where 
a date is given kat[a δὲ τοὺς] ἀρχαίους χρόνους, z.c. “old 
style”: see also P Fay 139° (late ii/a.D.), Prersigke 1011 
(ii/A.D.), 3462 (A.D. 154-5), and P Grenf II. 67° (A.D. 237) 
(= Selections, p. 108). The reference is to the old Egyptian 
system of reckoning 365 days to the year without a leap- 
year, which continued to be used in many non-official 
documents even after the introduction of the Augustan 
calendar. The neuter = ‘‘ original condition” may be seen 
in OG/S 672°. (a.p. 80) where a river is dredged, etc., 
καὶ ἐπὶ τὸ ἀρχαῖον ἀπεκατεστάθη : similarly in 2 Cor 517, the 
‘foriginal conditions” pass away before the fiat that καινὰ 
ποιεῖ πάντα (Rev 215). The standard of ‘‘antiquity” may 
be illustrated by Sy// 355" (c. A.D. 3), where ἀρχαιοτάτου 
δό(γ)μαϊτος refers to a senatus consultum of B.c. 80. We 
find towns partial to the adj.: cf. P Lond 1157 werso ? 
(a.p. 246) (=III. p. 110) “EppoumdXews τῆς peya’ ἀρχαίας 
Kal λαμπρᾶς καὶ σεμνοτάτης. The staniling title of 
Heracleopolis (as BGU III. 9241—iii/a.D.), a. kal θεόφιλος, 
reminds us of ‘‘ancient and religious foundations” at Oxford 
or Cambridge to-day. Reference may also be made to a 
payment for ἀρχαίων ἱππέων, Ostr 323 (c. i/B.c.), evidently 
a cavalry regiment (the ‘‘Old Guard”), see 26. i. p. 161f., 
Archiv ii. p. 155; and to a land survey, P Tebt II. 610 
(ii/A-D.) [@A]Ans ποταμοφο(ρήτου) ἀρχαίας. In P Par 60 
δὲς 3 (c. B.C. 200) we find Td ἀνήλωμα εἰς ᾿Αλεξάνδρειαν ἀπὸ 
τῶν πληρωμάτων [ἀρ]χαίων : on the grammar cf. Proleg. 
p- 84 π΄. The distinction between a. and παλαιός is 
naturally worn thin on occasion, asin BGU III. 781 (i/a.p.), 
an inventory including sundry ‘‘old” crockery, as πινάκια 
βωλητάρια ἀρχαῖα 1, ἄλλα ἀρχαῖα ὠτάρια ἔχοντα 1-4. 
᾽Α. of relative antiquity is well illustrated by Karbe/ 24108 
(p. 521) ἀρχαίων κηδομένη λεχέων. Note further the com- 
parative in a British Museum papyrus, cited in Archiv vi. p. 
103 (A.D. 103), ἀπὸ τῶν ἀρχεωτέρων χρόνω(ν). The adj. 
survives in MGr. 


The double meaning, answering to ἄρχειν and ἄρχεσθαι 
severally, can be freely paralleled. The great difficulty of 
Jn 8535 τὴν ἀρχὴν ὅτι kal λαλῶ ὑμῖν : makes it desirable to 
quote P Oxy III. 47218* (c. a.D. 130) οὐ δύναται γὰρ κεκλέ- 
φθαι τὸ μηδ᾽ ἀρχὴν γενόμενον μὴ δυνατὸν δ᾽ εἶναι, ‘for it is 
impossible for that to have been stolen which neither ever 
existed at all nor could exist” (Edd.); but the absence of 
the article, and the fact that we cannot quote other examples 
of this once familiar usage, makes the quotation of little 
weight for confirming the RV mg. here (‘‘ How is it that I 
even speak to you at all?”), though it is probably right. 
For τὴν ἀ. = “originally ” (without negative) we may quote 
Syll 2568 (c. B.c. 200, Magnesia) τῶν ἄλλων ἀ[γ]ώνων 
τίὴλν ἀρχὴ(ν) μὲν ἐπ᾽ ἀργ[ύρωι τε]θέντων --ἰαΐογ they had 
wreaths for prizes. So without article 26. 921? (Thera, 
iii/B.C.) ex σφ. For ἀρχή, as in Jn 14, we may quote the 
remarkable inscr. of Q. Pompeius A.f. from Eleusis, dated 
by Dittenberger not later than Augustus, dedicated to Αἰών, 
ἀρχὴν μεσότητα τέλος οὐκ ἔχων, μεταβολῆς ἀμέτοχος (Sy// 
757). Some prepositional phrases may be illustrated. ᾿Απὸ 
τῆς ἀρχῆς P Tor I. 1" 4 (B.c. 116) (= Chzest. 11., p. 39), 

Part I. 



Syil 92955 (2B.C. 139) τῶν διὰ προγόνων ἀπὸ τ. a. γεγε- 
νημένων, 20.57 οὖσαν δὲ καὶ ἀπὸ τ. ἀ. Ἰτανίων : usually 
anarthrous, as BGU IV. 1141*4 (¢. B.c. 14) διὰ τί ἀπ᾽ ἀρχῆς 
ttt (Ὁ) οὐκ ἐνεφάνισας ταῦτα ;—so P Tor II. 215 (p.c. 131) 
τ[ὴ]ν κατοικίαν [ἔχοντες ἐΐν τ]οῖς Μεμνο[ν]είοις ἔτι [ἀπ᾽ 
ἀρ[χ]ῆς, and Sy// 32830 (B.c. 84) ἀπ᾽ ἀρχ[ῆς τε τ]οῖς ἐκχθί- 
στοις πολεμίοις [ἐβοήθ]ει. ᾿Εἰξ ἀρχῆς is more frequent : thus 
P Gen I, 78 (i/A.D.) κατὰ τὸ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἔθος, BGU IV. 
11181 (B.C. 22) τοὺς ἐξ a. ἐθ[ισμούς, P Théad 18 (a.1. 306) 
κατὰ τὴν ἐξ ἀ. kal μέχρει viv συνήθειαν, Sy// 246° (B.C. 
220-16) ὅπως Gy... ἡ πόλις [ἀ]ποκατασταθεῖ εἰς τὴν ἐξ 
ἀρχῆς εὐδαιμονίαν, 10. 2924 (B.c. 179, Olympia, in dialect) 
εἰς τὰν ἐξ apxas é[otcav] φιλίαν ἀποκ]αταστάσαντα, 270. 
540174 (B.C. 175-1ὴ πάλιν] τε ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἄρας ποιήσει “do it 
over again,” P Oxy VII. 1ο3229 (Α.Ὁ. 162) τὰ ἐξ a. ἐπι- 
ἵζητηθέντα, ‘the statement originally required” (Ed.). "Ev 
ἀρχῇ occurs P Petr II. 37 26 werso4 (p. [120]) ἐπισκεψάμενος 
ἐν ἀρχῆι ἃ Set γενέσθαι ἔργα (c. B.C. 245). For ἀρχὴν λαβεῖν 
(Heb 25) add to Wetstein’s exx. Diog. Laert. Provem. iii. 4. 

᾿Αρχή, “beginning, foundation,” may be illustrated by 
Wiinsch 47 435 ὁρκίζω σε τὸν θεὸν... τῶν πελάγων τὴν 
ἀρχὴν συνβεβλημένον. P Oxy VII. 102119, a document 
notifying the accession of Nero, calls the new Emperor 
““good genius of the world,” and [ap]x} πάντων ἀγαθῶν, 
“source of all good things” (Ed.); but unfortunately the 
reading (which is followed by an erasure) is noted as ex- 
tremely doubtful. For the meaning ‘‘ office, authority,” cf. 
Preisigke 176) (A.D. 161-80) ἄρξαντος τὰς αὐτὰς ἀρχάς, 
etc., etc. Deissmann 4S, p. 267 n§, notes a use of τόπος 
(vid. s.2.) parallel with ἀρχή in this sense, and compares 
Jude®. P Hal 17 (iii/B.c.) paprupetrw é[m]l [τῆ]. ἀρχῆι 
καὶ ἐπὶ [Gt] Sikactnpiw. shows us ἀρχή in a concrete 
sense = ‘‘ magistrate,” as in Tit 3% In MGr it means 
““ beginning.” 


To determine between ‘‘ founder” and “‘leader” in Heb 2?°, 
127, Ac 315, 5%!, is a complex question which would carry 
us beyond the limits of a lexical note. But our few citations 
go to emphasize the closeness of correspondence with actor, 
which it evidently translates in a Proconsul’s edict, Sy// 3163 
(ii/B.C.) ἐγεγόνει ἀρχηγὸς τῆς ὅλης ocvyxtcews,!? τὸν yeyo- 
νότα ἀρχηγὸν ἰτ]ῶν πραχθέντων. So P Oxy I. 4158 
(iii/iv A.D.), where a crowd shouts repeatedly in honour of 
the prytanis, ἀρχηγὲ τῶν ἀγαθῶν, ‘source of our blessings,” 
auctor bonorum. The phrase is found five centuries earlier 
in the Rosetta stone, OGZS go? . . . anniversaries which 
are πολλῶν ἀγαθῶν ἀρχηγοὶ (πᾶσι. In OG/S 212! Apollo 
is ἀ. τοῦ [γένους] of Seleucus Nicator (B.c. 306-280) whose 
mother was said to have dreamed that she conceived by 
Apollo: so in 219° of his son Antiochus I. (Soter). P Oxy 
X. 124 rit 35 (ji/a.D., lit.) a. φόνου ‘‘ the first shedder.” The 
other meaning ‘‘leader” is seen in Xazbe/l 585 (Gaul) ἱερέων 
ἀρχηγοῦ, of a high priest of Mithras. So still in MGr. 


A specimen list of new words formed with this prefix will 
illustrate what was said above (s.v. ἀρχάγγελος) of the 
readiness with which any writer might coin a compound of 
this class. ᾿Αρχικυνηγός Ostr 1530, 1545, ἀρχυπηρέτης 
Ostr 1538, Preisigke 599°, ἀρχιδικαστής P Tebt II. 28614 


» ’ 8 

(Hadrian), etc., ἀρχιπροφήτης P Gen I. 75 (i/A.D.), P Tebt 
IT. 3131 (a.D. 210-1), Pretsigke 326 (Alexandria, ii/B.c. or 
Roman), P Ryl Il. 1ro! (A.D. 259), etc. (ἀρχιπροστάτης 
whence) ἀ[ρ]χιπρ[ο]στατοῦντος Preisigke 626 (Ptol.) : cf. 26. 
639 (B.C. 25) συ[να]γογοῦ προστατήσας (pagan), ἀρχιθυρωρός 
7b. 327, ἀρχιβουλευτής 2. 1106 (Ptol.), ἀρχιμηχανικός zd. 
1113 (A.D. 147-8), ἀρχισωματοφύλαξ. 7. 1164 (ii/B.C.), 
ἀρχίατρος Calder 129, ἀρχιγέρων Preisighke 2100 (i/B.C.), 
ἀρχιπρύτανις 20. 2264 (i/B.c.). We have made no effort 
to enlarge the list, or to find additional instances of those 
quoted, which are enough to prove our case. Five of the 
twelve are not in LS. 


OG/S 470” (time of Augustus) ὡς Kal συνγε[νιϊκοῖς ἀρχιε- 
ρατικοῖς στεφάνοις κεκοσμῆσθαι. For the ΤᾺΝ verb 
ἀρχιερατεύω (1 Macc 1447) see BGU II. 3642111:30 αἱ. (4.p. 
215), P Amh II. 823 (iii/iv A.D.) Διδαροῦ ἀρχιερατεύσαντος 
τῆς ᾿Αρσινοιτῶν πόλεως, OG/S 485: (Roman—Magnesia) 
ἀρχιερατεύσαντα καὶ γραμματεύσαντα τῆς πόλεως, εἴτ. 


P Leid G4 (end of ii/B.c.) τοῖς ἐπιστάταις τῶν ἱερ[ῶ]ν 
καὶ ἀρχιερεῦσι seems to define the term in Egypt, but it 
had also more special use. P Tebt II. 315% (ii/a.p.) τὸν 
ἀπιθοῦντα μετὰ φρουρᾶς τῷ ἀρχιερῖ πέμπιν is indeterminate. 
But in 24. 2042, according to Wilcken and the editors, the 
same official, known as ἀρχιερεὺς ᾿Αλεξανδρείας καὶ Αἰγύ- 
πτου πάσης, is addressed as idiologus, ‘‘administrator of the 
Private accounts’’ (Edd.). Prezszgke 305° has υἱοῦ Τρήσεως 
ἀρχιερέως (A.D. 210), in a dedication. AZ/ichel 1231 (early 
i/p.c.) ᾿Αρχιερεὺς μέ[γ]ας rededicates to Ζεὺς "OdPros (of 
Olba in Cilicia) buildings once constructed by Seleucus 
Nicator: we are reminded of the phrase in Heb 414. 

᾿Αρχιερεύς and ἀρχιερεὺς μέγιστος were the regular terms 
in the East for translating the title pov/t/ex maximus, borne 
by the Emperors: see ZA, p. 369 f., where Deissmann 
refers to the evidence from the inscriptions collected by 
Magie, p. 64. A word common in classical and later 
literature, though only once in the Gk OT, apart from 
Apocr. (esp. Macc), needs no further illustration. But we 
may note the form with y in P Hib I. 625 (B.c. 245) τῷ 
Gpxuyepet ἐν Θώλτει (see the editors’ note), and the unelided 
ἀρχιιερεύς in P Petr III. 53 (2)2 (iii/B.c.). 


Deissmann (ZAZ, p. 97 ff.) has shown that this NT ἅπ. 
eip. (1 Pet 5%) can no longer be regarded as a Christian 
invention: it is found on the mummy label of an Egyptian 
peasant (Pretsigke 3507), of the Roman period, which runs: 
TIAqvis νεώτερος ἀρχιποίμενος (/. -μην) ἐβίωσεν ἐτῶν . .. 
“‘Plenis, the younger, chief shepherd. Lived . .. years.’ 
Cf. P Lips 1. 97*!* (a.D. 338) where a list of ποιμένες is 
headed by Képnrt ἀρχιποιμένι. 


Preisigke 623 (B.C. 80-69) ὧν ἀρχισυνα͵]γωγὸς καὶ apxte- 
ρεὺς [name presumably followed]: the previous mention of 
θε]ῶν Φιλοπατόρων suffices to show that a ‘‘ profane ’’ writer 
uses the term. Thayer’s inscriptional and literary quotations 
had already corrected the implication of Grimm’s note. 


Cagnat 1. 782 (Thrace) τὸν βω[μ]ὸν τῇ συναγω[γ]ῇ τῶν 
κουρέω[ν] (‘‘collegio tonsorum,” Ed.) [π]ερὶ ἀρχισυνά- 
γίωγ]ον T. Ἰούλιον [Ο]ὐάλεντα δῶϊρ]ον ἀποκατέστη σαὴ]ν : 
C. Julius Valens is the Master of the Barbers’ Company. 
See further Ziebarth Vereznswesen, p. 55 ff. For Jewish 
exx. see the Alexandrian inscr. of the time of Augustus in 
Archiv ii. p. 430, no. 5* and C. and B., no. 559 (11. 
p- 649), ὃ διὰ βίου ἀρχι[συν]άγωγος, with Ramsay’s remarks, 
showing that Julia Severa (A.D. 60-80), who figures in this 
Akmonian inscr., was a Jewess with the honorary title of 
‘‘ruler of the synagogue’’: cf. also Ramsay C/’Z, p. 68, 
and Lake, Zarlier Epistles of S. Paul, p. 104 nt. 


The word occurs several times in the correspondence 
(middle iii/B.c. ) of Cleon the architect in P Petr II. (= Wit- 
kowski,? nos. 1-10), e.g. 4 (1)}, 15 (2)% In 42 (a)® we 
read that one Theodorus, who had previously worked under 
Cleon (Θεόδωρον τὸν ὑπαρχιτέκτονα), was appointed Cleon’s 
For the use of the corresponding verb in the 
inscriptions, cf. OG/S 39? (iii/B.c.) &épxurextovyc[avta] τὴν 
τριακοντήρη Kal εἰκ[οσήρη]. «1. This example shows that 
the word is wider than our ‘‘architect.”” In P Tebt II. 2861* 
(A.D. 121-38) the editors translate ἐκ] τῆς τῶν ἀρτεκτόνων 
(Δ apxit.) πρ[ο]Ἱσφωνήσεως, ‘as the result of the declaration 
of the chief engineers ’’ with reference to a dispute regarding 
a house. The RV is of course shown to be right by the 
context in 1 Cor 319, It is worth while to remember that 
τέκτων in its turn is wider than ‘‘ carpenter.” 

Other occurrences of ἀρχιτέκτων will be found in Sy// 
54016 (ii/p.c.), a long inscription about the building of a 
temple, where the a. has a ὑπαρχιτέκτων under him; 545° 76, 
55272, 58527, ete. (all ii/B.c.) ; 653°° (the Mysteries inscrip- 
tion from Andania, dated B.c. 91—in dialect) ; 248% (Delphi, 
iii/B.c.—dialect) ὃ ἀρχιτέκτων τοῦ ναοῦ, Cagnat I. 925 
(iii/A.D.) of the designer of a tower, 926 of a well, etc. 



For the participle in a quasi-adverbial position (see 
Proleg.® p. 240) cf. P Ryl 11. 156*8 (i/a-pD.) λιβὸς [δὲ] ὧν 
κεκλήρων[ται λιβὸς ἐπ᾽’ ἀπηλιώτην ἀρξάμενοι ἀπὸ τῆς 
λιβικῆς γωνίας τοῦ πύργου, ἐῤ. 1577 (A.D. 135) ἧς ἐστὶν 
cxowiopos [..-....- ἀ]ρχομένου νότου ε[ἰ]ς Blo]ppa, 
“its measurements are . . . beginning from south to north” 
etc., Sy// 5375 (iv B.C.) σκευοθήκην οἰκοδομῆσαι... ἀρξάμενον 
ἀπὸ τοῦ προπυλαίου. P Tebt 11. 526 (1i/A.D.) ἀπηλί(ιώτου) 
ἐχόμ(εναι) ἀρχόμί(εναι) ἀπὸ βορρᾶ ΤΤανκράτης (ἄρουραι) [ . ] 
Πρῖσκος (ἄρουραι) B (cited in Moulton, Ezn/ertung p. 287). 
In reply to a suggestion from one of us that the frequent 
abbreviation of this participle might have occasioned some 
of the grammatical confusion found in NT passages (Proleg. 
182, 240), Dr A. 8. Hunt wrote (Sept. 1909) that ἀρχόμενος 
was ‘commonly abbreviated apX in land-survey lists, from 
Ptolemaic times downwards . . . So it was a stereotyped 
phrase which might have influenced Lk 2447: at any rate it 
is an ingenious suggestion.” 

The ordinary use of ἄρχομαι “begin” hardly needs 
illustrating. In P Giss I. 15° (ii/A.D.) τῆς ἄλλης ἀρχόμεθα 
we see it c. ρθη. : so P Tebt II. 4178 (iii/A.D.) πλὴν ἀρξό- 
μεθα] τοῦ ἔργου. The familiar NT use ina quasi-auxiliary 
sense, by its significant absence from Paul and presence in 


such abundance in those books where OT language is 
imitated or Aramaic originals translated, seems to belong to 
the alien elements in NT Greek: see Pro/eg. p. 14f. It 
does not however follow that Luke used it, as Mark seems 
to do, with no more force than the Middle English gaz: we 
may refer to a note by Archdeacon Allen in a forthcoming 
work on the Gospel of Mark. 

The act. ἄρχω “‘rule” only occurs twice in NT, and is 
too common in Greek to need quotations. It takes dat. in 
Syil 3197 (ii/B.c.) οἷς [ἂν 6 δῆμος ὁ Μηθυμναίων] ἄρχῃ, 
perhaps under Latin influence (cf. zero c. dat.): the 
recurrent δόλων πονηρῶι ‘‘dolo malo” is suggestive in this 
regard. For the very common use = ‘‘hold office” may be 
cited P Oxy IIT. 47114 (ii/aA.D.) ἄρξας δὲ καὶ τὴν τ[ῶν 
ἐκεῖ] ἀρχιδικαστῶν ἀρχὴν ἔτη δέϊκα. 


The official uses of ἀ. are fully classified by Dittenberger 
in the index to his OG/S, where he cites instances of its 
application to (1) sezmmus magistratus, (2) praefectus in 
urbem aut regionem subditam missus, (3) magistratus pro- 
vincialis Romanorum, and (4) magistratus quilibet. To 
these for the NT we have to add ‘ruler of a synagogue,” 
which is illustrated, according to de Rossi, in an Italian 
inscr. of the reign of Claudius, Ca at I. 388 (= 7GS/ 949) 
Κλαύδιος Ἰωσῆς ἄρχων ἔζησεν ἔτη de. 70. 1024" (i/B.€. 7) 
—the inscr. from Berenice in Cyrenaica cited above under 
aBapys—eSote τοῖς ἄρχουσι Kal τῷ πολιτεύματι τῶν ἐν 
Βερενίκῃ Ἰουδαίων : a list of these Jewish ἄρχοντες is given 
at the beginning of the inscr., which is dated at the σκηνο- 
anya. (See Schiirer as cited below.) So in P Lond 1177°*? 
(A.D. 113) (=TIII. p. 183),-in accounts for the water-works 
of the μητρόπολις (? Hermopolis)—Apxévtav Ἰ[ου]δαᾳίων 
προσευχῆς Θηβαίων μηνιαιω <pky, ‘‘ The rulers of the pros- 
eucha of Theban Jews 128 drachmae a month” (see further 
σι. προσευχή). For Jewish ἄρχοντες generally see Schiirer’s 
inscriptional evidence and discussion in Geschchée iil. p. 38 ff. 
(= A/F II. ii. p. 243 ff.). In P Lond 1178® (A.D. 194) 
(= III. p. 217) the designation is applied to the ‘‘ presidents” 
of an athletic club known as ‘The Worshipful Gymnastic 
Society of Nomads” (ἡ ἱερὰ ξυστικὴ περιπολιστικὴ. . . 
σύνοδος). Miscellaneous references are P Oxy III. 473? 
(A.D. 138-60) of the magistrates of Oxyrhynchus, 2b. 592 
(A.D. 122-3) of Sarapion γενομένῳ πρυτανικῷ dipxovt(t) ἱερεῖ 
Kal ἀρχιδικαστῇ, BGU 11. 362%? (A.D. 214-5), 26. 38 81:36 
ἄρχουσιν, Cagnat I. 118% (B.c. 78) (=7GS/ 951) ἐάν τε 
ἐν ταῖς πατρίσιν κατὰ τοὺς ἰδίους νόμους βούλωνται κρίνε- 
σθαι ἢ ἐπὶ τῶν ἡμετέρων ἀρχόντων ἐπὶ Ἰταλικῶν κριτῶν. 
In P Oxy III. 592 we have ἃ πρυτανικὸς ἄρχων, which 
Wilcken (A7chiv iv. p. 118 f.) regards as equivalent to 
πρύτανις. Note also P Giss I. 19}? (ii/A.D.), where Aline 
commends to her husband, a otpatnyds, the example of 
ὃ ἐνθάδε στρατηγός, who τοῖς ἄρχου[σι ἐπιτί]θησι Td βάρος: 
these ἄρχοντες were accordingly subordinates. MGr ot 
ἄρχοντες or 7 ἀρχοντιά = the local aristocracy. 


In Sy// 93017 (an undated decree from Arcadia, containing 
regulations about the mysteries, in strongly dialectic form, 
and therefore presumably not late) we find μάκων[σ]ι λευκαῖς, 



λυχνίοις, θυμιάμασιν, [ζἸμύρναι, ἄρωμασιν all governed by 
χρέεσθαι ( -- χρῆσθαι). So OG/S 38314 (i/B.c.) ἐπιθύσεις 
- ἀρωμάτων ἐν βωμοῖς τούτοις ποιείσθω, P Oxy IX. 
1211}0 (ii/A.D.) πᾶν ἄρωμα χωρὶς λιβάνου, ‘every spice 
except frankincense,” in a list of articles for a sacrifice, 
BGU 1. 1491 (ii/iii a.p.) (= Chrest. I. 93) Us τιμὴν [τῶν 
ἀρ]ωμάτων, in temple-accounts, and P Leid Wvi- 18, 

For the adj. see P Fay 93° (a lease of a perfumery 
business, A.D. 161) (= Crest. I. 317) βούλομαι μισθώσασθαι 
παρά cov τὴν μυροπωλαικὴν (7. μυροπωλικὴν) Kal dpopa- 
τικὴν (1. ἀρωματικὴν) ἐργασίαν κτλ. Add the inscription 
on a seal of the time of the Antonines ἀρωματικῆς τῶν 
κυρίων ΚΚαισάρων, where Rostowzew supplies avis after ἀ. : 
see Archiv ii. p. 443, and for the ἀρωματική tax, 26. iii. 
p- 192, iv. p. 313 ff. The verb occurs Prveve 112% (after 
B.C. 84) Hpwpaticpévoy . . . ἔλαιον. 


For the metaph. use οἱ ἀ. (as Heb 1228) cf. Magn ττ638 1. 
(ii/A.D.) ἀ](σ)άλευτο(ν) καὶ ἀμετάθετον τὴν περὶ τούτων 
διάταξιν, Αατώε] 10284 (Andros, hymn to Isis, iv/a.p.) 
στάλαν ἀσάλευτον, 70. 855° (Locris, Macedonian age) τὰν 
ἀσάλευτον νίκαν ἀρνύμενος, P Lips I. 3428 (c. A.D. 375) διὰ 
τοῦτο δέομαι τῆς οὐρανίου ὑμῶν τύχης ἐπινεῦσαι [β]έβαια 
καὶ ἀσάλευτα [μέϊνειν τὰ περὶ ταύτης τῆς ὑποθέσεως πεπρα- 
γμένα ἐξ ἀντικαθεστώτων [ὑ]πομνημάτω[ν], and similarly 
26. 3539. Add the late Byzantine papyrus P Lond 483811: 
(A.D. 616) (=IL. p. 328) ἄτρωτα καὶ ἀσάλευτα καὶ ἀπαρά- 
Bara, and the eighth century P Lond 77% (=I. p. 235) and 
P Par 21 ὁὲς 39 where a. is coupled with ἀρραγής. It survives 
in MGr. 


In P Eleph 23} *- (B.c. 223-2) we find the characteristic 
phrase ἔνοχον εἶναι τῆι ἀσεβείαι Tod ὅρκου : cf. Sy// 560% 
(Rhodian dialect, iii/B.c.) ἢ ἔνοχος ἔστω tar ἀσεβείαι (of 
violating certain taboos concerning a temple—the last of 
them μηδὲ ὑποδήματα ἐσφερέτω μηδὲ ὕειον μηθέν), and of a 
much later date OGZS 2621 (iii/a.D.) ἔνοχον εἶναι ἀσεβείᾳ. 
In γὼ 190!° we have ἀ. with a genitive, elo]anSqoavras 
νύκτωρ ἐπ᾽ ἀδικίαι [kal] ἀσεβείαι τοῦ ἱεροῦ: King Lysi- 
machus (B.C. 306-581) is decreeing penalties against men 
who tried to burn a temple. In the ‘* Apologia pro vita sua” 
of Antiochus I, OG/S 3835 (middle of i/B.c.) it is stated 
that χαλεπὴ νέμεσις βασιλικῶν δαιμόνων τιμωρὸς ὁμοίως 
ἀμελίας τε καὶ ὕβρεως ἀσέβειαν διώκει, and almost immedi- 
ately afterwards there is a reference to the toilsome burdens 
of impiety—rtijs δὲ ἀσεβείας ὀπισθοβαρεῖς ἀνάγκαι. 


OGIS 765 (iii/B.c.) τὸ θεῖον ἠσέβουγ, with external 
accus., as in Aeschylus Zz. 270: the more regular con- 
struction occurs a few lines further down—els τὸ θεῖον ac[e]- 
βοῦντα[ς]. So Sy// 190% (see above) τ]οὺς ἀσεβήσαντας eis 
τὸ tepdy, a7. A iv/B.C. inscription in Boeotian dialect, Sy/Z 
120° π]οττὼς ἀσεβίοντας τὸ ἱαρό[ν] may be added for the 
accus. construction, also a late inscription from Lyttus, Sy// 
889? τῷ ἀσεβήσαντι τοὺς δαίμονας. The internal accus. 
appears in Sy/Z 887 ἀσεβήσίει) τὰ περὶ τοὺς θεούς, as in 
Jude 15, the only NT occurrence of the verb (according to 



is found in P Tor I, 11:8 (B.c. 116) (= Chrest II. p. 33) τὴν 
γεγενημένην μοι καταφθορὰν ὑπὸ ἀσεβῶν ἀνθρώπων, and in 
the magical P Lond 1214 (iii/A.p.) (=I. p. 103). It 
occurs also in Sy// 789% (iv/B.c.) ὅπ]ως ἂ[ν] . . . μ[ηδ]ὲν 
ἀσεβὲς γένηται, and twice in OG/S go** 25 (Rosetta stone, 
B.C. 196) τοῖς ἐπισυναχθεῖσιν εἰς αὐτὴν ἀσεβέσιν. . . τοὺς 
ἐν αὐτῆι ἀσεβεῖς πάντας διέφθειρεν of those who had created 
sedition, involving the majesty of the θεός on the throne, 
as Dittenberger explains. Several exx. of the adjective in 
Josephus are put together by Schmidt /os. p. 357. For the 
adverb, see P Oxy II. 237% 38 (a.p. 186) ἀσεβῶς καὶ 


appeared in P Magd 245 according to the original reading, 
but has been corrected in the new edition. The adj. appears 
among a number of technical epithets of ζῴδια in Vettius 
Valens p. 3355". -Ὦ χερσαῖα ἢ ἀσελγῆ ἢ λατρευτικὰ καὶ τὰ 
λοιπά. An obscure and badly-spelt document of iv/v A.D., 
BGU IV. 1024 ¥: 2", seems to contain this noun in the form 
ἀθελγία- -ἀλλὰ ᾿ναντία Kal ταύτης ὑπὸ σοῦ γενόμενον 
ἀθελγία ἐλενλέχ[ο]υσα τὰ πεπραγμένα, which the editor 
understands as = ἀλλ᾽ ἐναντία ταύτῃ ἡ ὑπὸ σοῦ γενομένη 
ἀθελγία ἐλέγχουσα κτλ. But we mention this passage only 
to note how early the popular etymology was current con- 
necting it with @€Ayw. It is dubious at best, and the history 
of the word is really unknown ; but cf. Havers in /zdogerm. 
Forschungen xxviii (1911) p. 194 ff., who, adopting the fore- 
going etymology, understands ἀσελγής as = “‘ geschlagen,” 
then ‘‘ wahnsinnig,” and then ‘‘liebestoll, wolliistig.” He 
has not convinced Prof. Thumb. For the idea of sensuality 
associated with the word in late Greek, see Lightfoot on 
Gal 5,3. 

A cognate noun appears in P Oxy VI. 9035} (iv/A.D.) 
πολλὰ ἀσελγήματα λέγων εἰς πρόσωπόν pov καὶ διὰ τῆς 
ῥινὸς αὐτοί Ὁ], ““ πιδὶπο many terms of abuse to my face, and 
through his nose” (Edd.). The complainant is a Christian. 


This word occurs perpetually in the papyri to denote a 
man who is “ not distinguished ” from his neighbours by the 
convenient scars on eyebrow or arm or right shin which 
identify so many individuals in formal documents. Thus in 
P Oxy I. 7328 (A.D. 94) a slave is described as μελίχρωτ[α 
μακρ])οπίρ]όσωπον ἄσημον, and similarly in P Fay 2815 f 
(A.D. 150-1) (= Selections, p. 82) the parents in giving 
notice of the birth of a son sign themselves— 

Ἰσχυρ]ᾶς (ἐτῶν) μὸ ἄσημος 
Θαισάριον (ἐτῶν) kd ἄσημος. 

From the fact that in BGU I. 347 (1i/A.D.), an as yet un- 
circumcised boy is twice described as ἄσημος, Deissmann 
(BS p. 153) conjectures that & may have been the technical 
term for ‘‘ uncircumcised ’’ among the Greek Egyptians, but 
cites Krebs (PAz/o/ogus lili, p. 586), who interprets it rather 
as = ‘‘free from bodily marks owing to the presence of 
which circumcision was forborne’’: cf. Preisigke 161° 
(A.D. 155-6), where formal enquiry is made as to a priest’s 
sons, εἴ τινα σημεῖ[α ἔχουσιν, and leave for circumcision is 



apparently given if these signs are not conspicuous (Wilcken 
Archiv v. p. 435 f.). 

In BGU I. 2232 (a.p. 114) ( = Selections, p. 76) a pair of 
silver bracelets are described as of ἀσήμου “ unstamped ”’ 
silver, and the same epithet is applied to a δακτυριτριω, 
apparently some kind of a ring, in P Lond 193 werso4 (ii/A.D.) 
(=II. p. 245). So Syl 5867 (early iv/B.c., Athens) 
ἀργύριον σύμμεικτον ἄσημον, weighing so much, followed 
by χρυσίον ἄσημον, so much. The word became technical 
in commerce, so that Middle Persian borrowed it as asim 
‘silver’? (P. Horn, in Grundriss d. tran. Philol. 1. 1. 
p- 20). So MGr ἀσήμι, with the same meaning. 

The only NT instance of ἄσημος is in Ac 21°? (cf. 
3 Macc 13), where it = ‘‘ undistinguished, obscure,’’ as 
sometimes in classical writers, as Euripides Jon 8, οὐκ 
ἄσημος Ἑλλήνων πόλις (ze. Athens). Cf. Chrest. I. τα 10 
(p. 27—c. A.D. 200) ἐγ]ὼ μὲν οὔκ εἰμι δοῦλος οὐδὲ 
μουσικῆς [υἱ]ός, ἀλλὰ διασήμου πόλεως [A ]AcEav[ δρΊεί[ ας] 
γυμνασίαρχος. For the evidence that Tarsus was “no 
mean city ’’ see Ramsay, Cities, p. 85 ff., and more recently 
Bohlig, Dée Gersteskultur von Tarsos im augusteischen Zett- 
alter (Gottingen, 1913). The adj. is applied to a ship in 
P Lond 948? (a.D. 236) (=III. p. 220), “without a 
figurehead” (Tapdonpos—g.?. ). 


P Ryl If. 153% (Α.Ὁ. 138-61) I have directed Eudaemon 
γράψαι ὑπὲρ ἐμο[ῦ] τῆς ὑπογραφῆς τὸ σῶμα διὰ τὴν περὶ ἐμὲ 
ἀσθένιαν. BGU I. 2293 (ii/iii 
of consulting the local oracle in times of difficulty or sickness 
— μὲν σοθήσωμαι ( = εἰ μὲν σωθήσομαι) ταύτης, ἧς (Ὁ for 
τῆς, or an extreme case of attraction) ἐν ἐμοὶ ἀσθενίας, τοῦτόν 
μοι ἐξένικον (-- τοῦτό μοι ἐξένεγκον). P Lond 9714 (ili/iv A.D.) 
(ΞΞῚΠΙ. p. 128) ἀδύνατος γάρ ἐστιν ἡ γυνὴ διὰ ἀσθένιαν 
τῆς φύσείως. P Flor I. 51° (A.D. 138-61) σ]ωματικῆς 
ἀσθ[ενεί]ας, in an incomplete context. The prepositional 
phrase of Gal 415 may be further illustrated by P Oxy IV. 
7261 (A.D. 135) οὐ δυνάμενος δι᾽ ἀ[σ]θένειαν πλεῦσαι. Add 
BGU IV. 1109" (8.6. 5) τῆς Καλλιτύχης ἐν ἀσθενείᾳ 
διατεθείσης, and OG/S 2441 (iii/B.c.) τὴν περὶ τὸ σῶμα 
[γε]γενημένην ἀσθένειαν διὰ τὰς συνεχεῖς κακο[π]αθίας, 
where the editor notes that there is no tautology, as 
κακοπαθία is to be understood in its later sense of laborious 
and troublesome work. 


is too common to need many citations. There is a pathetic- 
ally laconic ᾿Ασθενῶ between some household details and 
concluding salutations in an undated letter, BGU III. 82774 
P Oxy IV. 725% (A.D. 183) is typical: a boy apprenticed to 
a weaver is to have 20 holidays a year for festivals, with- 
out loss of wages, ἐὰν δὲ πλείονας τούτων ἀργήστ [ἢ ἀσ]θενήσῃ 
ἢ ἀτακτήσῃ κτλ, “from idleness or ill-health or disobedi- 
ence’ (Edd.), they must be made up, With the use of the 
verb in Mt 108 may be compared Sy// 5031° where a certain 
man is extolled because, in addition to other benefactions, 
παρέσχεν ἰατ]ρὸν τὸν θεραπεύσοντία τοὺς ἀσθενοῦντας ἐν 
rile] παν[ηγύρει]. See also P Par 5! (8.6. 114) ἀσθενῶν 
τοῖς ὄμμασι (so also P Leid Mi), 26. 63'¥. 122 (B.c, 165) κατὰ 
τῶν ἀσθενούντων καὶ μὴ δυναμένων ὑπουργεῖν, BGU III. 
84432 (A.D. 83) κόπους γάρ po[t] παρέχει ἀσθενοῦντει. In 

ἀσθένημα δῦ 

P Lond 144 (? i/A.p.) (=II. p. 253) a servant complains 
that he had been without food (ἀσειτήσαντος) for two days, 
as the boy who brought his provisions ‘‘ was sick,’’ ἀσθενή- 
σαντος: cf. P Lond 22% (B.c. 164-3) (=I. p. 7) where 
ἀσθενῶς διακειμένας is used to describe the “sorry plight ἡ 
of the twins in the Serapeum owing to the withholding of 
their allowances of oil and bread. In Pro/eg. p. 11 the very 
vernacular letter BGU III. 948° (Christian, iv/v A.D.) is 
quoted for its closeness to Lk 1318: 4 μήτηρ cov K. acbevi, 
εἰδοῦ, δέκα tpis μῆνες. (See under ἰδού) ἬἩσθένηκα is 
answered by ἐὰν κομψῶς σχῶ in P Tebt II. 414° (ii/a.D.). 
The compound ἐξασθενέω is found in BGU III. 903% (ii/A.D.) 
as now amended, τοὺς πλείστους ἐξασθενήσαντας ἀνακε- 
χωρηκέναι κτλ. : cf. also P Tebt I. 50% (Β. 6. 112-1), where 
for ἐξησθενηκώς the editors hesitate between the meanings 
““ was impoverished ”’ or δ fell ill.’’ Add PSI τοι" (ii/A.D.) 
οὕσπερ ἐξασθενήσαντας ἀνακεχωρηκέναι : the last three sub- 
stantial men of the village had emigrated because they could 
not stand the taxation. 


BGU III. 9031 (ii/A.D.) was formerly read ἐξ ἀσθενήματος, 
but see the last article. The noun is warranted by Aristotle : 
Paul has developed the sense in his own way. 


PAmh If. 784 (Α.10. 184) μου] πλεονεκτῖ ἄνθρωπος 
ἀσθενής (for —ov -οὖς !), 2. 1411 (A.D. 350) οὐ δυναμένη 
ἀφησυχάσαι γυνὴ [ἀσθε]νὴς καὶ χήρα κτλ. P Flor I. 58% 
(iii/A.D.) καταφρονο]ῦντές μου ὡς γυναικὸς ἀσ θ]ε[νο]ῦς. 
P Théad 2οἱ: 15 (iv/A.D.) τὰς ἀσθενεστέρας κώμας], “weaker ”’ 
financially. For the adv. see OG/S 7518 (ii/B.c.) ἐπεὶ θλι- 
βέντες ἐμ πλείοσιν ἀσθενῶς [σχή]σετε. The definitely moral 
character of the adj. in Rom and 1 Cor may be illustrated by 
Epict. Déss. i. 8. 8, where the ἀσθενεῖς are coupled with the 
ἀπαίδευτοι. The adj. is curiously rare by comparison with 
its derivative verb and noun. 


For inscriptional light on the meaning of this term it will 
be enough to refer to the archaologists: see esp. Ramsay’s 
bibliography in his art. sw voce in Hastings DA. 


We can only add to the literary record the late P Ryl I. 
108 (cf. #2), a hagiographical fragment of vi/A.D., containing 
a discourse by a saint condemned to death by starvation—&v’ 
ὃν τὴν ἀσιτίαν κατεκρίθην. See next article. 


We can illustrate the derived verb from the curious letter 
quoted under ἀσθενέω, where the context points clearly to 
absence of food, and not abstinence therefrom—P Lond 
144° (i/A.D. ?) (=II. p. 253) νωθρευσαμένου pov καὶ ἀσει- 
τήσαντος ἡμέρας δύο ὥστε pe μετὰ τῶν νομάρχων μηδὲ 
συνδιπνῆσαι. The editor conjectures that the writer may 
have been in the desert, and that the nomarchs with whom 
he ‘‘did not even dine” were the officials who superintended 
the transport of goods from one village to another. The 
vernacular evidence therefore does not go far to decide the 
much discussed significance of the subst. in Ac 272. And, 

J “ἢ 

on the whole, in view ot the undoubted use of ἀσιτία in 
medical phraseology to denote ‘‘ loss of appetite” from illness 
(as Hipp. Word. 454 τήκεται ὁ ἀσθενῶν ὑπὸ ὀδυνέων ἰσχυρῶν 
καὶ ἀσιτίης καὶ βηχός : other exx. in Hobart, 77εαϊζεαὶ Lan- 
guage of St. Luke, p. 276), it seems best to understand it so 
here, and to think of Paul’s companions as abstaining from 
food owing to their physical and mental state, and not be- 
cause no food was forthcoming. See further Knowling in 
EGT ad /., and the note by J. R. Madan in /7S vi. 
p- 116 ff. 


P Par 63%-?4 (ii/p.c.) ε[ὐ]σέβειαν ἀσκήσαντα. Lewy 
(Fremdworter, p. 131) notes the use in the Hebrew Mishna 
and Aramaic Targum of PDY ‘asaq = “sich mit etwas be- 
schaftigen, Miihe geben, sich befleissigen.” 


P Lond 402 verso? (B.c. 152 or 141) (ΞΞ 11. p. 11) ἀσκός 
= ‘‘leathern bag or bottle.” The word is used in the 
general sense ‘‘hide” or ‘‘skin” in P Fay 121° (c. A.D. 100) 
where a new and strong yoke-band is to b= selected ἐκ τῶν 
ἐν τῆι κειβωτῶι τῶν ἀσκῶν, ‘from those in the box of 
skins.” Add OG/S 629% (ii/A.p.) ἐν ἀσκοῖς] αἰγείοις, 
Cagnat III. ro56iil 46 (Palmyra, Trajan’s reign) τοῦ ἐν] 
ἀ[σ]κοῖς δυσὶ αἰγείοις ἐπὶ κ[αμήλου εἰσ]κομισθέντος : cf. 
above, 5,30. where the tax is defined ona load of μύρον, 
ἐΐν ἀλαβασ]τροῖς and one ἐν ἀσκοῖς] αἰγείοις respectively— 
the supplements come from the Latin. Cf. MGr ἀσκί 
(Zaconian αἰ" δ). 


P Grenf 11. 14 (a)! (iii/B.c.) ἀϊμένως [ἂν συνέταξεν τὸ 
Tap’ αὐτῶι ἀποδοῦναι, Sy// 329° (i/B.C.) ἀσμένως καὶ ἑκου- 
σίως, Magn 17} ἄσμενος ὑπήκουσεν (Λ)εύκιππος. 


occurs in P Ryl II. 6213 (iii/a.p.), a translation of an un- 
known Latin literary work; δύναμαι χαρίσασθαι kal πένητι 
[πλοῦτον Kal ἄσοφον ἀρετῆς στεφανῶσαι -- ‘unskilled in 
wisdom,” unless we should drop one ς and read ἀρετῃ 
“crown with virtue.” 


The papyri have shown conclusively that this common 
NT word was the regular ¢erm. tech. for conveying the greet- 
ings at the end of a letter. Examples are BGU IV. 1079*f- 
(A.D. 41) (= Selections, p. 40) ἀσπάζου Διόδωρον pler’] ἄλων 
(Δ ἄλλων)... ἀσπάζου ᾿Αρποχράτη[ν], 22. 11. 423!8f 
(ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 91) ἄσπασαι Καπίτων[α πο]λλὰ 
καὶ το[ὺς] ἀδελφούς [μ]ου καὶ Σιεϊρήνιϊ]λλαν καὶ τοὺς] φίλους 
[μ]ου, etc. As showing how much the absence of these 
greetings was felt, we may quote P Giss I. 787 (ii/A.D.) ἡ 
μικρά μου “Hpa8[o]is γράφουσα τῶι πατρὶ ἐμὲ οὐκ dorife- 
ται κ[α]ὶ διὰ τί οὐκ οἶδα, and P Grenf I. ς 35: (iv/a.p.) 
᾿Αλλοῦς πολλά σοι ἀπειλί(εῖ), ἐπὶ γὰρ πολλάκις γράψας καὶ 
πάντας ἀσπασάμενος αὐτὴν μόνον οὐκ ἠσπάσου. The use 
of the Ist pers. ἀσπάζομαι by Tertius in Rom 16*!, the only 
ex. of this exact formula in the NT, may be paralleled from 
P Oxy VII. 106775 (iii/A.D.) where to a letter from a certain 
Helene to her brother, their father Alexander adds the post- 
script—Kay ᾿Αλέξανδρος ὁ πία]τὴρ ὑμῶν ἀσπάζομαι ὑμᾶς 

ἀσπασμός 80 

πολλά. (As there is no change of hand, both Helene and 
her father would seem to have employed an amanuensis : see 
the editor’s note). When several persons are included in a 
greeting, the phrase kat’ ὄνομα often occurs (as in 3 Jn’) 
e.g. BGU I. 2765 (ii/iii A.D.) ἀσπάζομαι ὑμᾶς πάντες κατ᾽ 
ὄνομ(α), καὶ ᾿Ωριγ[έϊνης ὑμᾶς ἀσπάζεται πάντες, P Oxy III. 
535327. (ii/iili A.D.) ἀσπάσασθε τὸν μεικρὸν Σερῆνον καὶ 
Κοπρέα καὶ το[ὺ]ς ἡμῶν πάντας κατ᾽ ὄνομα. Add Ρ Fay 
1855 (Α.Ὁ. 110) ἀσπάζου τοὺς φιλοῦντές σε πάντες πρὸς ἀλή- 
θιαν (cf. 2 Jn', 3 Jn!) and the Christian Psenosiris letter 
P Grenf II. 734 (late iii/A.D.) (= Se/ectzons, p. 117) where 
immediately after the address we find mpd τῶν ὅλων πολλά 
σε ἀσπάζομαι Kal τοὺς παρὰ col πάντας ἀδελφοὺς ἐν 

For ἀ. = ‘‘ pay one’s respects to,’’as in Ac 251", see BGU 
I. 3763 (A.D. 171) ἠσπάσατο τὸν λαμπρότατον ἡγ[εμόϊΪνα, 
and 74. 2481 (ii/A.p.) θεῶν δὲ βουλομένων πάν[τ]ως μετὰ τὰ 
Σουχεῖα σὲ ἀσπάσομαι (cited by Deissmann, BS p. 257), 
and from the inscriptions OG/S 219% (iii/B.c.) ἀσπασάμενοι 
αὐτὸν παρὰ tlov δήμου], Sy// 3184 (B.c. 118) a deputation 
is sent οἵτινες πορευθέντες πρὸς αὐτὸν Kal ἀσπασάμενοι παρὰ 
τῆς πόλεως καὶ συνχαρέντες ἐπὶ τῶι ὑγιαίνειν αὐτόν τε καὶ τὸ 
στρατόπεδον κτλ. 


P Oxy III. 47187 (ii/A.D.) μαρτύρονται κύριε τὴν σὴν 
τύχην [el] μὴν ἀναμενύντων αὐτῶν (corr. from ἡμῶν) Tov 
ἀσπασμόν[. . . The noun is curiously rare: the above is 
apparently its only occurrence in P Oxy I.-X., nor have 
we noticed any other instance of it in the ordinary papyrus 


Hort’s remark on Jas 157 that ‘this is quite a late word, 
apparently not extant before NT”’ must be corrected in view 
of the fact that it is found already in /G II. v. 1054 c.4 
(Eleusis, ¢. B.C. 300), where it is applied to stones—vytets 
λευκοὺς ἀσπίλους : cf. also Symm. Job 15"*. For its use in 
the magic papyri see P Leid V viii (as amended by 
Dieterich) ἐπίδος φοροῦντί μοι τήνδε τὴν δύναμιν ἐν παντὶ 
τόπῳ ἐν παντὶ χρόνῳ ἄπληκτον, ἀκαταπόνητον, ἄσπιλον 
ἀπὸ παντὸς κινδύνου τηρηθῆναι, 23. Wi 551. θῦε δὲ λυκὸν 
(( λευκὸν) ἀλέκτορα, ἄσπελλον (/. ἄσπιλον). A deacon’s 
litany of viii/ix Α.Ὁ., P Grenf II. 113, commemorating the 
Virgin, is headed—[Ilept τῆ]ς πρεσβείας καὶ ἱκετείας τῆς 
ἀσπίλου [δεσποίνης τῶν ἁπάντων. 


In OGZS go* (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) ἀσπίς is used of 
the ‘‘asp” or ‘‘serpent” with which the golden βασιλεῖαι 
of the King were adorned—als προσκείσεται ἀσπίς: see 
Dittenberger’s note, and cf. τῶν ἀσπιδοειδῶν βασιλειῶν in 
the following line. 

The etymology of the word is very obscure, but Lewy 
(Fremdworter, p. 13) thinks that it may have been formed 
from the Heb YD¥ under the influence of ἀσπίς, ‘‘ shield.” 
Boisacq records this guess with a query, which Thumb 

Ἂν - 

Priene has the combination ἀσυλεὶ καὶ ἀσπονδεί seven 
times, in the common sense ‘‘ without formal treaty ’”"—the 


reverse of the meaning applied metaphorically in 2 Tim 3°: 
friends need no treaty, and implacable foes will not make 
one. Literary parallels suffice for the Pauline use. 


The ordinary value of the ἀσσάριον was τς of the δηνάριον, 
but Dittenberger OG/S ii. p. 108 n. ™ shows that the 
imperial silver denarius might be exchanged for 17 or even 
22 provincial copper asses. The word can be quoted from 
Syll 8695 (Calymna, Rom.) ἐὰν δὲ μὴ [παραμείνῃ] (sc. the 
slave whose manumission is in question), ἀποδώσει ἑκάστης 
ἡμέρας ἀσσάρι(α) 8, 2. 871° (Smyrna)—a decree regarding 
a Trust which had reduced a ferry fare from two obols to 
two ἀσσάρια, or } denarius to $ den. so as to undercut 
competitors (Dittenberger). Other instances are needless. 

In Isai 58? Aquila substitutes ἀστατοῦντας for LXX 
aoréyous, while in Gen 415 Symmachus translates 13) U3 

“a fugitive and a vagabond” by ἀνάστατος kal ἀκατά- 
στατος. There would seem therefore to be a certain degree 
of ‘‘unsettlement’’ associated with the word; and accord- 
ingly Field (4Vv¢es, p. 170) proposes to render 1 Cor 4™ 
καὶ ἀστατοῦμεν by ‘‘and are vagabonds,”’ or ‘‘and leada 
vagabond life.’’ Grimm gives no profane warrant but a 
passage in the Anthology. We can add Vettius Valens, 
p- 116%; the entrance of Mercury into a certain horoscope 
will produce πρακτικοὶ... καὶ εὐεπίβολοι kal φρόνιμοι καὶ 
ἐπαφρόδιτοι, πολύκοιτοι δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ πολὺ ἀστατοῦντες περὶ 
τοὺς γάμους, ‘‘very inconstant.” He has the adj. p. 575 
ἄστατος Kal ἐπίφοβος διάξει ‘he will live an unsettled life 
and liable to panic.” It occurs also in Epicurus 6510 τὴν 
δὲ τύχην ἄστατον ὁρᾶν (Linde Z/ic. p. 36, where literary 
parallels are given). 


As early as P Hib I. 5415 1: (c. B.c. 245) we find this 
word developed: ἐχέτω δὲ kal ἱματισμὸν ὡς ἀστειότατον, 
“Jet him wear as fine clothes as possible’’ (Edd.): cf. 
LXX Exod 2%, Judith 112%, and differently Judg 317. Its 
connexion with the ‘‘city’’ was forgotten, and indeed ἄστυ 
itself had fallen out of common use (still in P Hal 1 ¢er 
(iii/B.c.)). By the Stoics it seems to have been used in a 
sense almost = σπουδαῖος. The noun ἀστειότης occurs in 
Vettius Valens, p. 16147, among τὰ σωματικὰ εὐημερήματα, 
the others being εὐμορφία, ἐπαφροδισία, μέγεθος, εὐρυθμία. 
The adj. means “‘ witty ’’ in MGr. 


Syli 140" (late iv/B.C.), a list of payments on account of 
the temple at Delphi, has το[ῦ €]vA[C]vou ἀστέρος τοῦ 
παρδείγματος ““{π6 pattern of the wooden star’: see note. 
In OG/S 194 (i/B.c.) it is said of the Egyptian Amon Ra 
that ὥσπερ λαμπρὸς ἀστὴρ Kal δαίμων ἀγαθὸς τοῖς ἀπελπί- 
ἵουσι]ν ἐπέλαμψε. The use made of the same figure in 
the Apocalypse undoubtedly suggested the fourth century 
epitaph which Ramsay (Zee, p. 366) discovered on a stone 
now built into the wall of an early Turkish Khan in 

Νεστόριος πρεσβύτερος ἐνθάδε kite 
ἀστὴρ ὃς ἐνέλαμπεν ἐν ἐκλησίεσιν θεοῦ. 


““Nestorius, presbyter, lies here, who shone a star among 
the Churches of God.’’ One might suspect the ultimate 
origin of the phrase in Plato’s exquisite epitaph on his friend 
᾿Αστὴρ πρὶν μὲν Rapes ἔνι ζωοῖσιν ἑῷος, 
νῦν δὲ θανὼν λάμπεις ἕσπερος ἐν φθιμένοις. 

Other instances οἵ ἀστήρ are P Petr ITI. 1345 (anastronomical 
fragment relating to the 36 decans presiding over the ten 
days’ periods), P Par 1 (Eudoxus treatise, ii/B.c.) in the 
Opening acrostic 2° χρόνος διοικῶν ἀστέρων γνωρίσματα, 
P Leid Wii τῶν ζ ἀστέρων (magic), 7. V χει, 5 ἀστὴρ 
ἀπὸ κεφαλῆς, etc. But we cannot quote it from papyri 
outside those on astrological or astronomical subjects and 

magic. It survives, however, in MGr ἀστέρας. 

Mayor (on 2 Pet 214) cites Longinus ii. 2, ἀστήρικτα καὶ 
ἀνερμάτιστα ‘‘unstable and unballasted (Roberts): this 
should be added to Grimm’s Anthology citation. We do 
not trouble much about vernacular warrant for words in 
2 Pet. It occurs six times in Vettius Valens, in the phrase 
a. λογισμοῦ ‘unstable in judgement.” 


Kaibel τ465 (iii/iv A.D.) ἀστόργου μοῖρα κίχεν θανάτου : 
the epitaph is among the Elgin marbles. In 20. 102844 
(Andros, hymn to Isis, iv/A.D.), it means ‘‘amorem non 
expertus.” Στοργή is found in Chest. 11. 3619 (A.D. 360) 
εὐνοίας Kal στοργῆς ἔτι Te καὶ ὑπηρεσίας. 


In the NT confined to the Pastorals, but quotable from 
iii/B.c. Thus Sy// 239% (B.c. 214) εἴπερ οὖν ἐγεγόνει τοῦτο, 
ἠστοχήκεισαν ot συνβουλεύσαντες ὑμῖν kal Tod συμφέροντος 
τῆι πατρίδι καὶ τῆς ἐμῆς κρίσεως, and P Par 3555 (B.c. 163) 
ἀστοχήσαντες τοῦ καλῶς ἔχοντος- -α close parallel to 
1 Tim 18. (For the gen. constr. cf. also Sir 713.) From a 
later date we may quote the ill-spelt BGU II. 531-19 
(ii/A.D.) ἐὰν δὲ ἀστοχήσῃς [aiw]ylay μοι λοίπην (/. λύπην) 
[π]αρέχιν μέλλις, where the meaning seems to be “‘fail” or 
““forget.” This the verb retains in MGr: so the Klepht 
ballad in Abbott’s Songs, p. 34. 

Μὴν ἀστοχῷς τὴν ὁρμηνεία, τῆς γυναικὸς τὰ λόγια, 

Forget not thy wife’s advice, forget not her words. 

From the literary side we may quote P Oxy II. 219 (a) 
(i/A.D.), where in extravagant terms a man bewails the loss of 
a pet fighting-cock, ψυχομαχῶν, ὁ yap ἀϊλ]έκτωρ ἠστόχηκε, 
“T am distraught, for my cock has failed me” (Edd.), and 
the adverb in the philosophical P Fay 337 (ii/A.D.) δεῖ 
τῶν [ἀν]θρώπων ἄρχειν [τῶν] πράξεων exel[vou]s δὲ εὐθὺς 
ἐφέπεσθαι, οὐκ ἀτάκτως μέντοι GAN’ εἱμα[ρ]μέϊνως]. τοῦ γὰρ 
ἀστόχως. .. 

We can only cite the magical P Lond 121785 (1|.Ὰ.}.) 
(=I. p. 109). It is MGr. 


The MGr ἀστράφτει, ‘it lightens,” reinforces the literary 
record. The word was vernacular, though, as in the case of 
the noun, we know of no exx. except in the magic papyri, 


P Lond 461° (iv/a.p.) (=I. p. 70) ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἀστράπτων : 
So 76. 12125: (iii/a.D.) and 122 (iv/a.D.) (=I. pp. 92, 


In P Hib I. 2731 8. (a calendar, B.c. 301-240) χρῶν- 
t[at] ταῖς κατὰ σελήνη[ν] ἡμέραις of ἀστρολό γοι] Kal of 
tepoypapparelis] πρὸς τὰς δόσεις καὶ ἀ[να]τολὰς τῶν 
ἄστρω[ν], ‘‘the astronomers and sacred scribes use the 
lunar days for the settings and risings of the stars” (Edd.): 
cf. ὅδ δ, οὐθὲν πα[ραλἸλάσσοντες ἐπ᾽ ἄστρω[ι] ἢ Sivovre ἢ 
ἀνατ[έλΊλοντι, ‘‘ without alterations owing to the setting or 
rising of a star” (zd.). From the Adrumetum tablet 
(Wiinsch 4, no. 57), on which Deissmann has written in 
BS, pp. 271 ff., we may quote ὁρκίζω oe τὸν φωστῆρα 
καὶ ἄστρα ἐν οὐρανῷ ποιήσαντα διὰ φωνῆς προστάγματος. 
Deissmann compared Gen 115: ; since there we have 
ἀστέρας, the substitution of ἄστρα suggests the suspicion 
that the simpler 2nd dec]. noun was beginning to be pre- 
ferred in the vernacular. (Both, however, figure in MGr, 
and ἀστήρ is more often found in NT.) Add P Grenf.I. 
18 (literary—ii/B.C.), ἄστρα φίλα Kal συνερῶσα πότνια νύξ 
μοι, P Oxy IV. γ315 (A.D. 8-9) καὶ τοῖς ἄστροις Ἥρας 
τρῖς, ‘*three days at the time of the stars of Hera’”’ (Edd., 
who note that the ‘‘star of Hera”? was Venus, but the 
plural is unexplained), Sy/Z 686% (early ii/A.D.) μέχρι 
νυκτός, ὡς ἄστρα καταλαβεῖν, διεκαρτέρησε, of a com- 
petitor in the pancration, OG/S 56%* (B.c. 239-8), τὸ 
ἄστρον τὸ τῆς Ἴσιος, 7. 6. Sirius, the date of whose heliacal 
rising is defined in the succeeding lines. This last passage 
agrees with the NT in making ἄστρον a complete equivalent 
of ἀστήρ. It is MGr ἄστρο. 


This proper name is by no means peculiar to Rome 
(Rom 1614), though as yet it has not been very widely 
attested: see, however ΟἿΣ VI. 12565 (Rome), IX. 114 
(Brundisium), IX. 224 (Uria), and perhaps /G III. 1093 ἀδ 
(Attica) “A]otykp[tros]: cf. Rouffiac, p. 90 f., following 
Lietzmann (HZNV7 ad /.). For the adj. from which it is 
derived cf. BGU II. 613%° (ii/a.D.) ἐκ τῆς ἀσυνκρίτ(ου) 
ἐπιστροφῆς, and one of the letters in the Abinnaeus corre- 
spondence, P Gen I. 5541 (iv/a.D.) ἔσπευσα προσαγορεῦσέ 
σου τὴν ἀμίμητον καλοκαγαθίαν ὡς ἀληθὸς ἀσύνκριτον 
ἐπίπαν, P Oxy X. 1298? (iv/A.D., Christian) τῷ δεσπότῃ καὶ 
ἀσυνκρίτῳ kal παραμυθίᾳ τῶν φίλων, ‘to my incomparable 
master, the consolation of his friends” (Edd.). 


Vettius Valens has it often as a ζογϑ]. ἑδεΐ,, e.g. p. 3815 
Κρόνος μὲν οὖν καὶ Ἥλιος ἀσύμφωνοι. 

P Oxy III. 471% (ii/a.D.), ἣν δὲ οὐκ ἀσύνετον, “and he 
was not stupid.”’ Aazbe/ (near Ephesus) ἀξυνέτων 
δὲ βουλαῖς ἀνθρώπων τοῦδε ἔτυχον θανάτου : it seems clear 
that ‘‘foolish” here does not primarily denote lack of brains 
but moral obliquity. 



To other citations for the meaning “‘faithless”” appearing 
in the derivative verb may be added three from Ptolemaic 


“to keep faith’’—P Petr II. 9 (2)? 


papyri for εὐσυνθετέω, 
(B.c. 241-39), εὐσυνθετῆσαι αὐτοῖς, P Tebt I. 61 (a) 
(B.c. 118-7), διὰ τὸ μὴ εὐσυνθετηικέναι ἐν τῆι διορθώστε)ν 
τοῦ ἐπιβληθέντίος αἸὐτῶι στεφάνου, and similarly 26. 64 
(a)48 (8.6. 116-5). Adda British Museum papyrus quoted 
in Archiv vi. p 101 (A.D. 114-5) τῶν β[ι]βλίων.... 
ἐπαλλήλςζων] Kall] ἀσυνθέτων διὰ τὸ πλῆθος κειμένων, 
which can only mean that these records were “closely 
packed together and not in order’’—a meaning which 
follows well from that of συντίθημι, but does not seem to 
occur elsewhere. 


P Amb II. γ8:5 (a.p. 184) ἀσφάλιαν γ[ρ)]απτήν, 
‘written security,’’ P Tebt II. 2931" (c. Α.Ὁ. 187) τὰς 
παρατεθείσας ὑπὸ αὐτο(ῦ) [ἀσ]φα[λ]είας, “the proofs sub- 
mitted by him’ (Edd.), P Flor I. 2525 (ii/a.p.), κατ᾽ 
ἐϊνγράπτους ἀσφαλίας. In the inscriptions the word is 
very common united with ἀσυλία, ἀτέλεια, etc., e.g. OG/S 
8118 (iii/B.c.) ἀσφάλε[ζιαν καὶ ἀ)]συλίαν : cf. 270! (111,8.6.), 
352 (ii/B.c.). In 7. 66919 (i/a.D.) we find τῶν θεῶν 
ταμιευσαμένων els τοῦτον τὸν ἱερώτατον καιρὸν τὴν τῆς οἰκου- 
μένης ἀσφάλειαν. As this illustrates the use of ἀ. found in 
1 Th 5%, so is that of Lk 1* paralleled by the papyrus 
instances cited above. The noun occurs innumerable times 
in the commercial sense, ‘‘a security.”’ In P Tebt II. 
4019 (A.D. 199?) at dval καὶ ἀσφάλειαι is rendered ‘the 
contracts and title-deeds.”” For the phrase of Ac 553 cf. 
Syll 246%, ὅπως μετὰ πάσης aodade[ias] συντελεσθεῖ 
(sc. ἡ τῶν μυστηρίων τελετή). For the idea of “security ”’ 
against attack from outside cf. C. and B. 559° (ii. p. 650) 
ἐποίησαν τὴν τῶν θυρίδων ἀσφάλειαν kal τὸν λυπὸν πάντα 
κόσμον : the date is A.D. 60-80. Cf. P Fay 1071" (A.D. 133) 
τοὺς φανέντας αἰτίους ἔχιν ἐν ἀσφαλείᾳ, “to keep the 
persons found guilty in a safe place’’ (Edd.). Personal 
“safety ’’ comes in Syd? 192°8 (B.c. 290-87) τὴν τοῦ ἑαυτοῦ 
σώματος ἀσφάλειαν. The word is MGr. 


BGU III. 90924 (A.D. 359) ἐν ἀσφαλεῖ παρὰ σε[ζαυ]τ[ῷ] 

τοὺς τούτου P Oxy IIIf. 530% (ii/a.p.) ἀποδοῦσα 
οὖν αὐτῶι ἀπολήμψῃ τὰ ἱμάτια ὑγῆ Kal ἐν ἀσφαλεῖ ποιήσῃς, 
τε σοί my clothes back safe, and put them in a secure place ”’ 
(Edd.), 24. 433° (ii/iii A.D.) ἐν ἀσφαλεῖ [ἤ]τω. Przene 11479 
(i/B.c.) τὴν] δὲ πίστιν καὶ φυλ[ακὴν] τῶν παραδοθέντων 
αὐτῶι γραμμάτων ἐποι[ήσ]ατο ἀσφαλῆ. 7b. ττ88 (1,1.6.) 
ἀσφαλέστατα πρὸς πάντα τὸν χρόνον γενηθῆναι τὰ βραβίεῖα. 
For the adverb, cf. P Giss I. 19! (ii/A.D.) παρα]καλῶ σε 
οὖν ἀσφαλῶς σεαυτὸν [τηρεῖν vel sém.). P Hib I. 53° 
(B.C. 246) ἀσφαλῶς διεγγυᾶν, ““ἴο get good security,” 
P Oxy ΙΝ. 742°! (B.c. 2) θ[ἐ]ς αὐτὰς εἰς τόπον ἀσφαλῶς, 
“set them (sc. bundles of reeds) in a safe ρίαςθ.᾽᾿ The 
word was common. 


For the physical meaning of this very common verb, the 
only meaning which occurs in NT, may be quoted P Ryl II. 
681% (B.c. 89) ὅπως ἀναχθεῖσα ἡ T. ἀσφαλισθῆι μέχρι 
τοῦ κτλ., ‘be brought up and secured until . . .’’ (Ed.), P 
Tebt II. 28319 (i/B.c.) τὸν προγεγραμμένον IT. ἀσφαλίσασθαι, 
“to secure (arrest) the aforesaid P.,’’ 7. I. 5339 (B.c. 110) 

88 ἀσχήμων 

ἀσφαλίσασθαι τὰ γενή(ματα), ‘seize the produce ’’ (Edd.). 
7b. 11. 4074 (A.D. 199?) ἀσφαλιζόμενος τὰ μέλλ[ο]ντα πρὸς 
ἐμ[ὲ ἐλθεῖν ὑπάρχοντα, “" Ξεουτίησ the property coming to 
me’’ (Edd.) has the commoner applied sense: cf. also 
P Oxy VII. 1033" (A.D. 392) διὰ τοῦτο ἑαυτοὺς ἀσφαλισζό- 
μένοι τούσδε τοὺς λιβέλλους ἐπιδίδομεν, ‘therefore to safe- 
guard ourselves we present this petition’’ (Ed.), P Lips 
I. 106% (A.D. 98) ἐὰν οὖν ὅ ye γνώστης σὺν τῷ μετόχῳ 
ἀσφαλίζηταί σε διὰ τοῦ γράμματεος (1 - τος) τῶν γεωργῶί(ν). 
Add P Ryl II. 77* (A.D. 192) αὐτὰ ταῦτα ἀσφαλίσομαι κτλ. 
ΚΕῚ will certify these very facts by means of your minutes 
(Ed.), Βα Ὁ III. 8299 (A. p. 100) ἀσφ[άλισο]ν δὲ τὴ]ν ἐμὴν 
ὑπογραφήν, P Hamb I. 2913 (a.p. 29), where the editors 
take it as ‘‘enter a protest.’’ Demetrius de loc. 193 says 
the best ‘‘literary ’’ style is συνηρτημένη Kal οἷον ἠσφαλισμέ- 
νη τοῖς συνδεσμοῖς, ‘compacted and (as it were) consoli- 
dated by the conjunctions ’’(Roberts). ᾿Ασφάλισμα 
‘pledge ’’ occurs BGU I. 248%, II. 6017 (Ὁ) (both ii/a.p.) : 
ef. also 7. I. 246" (ii/iii A.D.) [π]᾿αρασφαλίσματα. Cf. 
MGr (ἀ)σφαλίζω ‘* shut.” 


In P Tebt I. 4477 (B.c. 114), a petition concerning a violent 
assault, the complaint is made that the aggressor ἕως 
[μέν t]ivos ἐλοιδίόρησέν pe] Kal doxnpolvet] ὕστερον δὲ 
ἐπιπηδήσας ἔδωκεν πληγὰς πλείους ἧι [εἰῖχεν ῥάβδωι, where 
foul language at least is suggested. (Is ἀσχημόνει an un- 
augmented imperfect? The present is rather oddly sand- 
wiched between two aorists, unless we are to call in the help 
of parallels noted Proéey. p. 121.) In the great Mysteries 
inscription from Andania, Sy// 653. (B.C. 91), the candidate 
has to swear μήτε αὐ[τ]ὸς μηθὲν ἄσχημον μηδὲ ἄδικον 
ποιήσειν ἐπὶ καταλύσει τῶν μυστηρίων μήτε ἄλλωι ἐπιτρέ- 
we : in this case anything irreverent or improper would be 
included. Perhaps ‘‘ behave dishonourably ᾿ is the meaning 
in 1 Cor 7*6, but the word seems to take the colour of its 
context. We find it in antithesis with εὐσχημονεῖν in the 
pompous but ungrammatical letter (a begging letter ἢ), 
P Par 63)%-*8f (B.c, 165) παρὰ τὴν περιοῦσαν ἀγωγὴν 
ἀσχημωνοῦντα προσδεῖσθαι τῆς παρ᾽ ἑτέρων ἐπεικουρείας, 
“since I cannot meet the conditions of life creditably I need 
external assistance’’: in the next sentence, after a fresh 
start, ὁρμῶμεν ἀπὸ Bpaxelwv podets εὐσχημονεῖν. 


For &. in Rom 127=ofus obscaenum, Lietzmann (2ZNT 
III. i. ad 1.) refers to Philo Legg. Alleg. 11. 66, p. 78 τῆς... 
ἀναισχυντίας παραδείγματα αἱ ἀσχημοσύναι πᾶσαι: cf. 
III. 158, p. 118. Vettius Valens p. 6151 ἐν ἀσχημοσύναις 
kal κατακρίσεσι, apparently ‘‘ scandals and condemnations.” 


Syll 653" (B.C. 91) μηθὲν ἄσχημον μηδὲ ἄδικον ποιήσειν. 
A ‘late form” of the adj. (LS, who quote Polemo, a 
writer of ii/A.D.) is found in P Ryl 11. 14418 (A.D. 38) παρε- 
χρήσατό por πολλὰ καὶ ἄσχημα, ‘subjected me to much 
shameful mishandling ’’ (Edd.), The ordinary form occurs 
in another petition of the same group, 76. 150!) (A.D. 40-1) 
ἐκακολόγησεν πολλὰ Kal ἀ[σ]χήμονα. So Vettius Valens 
p. 6218 ἀτυχεῖς καὶ ἀσχήμονας. 



A good instance of this expressive word occurs in P Par 
6315. % (B.c. 165) in the clause preceding that quoted above 
under ἀσχημονέω :--ὦἄλλως te δὴ τῆς πατρικῆς οἰκίας, 
ὥσπερ καὶ σὺ γινώσκεις, ἔτι ἔνπροσθεν ἄρδην [ἀ]νατετραμ- 
μένης δι᾿ ἀσζω]τίας. It occursafter ἃ hiatusin P Petr III. 21 
(6) (8.6. 225). A somewhat weaker sense is found in 
P Fay 124 (c. B.C. 103), where it is used of men who had 
pawned a stolen garment πρὸς ἀσωτείαν ““ incontinently.”’ 
For the corresponding verb see P Flor I. 997 (111 A.D.) 
(=Selections, p. 71), a public notice which his parents set up 
regarding a prodigal son who ἀσωτευόμενος ἐσπάνισε τὰ 
αὑτοῦ πάντα, ‘by riotous living [cf. ἀσώτως, Lk 151} had 
squandered all his own property,” and PSI 417 (iv/a.D.), 
where a wife lays a complaint against her husband for misuse 
of her property Kal dowS[ev]wv καὶ πράττων [ἃ μὴ τοῖς 
εἸὐγενέσι mpém. The word survives in the written MGr. 


Vettius Valens p. 18 joins ἀσώτων λάγνων καὶ κατωφερῶν 
ἀκρίτων ἐπιψόγων, εὐμεταβόλων περὶ τὰ τέλη, οὐκ εὐθανα- 
τούντων οὐδὲ περὶ τοὺς γάμους εὐσταθῶν. The use of the 
maxim woscitur a socits here, as so often, makes the astro- 
loger valuable for the delineation of a word’s meaning. It 
is MGr. 


For its original connotation of riot or rebellion cf. OG7S 
2008 (iv/A.D.) ἀτακτησάντων κατὰ καιρὸν τοῦ ἔθνους τῶν 
Βουγαειτῶν. So “γέ 1538! (B.C. 325-4) τοὺς ἀτακτοῦντας 
τῶν τριηράρχων, α΄. Like its parent adjective ἄτακτος, and 
the adverb, this verb is found in the NT only in the Thessa- 
lonian Epp., where their context clearly demands that the 
words should be understood metaphorically. Some doubt 
has, however, existed as to whether they are to be taken as 
referring to actual moral wrong-doing, or to a certain remiss- 
ness in daily work and conduct. Chrysostom seems to 
incline to the former view, Theodoret to the latter: see the 
passages quoted in full with other illustrative material in 
Milligan Zhess. p. 152 ff. The latter view is now supported 
by almost contemporary evidence from the Kowy. In P 
Oxy Il. 2755 Ὁ (a.D. 66), a contract of apprenticeship, a 
father enters into an undertaking that if there are any days 
when his son “‘plays truant” or ‘‘fails to attend "--ὅσας 
δ᾽ ἐὰν ἐν τούτῳ ἀτακτήσῃ ἡμέρας - [6 is afterwards to make 
them good ; and similarly in P Oxy IV. 7255 ® (a.p. 183) a 
weaver’s apprentice is bound down to appear for an equiva- 
lent number of days, if from idleness or ill-health or any 
other reason he exceeds the twenty days’ holiday he is 
allowed in the year—éav δὲ πλείονας τούτων ἀργήσῃ [ἢ ac ]- 
θενήσῃ ἢ ἀτακτήσῃ ἢ δι᾿ ἄλλην τιγ[ὰ αἰ]τίαν ἡμέρας κτλ. 
From an earlier date we may cite BGU IV. 11258 (B.c. 13), 
another contract, where the words occur ἂς δὲ ἐὰν ἀρτακτή- 
σηι ἢι ἀρρωστήσηι : the strange word is what Lewis Carroll 
would call a “ portmanteau,” compounded of ἀργήσηι and 
ἀτακτήσηι. On the other hand in P Eleph 215 (a will, B.c. 
285-4) καὶ ἡ πρᾶξις ἔστω ἐκ τοῦ ἀτακτοῦντος καὶ μὴ ποι- 
οὖντος κατὰ τὰ γεγραμμένα the verb has the stronger sense, 
“to be contumacious.” Its opposite εὐτακτέω is not un- 
common. Thus Sy// 5192? (Athens, B.C. 334-3), where the 
ἔφηβοι of the year are formally praised for having been good 

Part I. 



Ῥογ5---ἐπειδὴ . . εὐτακτοῦσιν and obey the laws and the 
master appointed for them. In BGU IV. 11066 (B.c. 13) 
a wet-nurse is bound εὐτακτουμένην αὐτὴν τοῖς olurots 
κατ]ὰ μῆνα τροφήοις ποιεῖσθαι τήν τε Eat Hs [καὶ τοῦ] παιδίου 
προσήκουσαν ἐπιμέληαν : note the middle. 


See the discussion οἵ ἀτακτέω. For the adj. (and adv.) 
we may quote P Fay 337!6f (ii/A.p.) δεῖ τῶν [ἀν]ϑρώπων 
ἄρχειν [τῶν] πράξεων ἐκείί νου]ς δὲ εὐθὺς ἐφέπεσθαι, οὐκ ἀτά- 
KTws μέντοι ἀλλ᾽ εἱμα[ρ])μέϊνως : the document is a fragment 
of “a philosophical work concerning the gods ” (Edd.). In 
Vettius Valens p. 33679 ἄτακτον φέσιν ἢ βελτίονα, the anti- 
thesis suggests a markedly bad meaning for & The same 
implication underlies the subst. in p. 1161 πολλὰ kal τῶν 
ἀτακτημάτων κρυβήσεται καὶ οὐκ ἔσται aloypa—which 
they would have been but for the kindly influence of Jupiter. 
The next sentence identifies the ἀτακτήματα as secret 
intrigues which will not be found out. In Sy// 519 (see 
under ataktéw), where four sets of ἔφηβοι and their 
σωφρονισταί get their meed of praise and garlands, 
εὐτ]άκτους αὑτοὺς παρέχουσιν replaces the verb in one place 
out of three. BGU IV. 1056!8 (B.c. 13) διδόντες τὸν μὲν 
τόκον κατὰ μῆνα εὐτάκτως, “regularly’’: so 115614 
(B.C. 15). 


P Lond 2338 (B.c, 158-7) (= I. p. 38) διὰ τὸ ἄτεκνόν με 
εἶναι. The word is common in connexion with dispositions 
of property, etc., e.g. P Oxy IT. 249!° ® (a.p. 80) τοῦ ὁμο- 
γνησίου pov ἀδελφοῦ Ποπλίου... μ[εἸτηλλαχότος ἀτέκνου, 
P Amh II. 728 (A.D. 246) ἀτέκνου καὶ ἀδιαθέτου “childless 
and intestate.”’ P Strass I. 298% (A.D. 289), a/. Cf. also 
BGU 11. 648 15 (A.D. 164 or 196) ἐπεὶ kal ἄτεκν[6ς] εἰμι Kal 
οὐδὲ ἐμαυτῆι ἀπαρκεῖν δύναμαι. 


For this characteristically Lukan word cf. the Leiden 
occult papyrus Ws"! 8 Ε εἰσελθόντος δὲ τοῦ θεοῦ μὴ ἐνατένιζε 
τῇ ὄψει, ἀλλὰ τῆς ((. τοῖς) ποσί, The intensive meaning, 
which underlies the NT usage, comes out in the description 
of Thecla’s rapt attention to Paul’s teaching—arevi{ovra ὡς 
πρὸς evppactay (Acta Pauli Viii.). 


For this (originally) poetic word which is found in the 
Grk Bible only 2 Macc 121%, Lk 22 ®and35\ cf, Przene 10910 
(c. B.C. 120) ἄτερ ὀψωνίου, “without salary.” It occurs 
in P Oxy VI. 93618 (iii/A.D., a rather uneducated letter) ὃ 
ἠπητὴς λέγει ὅτι οὐ δίδω οὔτε τὸν χαλκὸν οὔτε τὸ φαινόλιν 
ἄτερ Ιούστου, “the cobbler says that he will not give up 
either the money or the cloak without Justus ” (Edd.). Cf. 
also P Leid Wi-12 (Apocrypha Moisis) ἄτερ yap τούτων 
(the corrected from 0) ὁ εὸς (/. θεὸς) οὐκ ἐπακούσεται. 
To the references in the Lexicons may be added Vettius 
Valens pp. 1365, 271°, 341°, and Cleanthes hymn. Orph. 
68, 8. 


P Petr II. 4 (6) (B.c. 255-4) Swvov (7. δεινὸν) γάρ ἐστιν 
ἐν ὄχλωι ἀτιμάζεσθαι, “for it is a dreadful thing to be in- 
sulted before a crowd” (Ed.). Cf. OGZS 383" (i/B.c.) 



καθωσιωμένων τε ἡρώων ἀτιμασθεὶς νόμος ἀνειλάτους ἔχει 
ποινάς, γ᾽ 8015. (ii/A.p.—pagan, but with phrases from 
LXX) ἐπικατάρατος ὅστις μὴ pelSorto . . . τοῦδε τοῦ ἔργου 
(a tomb and statue) . ., ἀλλὰ ἀτειμάσει ἢ μεταθήσει ὅρους 
ἐξ ὅρων (Dittenberger emends ἐξορύσσων) κτὰλ., BGU IV. 
το 411: 28 (jv/y A.D.) πωλοῦσία αὐτὴν πρὸς] ἀτιμάζουσαν 
τιμήν (of a girl sold ἴο shame). The connotation of the last 
ex. survives in MGr, to ‘‘ seduce” a girl. 


P Giss I. 4oii 5, an edict announcing an amnesty of Cara- 
calla A.D. 212, μετὰ t[d] π[λ]ηρωθῆναι τὸ τοῦ χρ[όϊνου διά- 
στημα οὐκ ὀνειδισθήσεται ἢ τῆς ἀτιμ[ί]ας παρασημεί[ω]σις. 
The word is found in ἃ hitherto unknown fragment, perhaps 
of Euripides, published in P Par p. 86— 

οὐκ ἣν ἄρ᾽ οὐθὲν πῆμ᾽ ἐλευθέραν δάκνον 
ψυχὴν ὁμοίως ἀνδρός, ὡς ἀτιμία. 

(But Euripides did not write οὐθέν 1) 


Its old technical meaning, familiar in Attic law—cf., for 
example, A’oberts-Gardner no. 324°, dated B.C. 377, ὑπαρ- 
χέτω pltv] αὐτῷ aripw εἶναι καὶ [τὰ χρ]ήήμαίτα αὐτ]οῦ 
δημόσια ¥oTw—is seen in OG/S 33539 (ii/B.c.) εἶναι αὐτοὺς 
καῇ] αὐτὰς ἀτίμους te kal τὰ ἑκατέρων ὑπάρχοντα τῆς 
πόλεως : in 5278 ἄτι[μον] δὲ εἶναι the context seems to 
require the meaning of ‘‘ contrary to law,” though the editor 
admits that this cannot be found in the word itself. In the 
Acts of the martyrdom of Christina, PSI 277 (v/A.p.) the 
Saint is described as addressing Urbanus as βάρος πάσης 
ἀνομίας ἔχων καὶ] ἀτίμ[ο]υ σπέρματος. It is MGr. 


In a fragmentary Decree of the Senate and People, 
Rolerts-Gardner p. 69 ff., prescribing the conditions upon 
which Selymbria, after its capture in B.C, 409-8 by Alci- 
biades, was restored to the Athenian alliance, provision is 
made that disfranchised persons should be restored to their 
privileges— εἴ tis ἠτίμωτ[ο, ἔντιμον εἶναι]. 


The long British Museum magical papyrus, P Lond 
121689 and 743 (jji/A.D.) (=I. pp. 104, 108), shows this word 
twice—rreptéveykovy τὸ δακ[τ]ύλιον ἐπὶ τῆς ἀτμίτος τοῦ 
λιβίάνου) and περὶ τὴν ἀτμίδα. Cf. νὴ δο4}" (ii/A.D. ?— 
Epidaurus) θυμιατήριον ἀτμίζοϊν. 


With ἐν ἀτόμῳ (1 Cor 1552) cf. Symm. Tsai 545 ἐν ἀτόμῳ 
ὀργῆς, where the LXX has ἐν μικρῷ θυμῷ. This will suffice 
to make Paul’s dependence for the word on Plato and 
Aristotle less assured than it might have been. 

» a 

From its original meaning ‘‘ out of place, 
ἄτοπος came to be used especially in Plato of what was 

* “unbecoming,” 

“marvellous,” ‘‘odd” (e.g. Legg. i. 646 B τοῦ θαυμ.-στοῦ 
τε καὶ ἀτόπου), and from this the transition was easy in 
later Grk to the ethical mearing of ‘‘improper,” ‘‘ un- 
righteous,” e. g. Philo Zegg. Ad/eg. ili. 17 παρ᾽ ὃ kal ἄτοπος 
λέγεται εἶναι ὁ φαῦλος ἄτοπον δέ ἐστι κακὸν δύσθετον. It 

᾽ , 
is in this sense that the word is always used in the LXX and 
in the NT (except Ac 28*—and even there it = κακόν), and 
the usage can be freely illustrated from the Kowy. Thus 
in the early P Petr II. 19 (1 a) 5* (iii/B.c.) a prisoner asserts 
‘in the name of God and of fair play” (οὕνεκα τοῦ θεοῦ 
kal τοῦ καλῶς ἔχοντος) that he has said nothing ἄτοπον, 
ὅπερ καὶ ἀληθινόν ἐστι, and in 76. III. 43 (3) 17 (iii/B.c.) 
precautions are taken against certain discontented labourers 
ἵνα μὴ ἄτοπ[ό]ν τι πράξωσιν. Similarly Chest. I. 238% 
(c. A.D. 117) παραφυλάξε τε εἰς τὸ μηδὲν ἄτοπον ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν 
πραχθῆναι. In BGU III. 7577! (a.p. 12) ἕτερα Aroma are 
attributed to some marauders who had pulled to pieces a 
farmer’s sheaves of wheat, and thrown them to the pigs ; and 
the parents of the prodigal (P Flor I. 99!°—see s. v. ἀσωτία) 
announce that they are giving publicity to his misdeeds 
μήποτε ἐϊπ]ηρεάσηι ἡμεῖν ἢ ἕτερο[ν] ἢ (Ὁ omit) ἄτοπόν τι 
πράξη[ι], ‘lest he should insult us, or do anything else 
amiss.” P Flor 11. 17738 (A.D. 257) ἄτοπον γάρ ἐστιν 
αὐτοὺς ὠνεῖσθαι is less clear. The subst. ἀτόπημα is found 
P Tebt 11. 303!! (A.D. 176-80) περὶ ὧν eis ἡμᾶς διεπράξατο 
ἀτοπημάτων, ““ concerning the outrages which he committed 
against us” (Edd.): cf. P Lips I. 397 (A.D. 390) kal μ[ηϊκέτι 
κατὰ μηδενὸς ἀτόπημα διαπράξασθαι. A curious use of the 
adverb (if the restoration is correct) occurs in the Acts of 
Christina, where the saint is represented as addressing 
Urbanus, after having looked up into heaven kal [ἀτ]όπως 
γελάσασα (PSI 277, v/A.D.); perhaps ‘‘ with a strange” or 
“forced laugh.” It may be added that in CR xvii. p. 265 
οὐκ ἀτόπως is cited from Thucydides (vii. 305) with the 
meaning ‘‘not badly ””—‘‘an uncommon use,” the writer 

Nageli (p. 25) translates this verb by ‘‘see, see clearly” 
in the Pauline passage 2 Cor 44 els τὸ μὴ αὐγάσαι τὸν 
φωτισμὸν Tod εὐαγγελίου τῆς δόξης τοῦ Χριστοῦ, holding 
that there is no reason why this old poetic sense (Soph. 
Ph. 217) should not have passed into the Kowy. It should 
be noticed that in the LXX (Lev 1338 αἢ the word has the 
wholly different meaning of ‘‘appear white or bright.” For 
the compd. διαυγάζω see the horoscope P Lond 13079 (i/ii 
A.D.) (=I. p. 135) διηύγαζεν. 


The choice of this word as a proper name in Egypt is 
witnessed by Prezsigke 1995, 1999, 2003, 2006, 2008, from a 
set of sepulchral inscrr. of Alexandria. This is a better 
warrant of vernacular use than the fulsome laudation with 
which the Cyzicenes greeted the first acts of Gaius (A.D. 37), 
Syll 365%, ἐπεὶ 6 νέος Ἥλιος Datos (κτλ.) συναναλάμψαι ταῖς 
ἰδίαις αὐγαῖς καὶ τὰς δορυφόρους τῆς ἡγεμονίας ἠθέλησεν 
βασιλήας, 7. 6. surrounded himself with satellites in the 
shape of vassal kings restored to thrones from which Tiberius 
expelled them (Dittenberger). Αὐγή is the MGr for 
“dawn,” and probably superseded the irregular noun ἕως 
very early in the Kow history: Ac 201} ἄχρι αὐγῆς is thus 
good vernacular. So P Leid W*+* ἐφάνη φῶς, αὐγή (cf. 
iv.99), Cf. also the dimin. αὐγοῦλα in ΔΊΟΥ, as in the Klepht 
ballad (Abbott, Sozgs p. 26)— 

Κ᾽ ἐκεῖ πρὸς τὰ Xapdypara, κ᾽ ἐκεῖ πρὸς τὴν αὐγοῦλα, 

And there, towards daybreak, towards early morn. 



is usually replaced by the translation Σεβαστός : it is well 
to remember that the title meant a great deal more than 
‘“august,” being connected essentially with the apotheosis 
of the Emperor. Since Σεβαστός enters into the style of 
every Emperor till Constantine (when in the papyri Avyov- 
eros significantly replaces it), the original Latin word could 
be retained in an early writer (see Aer contra exx. from iv/A.D. 
below) as the personal name of Octavian: so Lk 2? against 
Ac 25225, The spelling ᾿Αγούστου in NC*A represents a 
genuine Hellenistic pronunciation (see Pro/eg. p. 47): 
but in the case of this Latin word it is probably (so Prof. 
Thumb) conditioned by the influence of vulgar Latin: cf. 
Ital. agosto. ᾿Α[γ]ούστων occurs in P Lond 4077" (A.D. 346) 
(=II. p. 274), which is roughly coeval with N: the Edd. 
note it is thus spelt in many of the papyri of the period. 
So P Oxy I. 41° (ili/iv a.p.) “Ayouorou κύριοι, BGU IV. 
1049! (A.D. 342), P Goodsp Cairo 12 1 (A.D. 340) τῶν τὰ 
πάντα νικόντων Σεβαστῶν ἡμῶν ᾿Αγούστων, 7. 15° (A.D. 
362) ᾿Α[γο]ύστου. The tendency arose in Greek centuries 
earlier— Mayser Gr. p. 114 cites Γλακίου from P Par 415 
(B.c. 158), and σατοῦ and the like appear in Ptolemaic 


In P Amh II. 78!8f (a.p. 184) it seems certain that we 
should read p[ov] πλεονεκτῖ ἄνθρωπος α[ὐ]θάδης (not 
ἀσθενής). A few lines lower we find τοιαύτης oft]v 
αὐθαδίας ἐν αὐτῷ οὔσης οὐ δυνάμενος [ἐν]καρτερεῖν, “his 
audacity having reached this pitch I can endure no longer”’ 
(Edd.). According to Cronert Mem. Herc., p. 32, the form 
αὐθαδία, which in Attic is confined to the poets, “‘linguae 
pedestris auctoribus sine dubio reddenda est.”’ Its vernacular 
character may be further established by P Tebt I. 161° 
(B.c. 114) αὐθαδίᾳ χρώμενοι ““ persisting in their violent 
behaviour ”’ (Edd.), Sy// 893?? (ii/A.D.) καὶ τοὺς ὑβρίσαντας 
τοὺς ἥρωας (the Di Manes) τῶν τέκνων ἡμῶν Kal ἐμὲ καὶ 
τὸν ἄνδρα μου ΤΙ. καὶ ἐπιμένοντας τῇ αὐθαδίᾳ, CPIerm 1% 


(no context), BGU III. 747 11:11. (a.p. 139) μέχρι αὐθαδίας 

ἐπ[ι]χειροῦσιν φθάνειν, 76. ΓΝ. 1187% (i/B.c.) τῆι δὲ περὶ 

ἑαυτὰς βίαι καὶ αὐθαδίᾳ [συ]νχρησάμενοι, P Gen I. 31° | 

(A.D. 145-6) τῇ αὐτῇ αὐθαδίᾳ χρώμενος. The subst. is 
not found in the NT, but see LXX Isai 248, Didache 5}. 
The adverb is quotable from P Tebt II. 3317 (c. A.D. 131) 
ἐπῆλθο[ν αἸὐθάδως εἰς ἣν ἔχω ἐν TH κώμῃ οἰκίαν, P Grenf I. 
4719 (A.D. 148) ἐπιγνοὺς αὐθάδως τεθε[ρ]ίσθαι ὑπ[ὸ] “Ὥρους 
κτλ., P Ryl II. 13316 (A.D. 33) αὐθάδως κατέσπασεν ἀπὸ 
μέρους ““νεπιιγεα to pull it partly down’’ (Ed.), Ρ Lond 
35822 (c. A.D. 150) (=II. p. 172) αὐθάδως ἀναστραφέντων, 
and P Oxy X. 12424! 4 (jii/a.D.—a semi-literary piece), 
where Trajan says to an anti-Semite advocate, δε, δεύτερόν 
σοι λέγω, “Eppatcxe, αὐθάδως ἀποκρείντ. πεποιθὼς τῷ 
σεαυτοῦ γένει, 


In OG/S 5838 (i/A.D.) a certain Adrastus is praised as 
δωρεὰν Kal αὐθαίρετος γυμνασίαρχος, zc. he had provided 
oil at his own expense for the combatants, and exercised 
the office voluntarily (see the editor’s note): cf. also the 
late P Par 2118 (A.D. 616) av@atpérw βουλήσει Kal ἀδόλῳ 
συνειδήσει. For the adverb see Magn 163!°% πᾶσάν τε 


λειτουργίαν. .. τελέσαντος τῇ πατρίδι αὐθαιρέτως, and 
the common technical phrase ἑκουσίως καὶ αὐθαιρέτως, as 
P Lond 2807 (A.D. 55) (=II. p. 193), BGU IT. 581° 
(Aep2133) 5) Rips 172 a (A-D: 377) Ὁ Giss its 
(vi/A.D.), αὐ. : the phrase may also be expressed adjectivally, 
as with γνώμῃ in P Oxy X. 1280° (iv/a.D.). 



The history of this word has been satisfactorily cleared 
up by P. Kretschmer, in G/of/a iii. (1912), p. 289 ff. He 
shows that αὐθέντης ‘‘murderer”’ is by haplology for 
αὐτοθέντης from θείνω, while αὐθέντης ‘‘master’’ (as in 
literary MGr) is from αὐτ-ἕντης (cf. συνέντης᾽ συνεργός in 
Hesychius, root sez ‘‘accomplish,” avi). The astonishing 
sense-development described in Grimm may accordingly 
disappear. So likewise may his descraption of the verb as 
a “bibl. and eccl. word,’’ after the evidence (given below) 
that the adj. αὐθεντικός is very well established in the 
vernacular. “ Biblical ’’—which in this case means that the 
word occurs ovce in the NT (1 Tim 212)—seems intended to 
hint what ἅπαξ εἰρημένον in a ‘profane ’”’ writer would not 
convey. We may refer to Nageli, p. 49, for evidence which 
encourages us to find the verb’s provenance in the popular 
vocabulary. The Atticist Thomas Magister, p. 18, 8, warns 
his pupil to use αὐτοδικεῖν because αὐθεντεῖν was vulgar 
(κοινότερον) : so Moeris, p. 58 --αὐτοδίκην (/.—etv) ᾿᾽Αττικοι, 
αὐθέντην (1. --εἶν) “Εἰλληνες. The use in 1 Tim 2! comes 
quite naturally out of the word ‘‘master, autocrat.’’ Cf. P 
Leid W™ 45 6 ἀρχάγγελος τῶν ὑπὸ τὸν κόσμον, αὐθέντα ἥλιε. 
For the adj. cf. 26. i. 48, P Oxy II. 26ο3 (a. Ὁ. 59), ἃ document 
signed by the assistant of the strategus to give it legal sanction 
-Θέ[ω]ν ᾿Οννώφριος ὑπηρέτης ernkod[ot]O[q]ka τῆι [α]ύ- 
θεντι[κ]ῆι χιρ[ογρ]α(φίᾳ), “1, Theon, son of O., assistant, 
have checked this authentic bond’’ (Edd.): so 74. 1V. 
719% 83 (A.D. 193). In BGU I. 3261-29 (ii./a.D.) a scribe 
declares the ἀντίγραφον before him to be σύμφωνον τῇ 
αὐθεντικῇ διαθήκῃ: cf. Wilcken Οτῶ τοῖο (Roman) 
ὁμολ[ογοῦμεν) ἔχιν τὴν αὐθεντικὴν ἀποχὴν ἀχύρ[ου), P 
Hamb I. 181-6 (Α.Ὁ. 222) αὐθ(εντικῶν) ἐπιστολ(ῶν) καὶ 
βιβλ(ιδίων) ὑποκεκολ(λημένων), P Giss 1. 341 (A.D. 265-6) 
τὰ αὐθεντικ[ά], and P Lond 985}8 (iv/A.p.) (= III. p. 229) 
ἔδοκα τὸ ἴσον κ[(αἱ) ἔχω τὴν αὐθε[ν]τικὴν ἀποχὴν παρ᾽ 
ἐμαυτῷ. The subst. is found P Lips I. 33: % 58 (a.p. 368), 
BGU 11. 66918 (Byz.) ἰδίᾳ αὐθεντίᾳ ὄργανον ἔστησεν εἰ[ς] 
τὸν αὐτὸν λάκκον. For αὐθεντίζω, “take in Παηα,᾿᾿ see 
Chrest. I. ii. p. 160. The noun produces ultimately the 
common MGr ἀφέντης (Zend?) ‘ Mr.” 


A Cairo papyrus (iii/B.c.), Chest, I. 224.11, has ἀπογε- 
γράμμεθα τὴν [ὑἸπάρχουσα (/.-av) ἡμῖν οἰκίαν [κ]αὶ αὐλὴν 
καὶ ἄλλο [ο]ΐκημα. P Lond 4515 (B.c. 160-59) (=I. p. 
36) has a complaint against marauders who had not only 
sacked a house, but had appropriated to their own uses 
τὴν προσοῦσαν αὐλὴν καὶ τὸν τῆς οἰκίας τόπον ψιλόν. 
These will serve as good specimens of the normal use in the 
papyri, where the word is extremely common, denoting the 
“court ’’ attached to a house: cf. BGU I. 2758 (Α.}. 215) 
αὐλῇ προσκυρούσῃ οἰκίᾳ pov. It could be used for 

*: see the ostracon from Syene, A7chiv v. p. 179, 

“lumber "”: 
no. 34° τὸ ξύλον τὸ [μυρί]κινον τὸ ἐν TH αὐλῇ. Note that 


οἶκος could include both: P Fay 3115 (c. A.D. 129) πέμ- 
πτον μέρος ὅλης τῆς οἰκίας καὶ αὐλῆς Kal τοῦ ὅλου οἴκου 
“the fifth part of the whole house and court and of the 
whole tenement.’’ So far as we have observed, there is 
nothing in the Kotvy to support the contention that in the 
NT αὐλή ever means the house itself: see Meyer on Mt 263. 
The plural is used of ‘ guest-chambers,’’ as in the interesting 
P Tebt I. 338 (B.c. 112) (= Se/ectzons, p. 28) where, amongst 
the preparations for a Roman visitor, we read—opévticov 
ὡς ἐπὶ τῶν καθηκόντων τόπων al τε αὐλαὶ κατασκευασ[θ]ή- 

Like the Latin az/a and our own court, the word readily 
comes to denote a Royal entourage, e.g. P Par 4917 (B.c. 
164-58) (= Witkowski?, p. 70) δόξαντα ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ 
ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ εἶναι, “since he has a brother at Court’’; 
OGTS 735% (ii/B.c.) τῶν περὶ αὐλὴν διαδόχων], referring 
to certain officials attached to the court of Ptolemy Philo- 
metor; Vettius, p. 8015, ἐν βασιλικαῖς avAats: so also 
Preisigke 1568 (B.C. 146-17) πρῶτοι φίλοι kal χιλίαρχοι 
kal ἄλλοι οἱ περὶ αὐλήν. When, therefore, Suidas defined 
αὐλή as ἡ τοῦ βασιλέως οἰκία, he was not far out, though 
αὐλή seemingly cannot mean an ordinary house. BGU IV. 
1098! (c. B.C, 17) τῷ Setv]u τῶι ἐπὶ Tod ἐν τῆι αὐλῆι κριτηρίου 
presents a court sitting in the αὐλή, as against Mk 1455, 
where the αὐλή is clearly outside the room where the 
Sanhedrists were in session. Sy// 102 58 (B.c, 290-87) ἐν τῆι 
αὐλεῖ τοῦ ἱεροῦ (a/.) illustrates Ps 84? 1° (LXX 83811): cf. 
also 20. 7348* (Cos), where it is forbidden ἀποθήκηι χρᾶσθαι 
τ[ῆι αὐλ]ῆι τῆι ἐν τῶι ἱερῶι μηδ᾽ ἐν τῶι περιπάτω[ι, ἂ]μ μὴ 
πόλεμος ἦι. In MGr = ‘‘court.” 


is found in P Hib I. 548 (c. B.c. 245) where the writer 
gives instructions regarding a forthcoming festival—amd- 
[στειλον. τὸν αὐλητὴν Πετωῦν ἔχοντ[α] τούς τε 
Φρυγίους αὐλ[ο]ὺς καὶ τοὺς λοιπούς. So in P Oxy X. 
12759 (iii/A.D.), where ὃ προεστὼς συμφωνίας αὐλητῶν καὶ 
μουσικῶν is ergaged with his ‘‘company ” (συμφωνία) for a 
five days’ village festival. The festival for which the flute- 
player is wanted is more unmistakably secular in the frag- 
mentary men, P Giss I. 931. Generally he belongs to the 
apparatus of religion. So apparently in Cagnat IV. 1354 
(B.c. 46—a revision of Sy// 348), recording the prayer of 
Σωτηρίδης Γάλλος --α priest of the Magna Mater at Cyzicus 
—on behalf of his “ partner’’ (σύμβιος) M. Stlaccius, an 
αὐλητής, who had been taken captive in a military expedition 
and sold. Sy// 61218 (B.c. 24) gives us an αὐλητής in a 
list of functionaries connected with the temple of Zeus at 
Olympia: Dittenberger tells us this was the vernacular for 
σπονδαύλης, a title found always in ii/A.D. An αὐλητὴς 
τραγικός is mentioned in OG/S 51 (iii/B.c.) amongst the 
ἀδελφοί who formed the ‘‘synod”’ of the priest Zopyrus for 
ceremonial purposes. In Jag 98* the στεφανηφόρος has 
to provide αὐλητὴν συριστὴν κιθαριστήν for a festival of 
Zeus Sosipolis ; while 76. 237 is illustrated by an interesting 
sketch showing the “riclénium ἱερῶν αὐλητρίδων καὶ ἀκρο- 
βατῶν attached to the temple of Archegetis of Chalchis. In 
the fragment of an uncanonical Gospel, composed before 
A.D. 200, reference is made to the washing of the outside 
skin ὅπερ [ka]l αἱ πόρναι καὶ afi] αὐλητρίδες μυρί[{]ου[ σιν 
κ]αὶ λούουσιν κτλ. (P Oxy V. 840% 5.) 




ΟΟΛ5 730? (111,8.6.) ὥστε αὐλίσζασθα]ι [αὐτόθι ἐν ἡ]μ[έ]- 
pats δυσί(ν). We may note Didache 115, where it is laid 
down that a wayfaring apostle, on leaving any house 
where he has been entertained, is to take nothing with him 
except bread ἕως οὗ αὐλισθῇ, “until he reach his (next 
night’s) lodging’: cf. the expressive use in LXX Ps 298 τὸ 
ἑσπέρας αὐλισθήσεται κλαυθμός, “ weeping may come in 
to lodge (like a passing stranger) at even.’’ In Prezsigke 
1579, a bracelet of Byzantine date, we find LXX Ps go! as 
an amulet, with αὐλισθίσεται:: there are no variants except 
of spelling. 


See the first citation s.v. αὐλητής. 
ὑπαυλισμός is a flute accompaniment. 

On a possible connexion of αὐλός with Heb 4$m 
“bore,” “ pierce,” and then “ pipe,” see Lewy Fremdworte, 
Ρ. 165f. But Lithuanian and Slavonic words given in 
Boisacq s.v. are much closer; and there is ἔναυλος, 
“yravine,’’ to be reckoned with. 

In BGU IV. 1125 


According to Mayser, Gr. p. 465, the form αὐξάνω, which 
is found in the LXX (Gen 3514, Sir 438) and NT, occurs in 
the Ptolemaic papyri only in P Leid Bi ® (ii/B.c.) μᾶλλον 
αὐξάνεσθαι ἀκολούθως τῇ τῶν προγόνων [προαιρέσει] : else- 
where, as in the Attic inscriptions up to Imperial times 
(Meisterhans G7. p. 176), we find only att. The latter, 
contrary to general NT usage (as Eph 24, Col 219) is transi- 
tive in such passages as Afichel 5517 (the Canopus decree, 
B.C. 238) τὰς τι[μὰς τῶν θεῶν] ἐπὶ πλεῖον αὔξοντες, Cagzat 
IV. 24η35 (Stratonicea, c. B.C. 150) ἐπὶ πλεῖον αὔξειν τ[ὴν] 
φιλίαν, and JJagn 337 αὔξοντες τὴν πρὸς τοὺς θεοὺς εὐσέ- 
βειαν, 2. 50°8 ἐπὶ πλεῖον αὔξων, after a hiatus. So, at a 
later time, the fuller form: P ἈΝ] II. γγ88 (a.p. 192) τῆς 
πόλ(εως) avkdve[t] τὰ πράγματα. The same is implied in 
the use of the mid. in Sy// 89118 μηδὲ οἶκος av—ouro—a pagan 
curse which quotes the LXX. For the intrans. usage cf. 
Aristeas 208 θεωρῶν, as ἐν πολλῷ χρόνῳ Kal κακοπαθείαις 
μεγίσταις αὔξει τε καὶ γεννᾶται τὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων γένος. 
Of the moon, Ρ Leid Wit 2!. In MGr αὐξαίνω. 


Chrest. Τ. 70" (an inscr. of B.c. 57-) τούτου πρὸς αὔξησιν 
ἀγομένου, of a temple for which the priests ask the privilege 
of ἀσυλία. 


P Par 4719:. (6. B.C. 153) (= Selections, p. 23) ὃ στρατηγὸς 
ἀναβαίν᾽ αὔριον εἰς τὸ Σαραπιῆν, P Tebt I. 372%: (B.c. 73) 
ἐὰν δὲ ἀμελήσῃς ἀναγκασθήσομαι ἐγὼ ἐ[λθεῖ]ν αὔριο[ν], and 
BGU I. 3821 (i/A.p.) where a boy writes to his father that 
he goes daily to a certain seller of barley-beer (ζυθόπωλις) 
who daily says σήμερον αὔρ[ε]ιν (-(ε)υν for -tov, as often), 
‘*to-day, to-morrow (you shall get it),’’ but never gives it. 
The full phrase, which is contracted in Mt 6%4, Ac 45, is seen 
in BGU 1. 286! (A.D, 306) ἀπὸ τῆς αὔριον ἡμέρας, and 
Wiinsch 47 318 (Imperial) ἐν τῇ αὔριν ἡμέρᾳ. It appears 
without ἡμέρα in P Flor II. 1185 (A.p. 254) μετὰ τὴν a., 
P Tebt II. 4177 and 416? (iii/a.p.) ἐν τῇ a.) BGU 11. gr1é 18 


(c. A.D. 200) εἰς αὔ]ριον (or εἰς τὴν a.), etc. Mayser Οὐ. 
p. 200, quotes P Tebt I. 119%? (B.c. 105-1) τὸ ἐφαύρι[ο]ν 
for ἐφ᾽ αὔριον as proof of the living character of the strong 
aspirate: here the analogy of ἐφ᾽ ἡμέραν is an obvious influ- 
ence. Note also the formula of invitation to dinner, as 
P Oxy III. 524% α[ὔριον], ἥτις ἐστὶν d, 26. I. 110% (also 
ii/A.D.) αὔριον ἥτις ἐστὶν τε, 24. 1115 (iii/A.D.) αὔριον, ἥτις 
ἐστὶν πέμπτη: so 7. VII. 1025} (late iii/A.D.), where an 
actor and a Homeric reciter are engaged to come for a 
festival ‘‘on the birthday of Cronus the most great god,” 
τῶν θεωριῶν ἅμ᾽ αὔ[ρ]ιον ἥτις ἐστὶν t ἀγομ[έν]ων. It is 


The epithet of Lk 19? is poorly rendered by the word we 
have borrowed. It obviously means ‘‘strict, exacting,’ a 
man who expects to get blood out of a stone. This sense 
is well seen in P Tebt II. 31.515 (ii/aA.D.), in which the writer 
warns his friend, who was evidently connected with the 
temple finance, to see that his books were in good order, in 
view of the visit of a government inspector, 6 yap ἄνθρωπος 
λείαν ἐστὶ[ν] αὐστηρός, ‘a regular martinet.’’ Cf. BGU I. 
14017, the copy of a military letter or diploma of the time 
of Hadrian, in which, with reference to certain regulations 
affecting his soldiers, the Emperor rejoices that he is able 
to interpret in a milder manner (φιλανθρωπότερ(ον)) τὸ 
αὐστηρότερον ὑπὸ τῶν πρὸ ἐμοῦ αὐτοκρατόρων σταθέν. In 
the curious rhetorical exercise (?) P Oxy III. 47193 (ii/a.D.) 
we find τί οὖν ὁ κατηφὴς σὺ kal ὑπεραύϊστηρος οὐκ ἐκώλυες ; 
“why then did not you with your modesty and extreme 
austerity stop him?’’ (Edd.). Here (as the context shows) 
a rigorous Puritanism is sarcastically attributed to a high 
Roman official, whose scandalous relations with a favourite 
ill became a v2 grads: this is nearer to the English azstere. 
Four centuries earlier, it describes ‘‘rough”’ country, OG/S 
16857 αὐστηροῖς τόποις παρορίοις τῆι Αἰθιοπίαι. So in a 
metrical epitaph from Cos (i/B.c.), Aazbe/ 201° γυμνάδος 
αὐστηρὸν διετῆ πόνον ἐκτελέσαντα, of ‘exacting ’’ physical 
work. We may add that the connotation of the adj. in its 
later sense is very well given by the combination in Vettius 
Valens, p. 7511, where a particular conjunction of Venus and 
Saturn produces αὐστηροὺς ἀγελάστους ἐπισκύνιον ἔχοντας, 
πρὸς δὲ τὰ ἀφροδίσια σκληροτέρους : the sequel however 
admits vice, but of a gloomy and bizarre type. 


occurs in P Oxy IV. 72919 (A.D. 137) τὴν δὲ αὐτάρκιαν 
κόπρον περιστερῶν, “guano, the necessary amount,”’ P Flor 
11. 1221} (A.D. 253-4) πάρεχε τὸ[ὀψώνιον 2] κατ᾽ αὐτά[ρ- 
κειαν ἢ, 16. 2428 (same date) ἵνα δυνηθῇς ἔχειν τὴν αὐτάρ- 
κιαν ἔστ᾽ ἂν τὰ σὰ ἐν ἑτοίμῳ γένηται. It is thus only 
concrete, ‘‘a sufficiency ’’: see next article. Vettius Valens 
({p. 2892) has the noun, apparently with the meaning ‘‘a 


We have several quotations, but only in the simple sense 
of ‘“‘enough.’’ Thus P Oxy LV. 72919 (A.D. 137) τὸν αὐτάρκη 
κέραμον, ‘‘a sufficient number of jars,’ P Lond 11668 (a.p. 
42) (=III., p. 104) τὰ αὐτάρκη καύματα for a bath house, 
P Flor I, 25% (ii/A.D.) χ]ορηγοῦντος τὰ αὐτάρκη σπέρματα, 


᾽ a 

P Strass I. 22°F (iii/A.p.) ἡ [δ] ἐνιαυτοῦ νομὴ αὐτάρκης 
ἐστίν, ‘“‘the tenure of one year is sufficient,” P Lond 9481 
(A.D. 236) παρεχόμενος ὁ κυβερνήτης τοὺς αὐτάρκεις ναύτας, 
‘the full number of men,” 726. 1171 verso’ ® (A.D. 42) τὰ 
αὐταάρκει ἐπιδήτια (so Wilcken—for αὐτάρκη ἐπιτήδεια) 
(severally = III., p. 220, 107), P Lips I. 2912 (A.D. 295) 
αἸὐτάρκης yap kal ὑπ᾽ αὐ[τ]ῆς ἔπαθον : this is for αὔταρκες 
(or αὐτάρκη) --““1 have suffered enough from her,’’ etc. So 
in the adverb BGU II. 665-18 (i/a.p.) ἡτοιμάσθη αὐτῇ 
πάντα [π]ρὸς [τ]ὴν Aox[e]lav αὐταρκῶς, P Flor II. 2471} 
(A.D. 256) αὐταρκῶς δὲ ἔχεις ἅπαξ ἐπιστέλλων κτλ.» “it will 
be sufficient if you . .᾿᾿ The participle of the derived verb 
is given in BGU IV. 112218 (Aug.) τὰ αὐταρκ(οῦντα). 

The record lends some emphasis to the Pauline use of the 
word in the philosophic sense of ‘‘ self-sufficient, contented.” 
For all his essentially popular vocabulary, on which Nageli 
rightly lays stress, Paul could use the technical words of 
thinkers in their own way (cf. Nageli’s summing up, p. 41 Ἐς 
and Milligan, Documents, p. 56 f.). We have to go to 
literary sources for parallels to Phil 44 and Sir 4o'* : Kennedy 
EGT on Phil 411 well quotes Plato Rep 369 B οὐκ αὐτάρκης 
ἀλλὰ πολλῶν ἐνδεής, “we are not individually independent, 
but have many wants’”’ (Davies and Vaughan). In Marcus 
Aurelius (115) τὸ αὔταρκες ἐν παντί is mentioned as a 
characteristic of Antoninus Pius. 


is, for all we know to the contrary, a genuine new coinage 
in Tit 3%. It is built on a model which any writer or 
speaker was free to use at will. 


CPHerm 119 verso +318 (Gallienus). . Ἰαὐτόματοι καὶ 
[. . . , unfortunately in hiatus. Vettius Valens twice uses 
the adverb with προβιβάζων (or its passive), “advancing of 
its own accord.”’ With the use of this word in Mk 488, 
Abbott (Joh. Voc. p. 54) compares Philo’s description of 
Isaac the self-taught (αὐτομαθής) i. 571-2 ἔστι δὲ kal τρίτος 
ὅρος τοῦ αὐτομαθοῦς τὸ ἀναβαῖνον αὐτόματον (that which 
cometh up of itself). Cf. also Wisd 17°, where with refer- 
ence to the plague of darkness it is said that no power of the 
fire or the stars could give the Egyptians light, διεφαίνετο δ᾽ 
αὐτοῖς μόνον αὐτομάτη πυρὰ φόβου πλήρης, “ but there 
appeared to them the glimmering of a fire self-kindled, full 
of fear.” On Jn 1677 αὐτὸς yap ὁ πατὴρ φιλεῖ ὑμᾶς, Field 
remarks (Woées, p- 104) that αὐτός is here = αὐτόματος z/tro, 
me non commendanie, and cites Callim. 27. Apol/. 6 αὐτοὶ 
νῦν κατοχῆες ἀνακλίνεσθε, where the Scholiast has 


In P Oxy VIII. 11548 (late i/A.D.) a man, who was per- 
haps absent on military service, writes to his sister not to be 
anxious, αὐτόπτης yap εἰμι τῶν τόπων καὶ οὐκ εἰμὶ ξέν οἷς 
τῶν ἐνθάδε, ‘for 1 am personally acquainted with these 
places and am not a stranger here ”’ (Edd.). Note Vettius 
Valens, p. 260%, ἐγὼ δὲ οὐ λόγῳ καλῷ χρησάμενος, πολλὰ 
δὲ καμὼν καὶ παθὼν αὐτόπτης γενόμενος τῶν πραγμάτων 
δοκιμάσας συνέγραψα. The spell for procuring the visible 
appearance of the god invoked is introduced in the magical 
P Lond 122® (iv/a.D.) (=I. p. 119) by the words ἐὰν θέλῃς 

, I, 
QUTOS 94, 

καὶ αὐτοψαν αὐτὸν ἐκάλεσε, the evident intention being to 

correct avtoway into the passive verbal αὐτοπτον. Cf. also 
16. 1218 (iii/A.D.) (=I. p. 94), and the derived adj. 
αὐτοπτικός in the same papyrus in a spell for raising one’s 
own “‘double,’’ ° αὐτοπτικὴ ἐὰν βούλῃς σεαυτὸν [ἰ]δεῖν. 
For the subst. cf. P Tebt II. 28630 (a.p. 121-38) ἐ[κ] τῆς 
α[ὐ]τοψ[]ας ἣν ἐγὼ ἐπεῖδον ‘my own personal observa- 
tion” (Edd.), P Amb IT. 14213 (iv/a.p.) γενάμενοι ἐπὶ τὴν 
αὐτοψίαν kal ἀναμετρήσαντες τὸν κλῆρον, P Oxy X. 127219 
(A.D. 144) ἀξιῶ ἐὰν δόξῃ σοι παραγενέσθαι ἐπὶ τὴν αὐτοψίαν, 
“come fora personal inspection” (Edd.), and P Leid Wx¥i- 38, 


The weakening of the old distinction between αὐτὸς 6 and 
ὁ αὐτός, especially in Luke, is noted in Proleg. p. 91, and 
paralleled from Hellenistic. We may add (cf. Linleitung 
p. 145f.) Sy// 8071 (ii/A.D.) αὐταῖς ταῖς ἡμέραις, where 
Dittenberger remarks ‘‘expectaveris ταῖς αὐταῖς," OG/S 383! 
(Antiochus of Commagene, i/8.c.) τὴν αὐτήν τε κρίσιν, for 
which Ditt. desiderates ταύτην τὴν κρίσιν, P Iib I. 30° 
(B.c. 265) αὐτὸς Ὧρος “the said H.,’’ P Lille I. 238 
(B.C, 221) οὗ μ[ισ]θωτὴς Ἡρώδ[ης] ὁ αὐτός “ce méme L.,”’ 
P Oxy VI. 892% (A.D. 338) τῆς αὐτῆς πόλεως, 26. VIII. 
1105 (A.D. 254) τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἀμφοδογραμματέως “the said 
a.’’: all these seem to be practically identical, with αὐτός 
differing little from ἐκεῖνος. The combination αὐτὸ τοῦτο 
may be illustrated by P Grenf I. 114 (literary, ii/B.c.) “ for 
this reason ” (Ed.) as in 2 Pet 1°, P Ryl 11. 77°9 (a.p. 192) 
καὶ αὐτὰ ταῦτα ἀσφαλίσομαι ‘I will certify these very 
facts ’’ (Edd.), P Oxy VIII. 111914 (see above) ὑπὲρ Tod μὴ 
καὶ τὸν vuvel φύλαρχον δοκεῖν ἀγνοεῖν αὐτὰ ταῦτα [... 

For the phrase ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό = “ together,” as apparently 
in Lk 17*, see P Tebt I. 1429 (B.c. 114), where the “ total ’’ 
value of certain property is one talent of οορρετ--ἀξίας ἐπὶ 
τὸ αὐτὸ χα(λκοῦ) (ταλάντου) ἃ : cf. IT. 3199 (A.D. 248) ἐπὶ 
τὸ αὐτὸ (ἄρουραι) τε, “a total of 15 arourae,” 226. (ζ: 
A.D. 190), α΄. This arithmetical use may be applied in 
Ac 2%, if we may render “‘ was daily heaping up the total 
of..." Κατὰ τὸ αὐτό with the same meaning, as in 
Ac 141, may be illustrated from the early marriage contract 
P Eleph 1° (B.c. 311-10) (=Selections p. 2) εἶναι δὲ ἡμᾶς 
κατὰ ταὐτό, “and that we should live together.” In P 
Eleph 2° (B.c. 285-4) κατὰ ταὐτά = ‘‘in the same way,” 
Vettius Valens, p. 5738, uses τὸ δ᾽ αὐτό to express the same 
meaning (ὡσαύτως), 

On the redundant use ot unemphatic αὐτός (in oblique 
cases) see Proleg. p. 841. We might add that possessive 
αὐτοῦ (like ἐμοῦ, etc.) becomes emphatic when placed 
between art. and noun: 6, g. BGU IV. 1098"8 (c, B.c. 17) 
ἄνευ τῆς αὐτο[Ὁ] γν[ώ]μης, and so 74. 112612 (B.c. 8). On 
the extent to which αὐτός (in oblique cases again) may have 
enlarged its functions at the expense of ἑαυτοῦ see next 
article. In ΜΟΥ it is the personal pronoun ‘‘he” etc., or 
means ‘‘ this.” 


How far this form is to be recognized in the sense of 
ἑαυτοῦ has been much debated: see the older literature in 
Grimm-Thayer. It is not @ friord likely to be common. 
Meisterhans, Gr. p. 154, estimates that between B.c. 300 


Mayser, Gr. p. 305, makes αὑτοῦ three times as common as 
ἑαυτοῦ in iii/B.c. papyri (that is, those published before 1906, 
therefore excluding P Hib and many other Ptolemaic docu- 
ments): in ii/B.c, the proportion is reversed, and in i/B.c. 
ἑαυτοῦ stands alone. Mayser’s analysis of the documents— 
official, private letters, inscriptions, etc.—may also be noted. 
The fact emerges very clearly that both σαυτοῦ and αὑτοῦ 
have a certain place during the earlier Ptolemaic period, 
αὑτοῦ being certified by syntactical necessity or by ἀφ᾽, μεθ᾽. 
etc., preceding. That in Egypt αὑτοῦ passed out of use is 
seen from later papyri: Moulton Einlettung, p. 139, men- 
tions P Tebt IL. 3037 (A.D. 176-80) τῶν & δι’ αὑτῶν ἱερέων 
(“independent —Edd.) as the only quotable instance up to 
date (1910). “Outside Egypt, however, instances are not 
altogether wanting. Thus Sy// 3711 (Magnesia, i/A.D.) ὑφ᾽ 
αὑτοῦ (see however Nachmanson, p- 84), 567° (Lindos, 
ii/A.D.) μηδὲν αὑτοῖς δεινὸν συνειδότας. Dieterich, ἐγγ7ε»- 
such. p. 46, gives some inscriptional exx. of the vulgar ἁτοῦ 
(see of. cit. p. 78, and above p. 69 [=Proleg. p. 47], which 
show the occasional survival of forms without εν It may be 
added that some nine exx. of αὑτοῦ appear in the index of 
Priene, against about three times as many of ἑαυτοῦ. A good 
instance may be cited from Aaibe/ 716°, the epitaph of a 
young man (Rome), φίλους ὑπὲρ ἁτὸν ἐτίμα. The pro- 
gressive weakening of 2 would make the clearer form prefer- 
able. It is further suggested that the existence of αὑτοῦ in 
LXX (Thackeray Gy. p. 190), though far less common than 
ἑαυτοῦ, might help to produce occasional revivals of the 
obsolete form. We certainly cannot do violence to the 
sense by forcing αὐτοῦ into places where a reflexive is needed : 
it would be less objectionabie to read ἑαυτοῦ, assuming αὑτοῦ 
due to some would-be Atticist scribe. See further Kennedy’s 
EGT Ill. p. 464, which sums up in favour of a 
minimum admittance of αὑτοῦ. 


BGU II. 3γ21. 11 (a.p. 154) (= Chrest. I. 19) το[ὺς] 
λημφθέντας ἐπ᾽ αὐτ[ο]φίώρ]ῳ κακούργους. 


is warranted in literature: we have not noticed it in our 
Sources, except Vettius Valens. He uses it absolutely, p. 
126°, = ‘‘suicides,’’ and so 127!%:. it may have the same 
sense p. 39°. 

For αὐχέω construed with an acc. in Jas 35 Hort aa ἢ 
compares <Aristid. i. 103 μόνοις δ᾽ ὑμῖν ὑπάρχει καθαρὰν 

εὐγένειάν τε καὶ πολιτείαν αὐχῆσαι, and translates ‘‘ hath 
great things whereof to boast,’’ or shortly ‘‘ great are its 
boasts ’’ (ἡ. δ. the concrete subjects for boasting, adxqpara, 
not the boastings, αὐχήσεις). Vettius has the verb with ἐπί 
τινι, Ρ. 241° ὅτε οἱ πρὸ ἡμῶν ἐπὶ τούτῳ ηὔχουν Kal ἐμακαρί- 
fovro. It has ἃ personalaccus, in A’aibe/ 567° (ii/a.D.) αὐχῶ 
σώφρονα... Σεβήραν and similarly 2. 8225 (ii/iii a.p.) 
Kexpor(ny αὐχεῖ πόλιν (cf. 9327—iii/A.pD.): in the passive, 
26. 192'(Rom, age, Thera) οὐ μόνον [η]ὐχούμην Λακεδαίμονος 
ἐκ βασιλήων. A Theban epitaph (iv/A.D.), 25. 4891, has the 
very phrase of Jas 3°, ὃν μεγάλ᾽ αὐϊχήσασα πατρὶς Θή[β]η 
mot’ érw[ ..: Kaibel reads ἐβώλπει, remarking that di- 

and 30 ἑαυτοῦ outnumbers αὑτοῦ in Attica by 100: 7. But ; gamma survived long in Boeotia (but surely not into iv/a.D., 


even in poetry !). It is unfortunate that the opening words 
are lost. The record shows that the verb lived on mostly in 
the language of poetry. 


We can quote only verse parallels for this word of 2 Peter 
(cf. Apoc Petr 6). abel 548, a pretty epitaph on a boy of 
16 (Nemausus in Gaul—Nismes) begins after Latin dedi- 

ἔΑνθεα πολλὰ γένοιτο νεοδμήτῳ ἐπὶ τύμβῳ, 

μὴ βάτος αὐχμηρή, μὴ κακὸν αἰγίπυρον. 

The epithet will imply “dark,” “funereal’’ colour. 
The combination quoted by Grimm from Aristotle recurs 
in Kazbel 4315 (Antioch, not before ii/A.p.)— 

κεῖμαι és [αὐϊχμηροὺς kal ἀλαμπέας ᾿Αίδος εὐνάς. 


This very common verb is found with the simple gen. in 
P Hib I. 6318 (c. B.c. 265) τούτων ἄφελε, ‘deduct from 
this’’: cf. Rev 2219 with ἀπό added. ass in the same 
sense in P Lond 265 (= II. p. 257), a mathematical papyrus 
of i)A.D. For the more general sense of “carry off,” ‘take 
away,’’ cf. P Petr III. 53 (j) ὥστε ἀφελέσθαι ἡμῶν βία[ι 
τὸ κτῆμα], P Magd 68 (B.c. 221) ἀφείλοντο (a garment), 70. 
42° (B.C. 221) τό Te περιτραχηλίδιον ἐκ καθορμίων λιθινῶν 
ἀφείλετό μ[οι], and so in P Lond 4113 388 18 (Β δ, 161) (=I. 
p. 28), one of the papyri dealing with the grievances of the 
Serapeum Twins—adedty αἰὐ]τῶν τοὺς ἄρτους and ἀφίλεσαν 
τοὺς αὐτῶν διδύμων ἄρτους. It has an extreme meaning 
in JosPE i. 2251, ὑπὸ τοῦ βασκάνου δαίμονος ἀφῃρέθη, by 
death. In BGU I. γ45 (ii/A.D.) καὶ γὰρ ἂν ἄλογον εἴη 
ὁπόσων μὲνυ[ 717 ἀφερετείητε, we are apparently to under- 
stand ἀφαιρεθείητε “you might be robbed.’’ It may be 
noted that the middle could be used for the meaning ‘‘ rob,”’ 
as BGU III. 759! (A.D. 125) ἀφελ[ςό]μενοί por χιτῶνα, etc. 
We need only add the occurrence of the word in the vi/A.D. 
Christian amulet edited by Wilcken in 47chzv i. p. 431 ff. 
(cf. Selections, p. 132 ff.) where the prayer occurs,’ πᾶσαν δὲ 
νόσον kal πᾶσαν μαλακίαν ἄφελε ἀπ᾽ ἐμοῦ, ὅπως ὑγιανῶ, 
“take away from me all manner of disease and all manner 
of sickness that I may be in health.”’ 


P Gen I. 2815 (A.D. 136) ἀ]φανὴς ἐγένετο : similarly 
Ῥ Grenf II. 6115, P Lond 3429 (=II. p. 174), BGU I. 163°, 
7). 11. 46738 (all ii/A.d.). δικά 92316 (late iii/B.c.) τὰ μὲν 
eupavéa . . τῶν δὲ ἀφανέων κτλ. (Actolia—in dialect). 726. 
5442 (Aug.) ἀφανοῦς γεγενημένου τοῦ πα[ρατειχίσ!ματος, 
801} καὶ εἴη ἀφανῆ τὰ κτήματα αὐτοῦ, 809"! (iv/ili B.C.) 
ἀνόνητα αὐτῷ γένοιτο καὶ ἄχωρα καὶ ἄμοιρα καὶ ἀφανῆ 
αὐτῷ [ἅπαντα γένοιτο. 


For the ordinary sense cf. (6. g.) BGU I. 3813 πάντα ἠφά- 
vuorat, For the later meaning ‘‘disfigure,’’ ‘‘ destroy,” 
cf. P Oxy IX. 122079 (iii/A.D.) οὐδὲν ἠφάνισεν ὁ ἱπποπο- 
τάμις, “the hippopotamus has destroyed nothing,’’ P Ryl 
II. 1521} (A.D. 42) κατενέμησαν καὶ κατέφαγαν καὶ τοῖς 
ὅλοις ἠφάνισαν ‘overran, cropped, and utterly destroyed 
[my pasturage]’’ (Edd.), and P Lond 413'*f (c. a.D. 346) 

95 ὀφελότης 

(=II. p. 302) a request for nets since the gazelle; were 
“spoiling '’ the writer’s crops—émS} τὰ δορκάδι[α] ἀφανί- 
ἵουσειν τὸ (/. τὰ) σπόριμα. A near parallel to Mt 615 is 
afforded by the Christian hymn P Amh 1. 2° (iv/a.p.) 
Τάμον ἤλυθες βασιλῆος, Papov .. . .:. . ἵνα μή σ᾽ ada- 
νίσῃς “Thou hast come to the marriage of the King, the 
marriage . . . that thou mayst not disfigure thy face.” In 
a fragment of a Gnostic Gospel of early iv/a.D., P Oxy 
VIII. 10815, the Saviour in answer to the disciples’ ques- 
tion, “How then can we find faith?’’ is represented as 
replying διελθοζῦσιν ἐκ τῶν] ἀφανῶν Kall εἰ]ς Td [φῶ]ς τῶν 
φαινο[μέ]νων, ‘‘if ye pass from the things that are hidden,” 
etc. (Ed.) 

In Aazbel 3768 (Aezani, ii/A.p.) the verb is used of the 
“‘defacing'’ of a relief, ὅστις νεκρὰν πρόσοψιν ἀφανίσει 
τέκνου : cf. 75. 5315 (Thrace) pov τὸ κάλλος ἠφάνιστε]ν 
(presumably Death is the subject). In 4923 (Thebes, i/B.c. 
or A.D.) Fortune ἠφάνισε a young athlete. A British Museum 
papyrus printed in Arckzv vi. p. 102 (A.D, 114-5) has (I. 7) 
μετέδωκέν μοι. . τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ (sc. the record office) βιβλία 
ἀφαν[ζεσθαι, τὰ δὲ πλεῖστα καὶ ἀνεύρετα εἶναι : the present 
tense suits best the meaning ‘‘are being ruined.” 

Vettius Valens p. 537 ὅπως τε οἱ ἀφανισμοὶ (sc. fetus) 
καὶ τὰ ἐκτρώματα γίνονται. 


This poetic word, which reappears in the later prose 
writers (e.g. Diod. Sic. iv. 65. 9), is found in the NT only 
in Lk 2451 ἄφαντος ἐγένετο ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν. The addition of a 
complement such as ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν is not in accordance with the 
usual Greek usage of the word, and is explained by Psichari 
(Zssat sur le Grec de la LXX, p. 204 ff.) as a Hebraism. 
This would presumably mean that Luke imitated the occa- 
sional LXX ἀφανίζειν or -εσθαι ἀπό, but used the Hellenistic 
ἄφαντος γενέσθαι instead of the verb: clearly this combina- 
tion was thoroughly vernacular prose by this time—it survives 
in Μόν. 


This rare word is found in OG/S 48353391. (ii/B.c.) in the 
same sense as in Mt 1517, Mk 7}, the only two occurrences 
of the word in Biblical Greek—Cod.D substitutes ὀχετόν 
in Mk. In LXX Levy 12? ἡ ἄφεδρος is used in another 


For the adj. see OGZS 383}53 (i/B.c.) ἐπιθύσεις ἀφειδεῖς 
λιβανωτοῦ καὶ ἀρωμάτων, and the fine epitaph of a Sergius, 
martyred under Galerius, Kaze? 1064 (Justinian), referring 
to the ἀφειδέες ἀγῶνες of the Empress. ‘The adv. is found 
P Tebt I. 2475 (BC. 117) ἀφει[δ]ῷς, Sy/7 342° (c. B.c. 48) 
ἀφειδῶς ἑαυτὸϊν ἐπιδ]ιδούς. For the verb see OG/S 640! 
(iii/A.D.) οὐκ ὀλίγων ἀφειδήσαντα χρημάτων. 


Vettius Valens dispels Grimm-Thayer’s aspersions once 
more: see p. 2405, the cultured man ῥᾳδίως ἁλίσκεται ὡς 
ἄπειρος τῶν παθῶν ὑπ᾽ ἀφελότητος καὶ ἀδιοικησίας προ- 
δεδομένος, ‘‘betrayed by simplicity and lack of practical 
capacity.” So p. 153°, if Kroll’s conjecture is sound, οὐ 

ἄφεσις 96 

φθόνῳ φερόμενοι οὐδὲ ἀφελότητι. So here is one writer 
neither ‘*biblical” nor ‘‘ ecclesiastical” who agrees with 
Luke in preferring this abstract to ἀφέλεια, which however 
he uses once, p. 425 eis ἀ. τὸν τρόπον ἐμφαίνοντες. The 
astrologer may further be quoted for the adverb ἀφελῶς, 
Ρ. 168% πολλὰ δὲ ἀ. πιστεύσας ἀπώλεσεν, again confirming 
the colour of unworldly simplicity which appears in Ac 245, 
The same adverb may be quoted from an inscr., JosPE 
i, 22°49, ἑαυτὸν a. τῇ πατρίδι εἰς ἅπαντα ἐπεδίδου, as well 
as in Hellenistic literature. Thus Preuschen (HZNT7 ad 
Ac 24) cites Athenaeus, Dezpuos. X. 4194 (II. 41216 
Kaibel) ἑστιαθεὶς ἀφελῶς καὶ μουσικῶς, where ‘simple ” 
meals are contrasted with τὰ πολυτελῆ δεῖπνα. Add Ka/be/ 
727'* (Christian?) εἰκοστὸν δὲ βιώσασαν ἀφελῶς ἐνιαυτόν : 
the same epitaph speaks of a ψυχὴν ἀφελῆ. 


In Egypt ἄφεσις τοῦ ὕδατος was apparently a technical 
expression for the ‘‘release” of the water from the sluices 
or canals for the purpose of irrigation, e.g. P Petr II. 
13(2)** (B.c. 258-3) ἵνα ἐπισκευασθῶσι mpd τῆς τοῦ 
ὕδατος ἀφέσεως, “in order that they (sc. bridges) may be 
finished before the letting loose of the water” (Ed.), 76. III. 
39%, and 44 verso i 18 1. τζῶν κατ]ὰ Πτολεμαίδα a[hjécewy 
ἠνώιξαμεν B θύρας]. In this sense the noun may be con- 
crete, meaning apparently a *‘ channel” or “sluice” : P Oxy 
VI. 918Y- 30 (ii/A.D.) ἀπηλ(ιώτου) ὁδὸ(ς) δημοσί(α) ἐν ἡ ἄφεσις 
λιθίνη. Hence, as Deissmann has shown (25 p. 98 ff.), 
the increased vividness for the Egyptians of the pictures in 
Joel 1°°, Lam 347 through the use of ἀφέσεις by the LX X trans- 
lators. The word is similarly employed to denote the official 
“release” of the harvest after the taxes had been paid, in 
order that the cultivators might then use it for their own 
purposes, as P Petr IT. 2(1)** (B.c. 260-59) τῆς μ]ήισθώσεως 
διαγορευούσης κομίσασθαι [αὐτὸὴν τὰ] ἐκφόρια ὅταν ἡ 
ἄφεσις δοθῇ, P Amh II. 43° (B.c. 173) ὅταν ἡ ἄφεσις τῶν 
πυρίνων καρπῶν γένηται, “whenever the release of the 
wheat crops takes place” (Edd. : see their note ad ἢ. and cf. 
Archiv iv. p. 69). The editors regard it as very doubtful 
whether the difficult phrase γῆ ἐν ἀφέσει, P Tebt I. 537 αἱ 
(B.c. 118), is to be explained in the same way, and in their 
note on P Tebt II. 3255 they suggest ‘‘in reduction,” or 
‘‘on reduced terms” as a possible rendering. Mahaffy 
(P Petr III. p. 35) translates the same phrase in P Par 63177 
(B.c. 165) by ‘‘ privileged land.” A nearer approach to the 
Pauline use for ‘‘ forgiveness” is afforded by the occurrence 
of the word in inscriptions for remission from debt or punish- 
ment, 6. g. AWichel 1340-7 (Cnidus, ii/B.c.) τᾶς τε ἀφέσιος 
τοῦ ταλάντου ὅ dav[ti] ἀφεῖσθαι Καλύμνιοι ὑπὸ ἸΠαυσι- 
μάχου, Sy/7 226166 (Olbia on the Euxine, iii/B.c.) τοῖς μὲν 
ἀφέσεις ἐποιήσατο τῶν χρημάτων (and exacted no interest 
from other debtors), A/agn 93(c)'4% τὰ γὰρ ὀφειλόμ[ενα 
κατὰ τ]ὴν καταδίκην τῆς καθηκούσης τετευχέναι ἐξαγωγῆς 
ἤτοι εἰσ πραχθείσης τ]ῆς καταδίκης ἢ ἀφέσεως γενομένης : 
see also C/G 2058-7 (Olbia, ii/i B.c.), 23355 (Delos, time 
of Pompey) (Nageli, p. 56). With a gev. fers. it denotes the 
“release” of prisoners or captives, as Lk 418, νὰ 197?! 
(B.C. 284-3) ὅσοι δὶὲ αἰχμάλωτοι ἐγένοντο, ἐμφανίσας τῷ 
βα[σιλεῖ καὶ] λαβὼν αὐτοῖς ἄφε[σ]ιν κτλ., or “release” 
from some public duty, as P Oxy VII. τοζοῦ (a.p. 198-201) 
ᾧ Hyovp[evos] τοῦ ἔθνους τὸν ἀγῶνα τῆς ἀφέσεως ἐκδικ[ήσει- 


In P Tebt II. 4041 (late iii/A.p.) what seems to be the 
heading of a set of accounts runs Adyo[s] ἀφέσεως στατήρων 
pA: the editors render “expenditure (9). It should also 
be noted that the word was a fer. ‘echn. in astrology: see 
index to Vettius, p. 377. Thus p. 22516 χρὴ Tats λοιπαῖς 
τῶν ἀστέρων ἀφέσεσι καὶ μαρτυρίαις καὶ ἀκτινοβολίαις 
προσέχειν. See also Abbott Joh. Voc. p. 178 f., with a 
correction in Fourfold Gospel, p. 59. 


For the special sense of “kindling” see P Tebt I. 8813 1. 
(B.C. 115-4) εἴς τε τὰς θυσίας καὶ λύχνων ἁφῶν, “for 
sacrifices and for the kindling of lamps” (cf. λυχναψία, 
BGU II. 3621112, ete) ; and for the meaning ‘‘sand” or 
““dust” as a technical term of the arena see Sy// 80414 
(?i/A.D.) ἁφῇ πηλώσασθαι (with the editor's note). It is, 
however, a wholly different connexion with wrestling that 
is associated with the NT meaning of the word. Dean 
Robinson (on Eph 418) has shown how from the ἁφὴ 
ἄφυκτος with which the wrestler fastened on his opponent 
ἁφή came to be used of the union of the Democritean atoms, 
and further of a band or ligament in ancient physiology. 
Hence in the Pauline usage, the thought is not so much of 
“touch” as of ‘*fastening’’—the whole body is compacted 
διὰ πάσης ἁφῆς τῆς ἐπιχορηγίας ‘ by every ligament of the 
whole apparatus” (Eph 415), which in Col 215 is expanded 
into διὰ τῶν addy Kal συνδέσμων “by the ligaments and 
sinews.”” A mysterious ἔπαφος occurs in the new Median 
parchment, P Said Khan 1* 2° (B.c. 88): the assignee of a 
vineyard is to be fined ἐὰν... ὀλιγωρήσῃ τὴν ἄμπελον καὶ 
μὴ ποιήσῃ αὐτὴν ἔπαφον. Can this mean ‘properly tied 
up’’—the branches being tied to the poles or trees on which 
they are trained? The adj. will thus be formed from ἐπὶ ἁφαῖς 
“depending on fastenings” —a formation well paralleled in 


An interesting example of this word occurs in the fragment 
of the Gnostic Gospel from the beginning of iv/a.p., P Oxy 
VIII. 108114#-, where in contrast to the perishing of every- 
thing born of corruption (ἀπὸ φθορᾶς) we find τὸ] δὲ 
ye[t]vdpev[ov ἀπὸ] ἀφ[θ)]αρσίας [οὐκ ἀπο]γείν[εται] ἀλλ[ὰ 
μ)έν[ει] ἄφίϑαρ]τον ὡς ἀπὸ ἀ[φ]θ[αρσία)ς γεγονός. It is 
also quoted from Epicurus (605) τὴν μετὰ ἀφθαρσίας μακα- 
ριότητα : see Linde, p. 43, where other literary parallels are 


As an antithesis to ““ mortal,’ the term is well seen in 
Syll 365'° (c. A.D. 37) θεῶν δὲ χάριτες τούτῳ διαφέρουσιν 
ἀνθρωπίνων διαδοχῶν, ᾧ ἢ νυκτὸς ἥλιος Kal (for ἢ) τὸ 
ἄφθαρτον θνητῆς φύσεως. OG/S 56954 (Α.}. 312) ὑπὲρ] τῆς 
αἰωνίου καὶ ἀφθάρτου βασιλείας ὑμῶν, with reference to the 
Imperial rule. The adj. occurs fey in the magic papyrus 
P Lond 121 (iii/A.D.) (=I. p. 83 ff.): see also P Leid 
Ws2*. 97 οὐρανὸν μέγαν ἀένναον ἄφθαρτον. Cf. sv. ἀφθαρσία. 
The record hardly proves a vernacular Currency. 

The adj. from which this abstract is formed occurs in the 
formula of contract with a wet-nurse, who is to feed the 


child τῶι ἰδίωι] αὐτῇς γάλακτι καθαρῶι καὶ ἀφθόρωι, BGU 
IV. 11077 (B.c. 13): so 1106" (suppl.), 11087, 11097 (all 
Aug., from Alexandria). For ἄφθορος = ‘‘ chaste ’’ see the 
magic papyri P Lond 46°78 (iv/a.p.) (=I. p. 77) ὑπὸ παιδὸς 
ἀφθόρον, and 20. 121844 (iii/A.D.)(=TI. p. 101) where similarly 
the vision is granted to a boy who is ἄφθορος καθαρός : cf. 
for the same meaning Justin 4fo/. i. 155, and Dialog. 100 
(p. 327¢.) παρθένος yap οὖσα Hija καὶ ἄφθορος (cited by 
Dibelius on Tit 27in HZN7). Between 1 Pet 2? and our 
papyri, we should think of freedom from “taint ’’—the 
spiritual milk has gathered no microbes ! 


Some abnormal NT forms of this very “irregular ’’ verb 
may be illustrated: cf. Moulton, Ainéectung, p. 82f. The 
unaugmented aor. pass. ἀφέθησαν in Rom 47 (from Ps 311) 
where δὲ has ἀφείθησαν) is matched by OG/S 435° (ii/B.c.) 
ἀφέθη; but BGU IV. 10228 (a.p. 196) ἀφθείθημεν (zc. 
ἀφειθ.). ᾿Αφέωνται is to be compared with the imper. 
ἀφεώσθω in Michel §85'4 (Arcadian ?iii/B.C.), as well as with 
the Herodotean ἀνέωται : see Pro/eg. p. 38 2. Against this 
note imper. ἀφείσθω in CPHerm 119 verso lii- 14 (Gallienus). 
The pres. ἀφεῖς in Rev 27° and Ex 32%? is best taken as a 
regular contraction of doles, from ἀφίω (not a contract 
verb), which is the normal conjugation into which the -μι 
verb tends here to merge itself: evidence for ἀφιέω seems 
to be wanting. The assumption of an ἀφέω, formed by 
proportion from ἀφήσω, is insufficiently supported by the 
barbarous Silco inscr., OG/7S 20118 (vi/A.D.). The MGr 
is ἀφήνω, with aor. ἄφησα and ἀφῆκα 

Proleg. p. 175, may be referred to for the quasi-auxiliary 
use of ἄφες, MGr ἄς. We may quote P Amh 11. 377° 
(B.C. 172) ἄφες αὐτὸν χαίρειν, P Hib I. 415 (c. B.c. 261) 
&dle]s αὐτὸν εἰσαγαγεῖν “allow him to collect ’’ (Edd.) ; 
but P Oxy III. 413*8* ἄφες ἐγὼ αὐτὴν θρηνήσω (literary, 
i/A.D.). The Latin size, sinzte videamus in Mt 27 and 
Mk 15% severally, may well mean “ Let us see,”’ as Pallis 
renders it (ἂς δοῦμε) in both cases, only differing in the 
speakers. The verb has not yet become a mere auxiliary ; 
it may still be rendered ‘‘allow me to,’’ etc. For the same 
use in another part of the verb cf. P Oxy VII. 10675 
(iii/A.D.) ἀφῆκες αὐτὸν μὴ κηδεῦσαι αὐτόν, “you have 
allowed his burial to be neglected’”’ (Ed.). So, with infin, 
again, in P Par 4714 (c. B.C. 153) (= Witkowski, p. 89) 
ὅτι περάσεται ὁ δραπέ[τη]ς μὴ ἀφῖναι ἡμᾶς ἐπὶ τ]ῶν τόπων 

The uses of ἀφίημι start from the etymological sense 
“throw ’’ seen in the cognate aéicto. Thus in Sy/7 35626 
(B.C. 6) ἀφεῖναι τὴν γάστραν = “let the pot drop.”’ From 
this primitive physical meaning may be derived the common 
meaning ‘‘leave, let go.”” So with dat. (as in Mt 54°) 
P Tebt 11. 421° (iii/a.p.) θέλις αὐτὸν ἀφεῖναι τῇ θυγατρί 
σίου] ἄφες “if you wish to let your daughter have it, do 
so’’ (Edd.). P Grenf I. 26° (B.c. 113) τὴν δὲ ἡμιολίαν 
ἀφῆκε, “waived the extra 50%,’’ will serve as an ex. of 
the use seen in Mt 1857, which leads to the general idea of 
“‘forgiveness.’’ Similarly in OG/S 9013 (Rosetta stone— 
B.C. 196) els τέλος ἀφῆκεν, of the “ total remission ”’ of certain 
taxes. (See for the NT usage of the word in this sense 
Brooke Joh. Epp. p. 20f.) Not far from this is the use seen 
in P Oxy IV. 744?° (B.c. 1) (= Selections, p. 33) ἐὰν... τέκῃς, 

Part I. 


> , 

ἐὰν ἦν ἄρσενον ἄφες, ἐὰν ἦν θήλεα ἔκβαλε, “if it isa boy, 
let it be; if a girl, expose it.” “To let alone”’ may mean 
“neglect ’’ or ‘leave undone,” as BGU III. 77518 (ii/a.p.) 
τὰ ἤδη πρόλημα ἄφες ἄχρης ἄν γένομε ἐκῖ καὶ συνάρωμεν 
λόγον “leave the preparations (?) till I get there and we can 
confer together,’’ or again as in P Lond 14414 (? i/A.D.) 
(ΞΞ ἢ p. 253) μὴ ἀφεῖναί pe ἐπὶ ξένης ἀδιαφορηθῆναι, “not 
to leave me to be neglected in ἃ strange land.’”’ It has an 
explanatory clause in a letter of Hadrian’s age, P Oxy X. 
1293'8 μὴ θελήσῃ τις ἀφεῖναι μέρος μὴ ἐνένκας, “lest one of 
them should want to leave part behind and not bringit’’ (Edd. ). 
BGU III. 814 (iii/a.D.), a very ungrammatical complaint from 
a son to his mother, three times shows the verb meaning 
“abandon, desert, ’’ with an irregular dative object : 15 ἀφ[η)- 
κ[έ[9] μοι οὕ]τως μηδὲν ἔχων (for ἔχοντι), 18 ἀφῆκές [μοι 
οὔ]τ[ῳς] ds κύων (for κυνί), 27 μὴ ἀφήσις μοι οὕτος. So in 
the “ Erotic Fragment,” P GrenfI, 118 (literary, ii/B.C.) κύριε, 
μή μ᾽ ἀφῆις - “ἀὴ appeal from a forsaken girl to her lover. P 
Lille 294. 83 (jii/B.c.) ἀφεΐσθα[ι τῆς κατα]δίκης will illustrate 
its use with a gen. of “releasing from’: so P Oxy VIII. 
1119! (A.D, 254) ὑμεῖς of κράτιστοι οὐ μόνον ἀφίεται [ἡμᾶς 
πασῶν παρ᾽ ἄλλοις a4pxav]—the suppl. seems sure. P Petr 
II. 13 (19)7 5 (middle of iii/B.c.) (= Witkowski Epp.*, p. 19) 
μάλιστα μὲν οὖν τὴν πᾶσαν σπουδὴν πόησαι [το]ῦ ἀφεθῆναι 
σε διὰ τέλους, “above all things, then, make every effort to 
be finally relieved of your duties’? (Ed.). Witkowski (27 
foc.) says ἀφιέναι is “vox sollemnis de missione militum,’’ 
It may be that a similar “formal” dismissal or sending 
away of the multitudes is to be found in Mt 1386 Mk 488; 
but it may just as well mean simply “let go,’”’ as in ordinary 
colloquial speech. The equivalence of the Latin »2¢tere is 
seen in the compound, Ρ Ryl II. 12614 (a.p. 28-9) ἐπαφεὶς 
τὰ ἑατοῦ πρόβατα καὶ βοικὰ κτήνη εἰς ἃ γεωργῶ... ἐδάφ(η) 
“Jet his sheep and cattle into . . fields which I cultivate ”’ 
(Ed.): cf. “‘liquidis immisi fontibus apros’’ in Vergil (Zc/. 
255). Finally, for the use of ἀφιέναι with a predicative 
adj. placed with the object, cf. P Fay 11218 (a.p. 99) ἀθέρις 
(sc. -στον) αὐτὸν ἕως σήμερον ἀφῖκας, “up to to-day you 
have left it unharvested " (Edd.), P Oxy III. 494° (A.D. 156) 
ἐλεύθερα ἀφίημι... δοῦλά pov σώματα, of manumission under 
a will. 


BGU ILI. 614?° (a.p. 217) εἰς τοὺς τόπο[υς] ἀφι[κέσθαι..., 
and 1. ?’; P Giss I. 347 (A.D. 265-6) εἴστω μέντοι, ὅτι ἐὰν μὴ 
ἀφίκηται σὺν τῇ [... Α προσκύνημα from El-Kab in Egypt, 
Preisigke 158, has ᾿Ανδρόμαχος Μακεδὼν ἀφίκετο πρὸς 
᾿Αμενώθην χρηστὸν θεόν. Πε records his immediate cure: 
so 26. 1049 (Abydos) Πειθαγόρας ΠΕειθαγόρου ὅτ᾽ ἀφίκετο ἐπὶ 
σωτηρίαι, 26. 1052, α΄. It is almost a technical word in 
describing these “pilgrimages ”’ to sacred places. So in 
verse, Kazbel 981°, from the island of Philae (i/a.D.) :— 

Νῆσον ἔ[π7᾿ Αἰγύπτ[ο]ιο πέρας, περικαλλέα, σεμνήν 

Το Αἰθιόπων πρόσθεν, med eeyse 

εἴδομεν ἐν Νείλωι ποταμῶι νέας ὠκυπορούσας. 
In ordinary use it is hardly known, and in NT it only 
appears metaphorically, in Rom 1615. In Prezsigke 1052 
(Abydos) Κι λεαίνετος ἐπὶ σωτηρίαι ἹΡόδων ἀφίκετο, it seems 
as if the meaning is ‘‘arrived from Rhodes,” involving a 
reanimation of the ἀπό in a new sense (instead of the 
perfectivizing force): cf. the problem of ἄφιξις below. 




in P Oxy I. 33} 18 (ii/a.p.) (= Chrest 1. 20) a certain 
Apfianus charges the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (?) with 
τυραννία ἀφιλοκαγαθία ἀπαιδία (presumably ἀπαιδευσία), 
after extolling his deified father as φιλόσοφος, ἀφιλάργυρος, 
and φιλάγαθος. Vettius Valens has the negative of a similar 
compound ἀφιλόκαλος, also found in Plutarch. Nageli 
(p. 52) cites from an inscr, of ii/iii A.D. (Tanais) the 
strengthened compound παραφιλάγαθος. 


For this word, which according to Grimm—Thayer is found 
“only in the NT ᾿᾿ (Ὁ), see (in addition to Didache 151) the 
quotation from P Oxy I. 33 s.v. ἀφιλάγαθοςς. Add Priene 
137° (probably ii/B.c.) ; also Sy// 7325 (Athens, B.c. 36-5), 
3251? (Istropolis, i/B.c.), both of which have the adverb 
ἀφιλαργύρως. Cf. Nageli, p. 31, Deissmann 2.4.2, p. 81f. 


One early citation may be made from P Petr IT. 13 (18 α)ϑ 
(B.C. 258-3) ἵνα ἀναχωσθῆι καὶ ὁμαλισθῇ πρὸς [τὴ]ν τοῦ 
βασιλέως ἄφιξιν, where the word certainly means αγγέσαὶ 
(the reference is to the filling up and levelling of some 
excavated place in view of a visit from King Ptolemy II.) : 
so also in Aristeas (ed. Wendland) 173 ὡς δὲ παρεγενήθημεν 
εἰς ᾿Αλεξάνδρειαν, mpoonyyédy τῷ βασιλεῖ περὶ τῆς ἀφίξεως 
ἡμῶν, and Magn 17}} ὡς δὲ περὶ ὀγδοιήκονθ᾽ ἕτη μετὰ τὴν 
ἄφιξιν ἐφάϊνησαν οἱ λευκοὶ] κόρακες, and as late as iv/A.D. 
in P Lips I. 64°° πρὸς (Δ πρὸ) τῆς ἀφίξεως τοῦ δικαστηρίου 
and 47, and in the Christian letter P Oxy VI. 93926ff- 
(= Selections, p. 130) παραμυθούμ[ε]θᾳ δὲ αὐτὴν ἑκάστης 
ὥρας ἐκδεχόμενοι τὴν [σ]ὴν ἄφιξιν, “we comfort her by 
hourly expecting your arrival’’ (Edd.). But Josephus 47/¢. 
ii, 18 fin., μὴ προδηλώσαντες τῷ πατρὶ τὴν ἐκεῖσε UbiEY— 
not included among Grimm’s citations—can hardly mean 
anything but ‘‘ departure,” or at least ‘“‘journey’’: Whiston 
renders ‘‘removal.” It must be admitted that Jos. uses the 
word also for “arrival,” as Afzon i. 18 (127), 25 (223) and 
27 (275). See Proleg. p. 26n! on the question of Ac 20%, 


The transitive tenses recur in formulz upon contracts of 
sale, etc. : the vendor is to ‘‘repel” any claimant or tres- 
passer. Thus BGU IV. 112719 (B.c. 18) καὶ πάντα τὸν 
ἐπελευσόμενον ἢ ἐμποησόμενον αὐτὸν A. ἀφιστάσιν παρα- 
χρῆϊμα τοῖς ἰδίοις δαπανή]μασιν. Generally it is ἀπο- 
στήσειν, as P. M. Meyer notes on P Giss J. 512°, where is 
a list of instances. Cf. P Lond 357 (B.c. 146 or 135) (=I., 
Ρ- 46) ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀποστήσωι, ἀποστήσω ἐπάναγκον, “if I 
do not repel him, I will do so under compulsion’’ (Ed.). 
In P Par 59° (8.6. 160) (= Witkowski?, p. 75) τὸν λόγον 
τῶν χαλκῶν (sc. λαβέ)" ἀπέστηκα (δραχμὰς) ἢ ἀργυρίου 
(δραχμὰς) Δσξ, Grenfell-Hunt-Smyly and Wilcken suspect 
a mistake for ἀπέσχηκα : Witkowski objects that ἀπέχω 
would have been enough, and would render ‘‘solutum 
accepi.” But ἀπέσχηκα is quitecommon. Witkowski shows 
that even in Homer ἀφίσταμαι could mean ‘‘solvo pecuniam 
debitam.” It also means ‘‘renounce a claim to” or ‘‘ give 
up occupation of,” etc., c. ger. vez, with or without ἀπό: 
thus in P Grenf IT, 28° (B.c. 103) ἀφίσταται Σεννῆσις.. . . 
ἀπὸ τῆς ἐωνημένης ὑπ᾽ αὐτῆς παρὰ IlereapoepOlws . . . 


(τετάρτην) μερίδα ἀμπελῶ(νος) συνφύτου, the meaning seems 
to be that Sennesis *‘renounces” all claim to a piece of land 
she had sold to Petearsemtheus (but see the introduction to 
P Lips I. 1, and Wilcken in Archiv iv. p. 456). For a 
similar use of the middle cf. OGZS 7634 (ii/B.c.) πειράσομαι 
καὶ νῦν τῆς τοιαύτης προθέσεως μὴ ἀφίστασθαι, and 7717: 
53° οὐθενὸς ἀποστήσεται τῶν ἀνηκόντων τῆι πόλει, αἰ 
For various uses of the intrans. active, cf. P Grenf II. γγ9 
(ili/iv A.D.) ἀλόγως ἀπέστητε μὴ ἄραντες [τὸ σ]ῶμα τοῦ 
ἀδελφοῦ ὑμῶν, ‘you unfeelingly went off without taking 
your brother's body,”” but only (as appears later) his effects, 
P Lond 1209’ (8.0. 89) (= ΠΙ. p. 20) ὦτα ἀφεστηκότα, 
“Sears standing out (from the head), P Giss I. 9% τοῦ 
ἀνδρός μου... ἀποστάντ[ο]ς εἰς ᾿Οᾶσιν ἐνπορίας χάριν, 
BGU I. 159% (A.D. 216) ἀπέστ[η]ν τῆς κώμης, ΟΟ15 6542 
(/B.c.) τὴν Θηβαΐδα [a]rooracay . . . νικήσας, BGU 
IIT. 920% (A.D, 180) οὐκ ἐξόντος μοι ἀποστῆναι τῆς 
μισ[θ]ώσεως (cf. τ Tim 41), P Rein γ18 (B.c. 141?) ἐμπλεκείς 
τέ μοι οὐκ [ἀ]πέστηι εἰ μὴ ἠνάγκασε KTA., ‘only left me 
after he had forced me to sign,” etc. This last use, with 
which may be compared Lk 1337, etc., is seen in an incanta- 
tion of the great Paris magical papyrus, 57424 (iii/a.p.) 
(= Selections, p. 114) ἔξελθε δαῖμον, . . καὶ ἀπόστηθι ἀπὸ 
τοῦ δῖ(να), ἄρτι ἄρτι ἤδη. 

P Tebt I. 2474 (8:6: 117). P Ryl II. 62! (iii/a.p.) (a 
literary effort) d. kal πεπαρησιασμένως (7. 6. πεπαρρ.) 


With ἀφορᾶν εἰς = ‘‘look away from [other things] to” 
in Heb 12°, Abbott (Joh. Voc. p. 28) aptly compares 
Epict. ii. 19, 29 els τὸν θεὸν ἀφορῶντας ἐν παντὶ καὶ μικρῷ 
καὶ μεγάλῳ, and iii. 24, 16 where Epictetus says of Herakles’ 
attitude to Zeus—apbos ἐκεῖνον ἀφορῶν ἔπραττεν ἂ ἔπραττεν. 
On the form ἀφίδω (Phil 27 § AB* D* FG 33) see Proleg. 
p- 44: in spite of Thackeray’s note (Gr. p. 124 f.—which see 
for further exx.) we cannot allow the long-lost digamma any 
influence in determining this Hellenistic type—see Brugmann- 
Thumb p. 143, and further under ἔτος. In this word at 
any rate the levelling of ἀπιδεῖν to ἀφορᾶν is a certain 


BGU III. 9151% #4 (a.p. 49-50) τὰς ἀφωρισθείσας ὑπ᾽ 
“Eppatov (sc. apovpas), 22. IV. 1060% (B.c. 14) τὸν ἀφωρι- 
κό(τα) τὸ ἔδαφος, in a technical sense: cf. much earlier 
OGIS 639 (iv/B.c.) ἀφορίσαι αὐτῶι τέμενος. Similarly in 
Rev L ἡ ἀφωρισμένη was the part of the Libyan nome, the 
produce of which was reserved for Alexandria: see the 
editor’s note, p. 169. For the word, as in Mt 134°, we may 
add a citation from the Pe/agia-Legenden, p. 6°, μή με ἀφο- 
ploys ἀπὸ Tod οὐρανίου σου θυσιαστηρίου. In Aazbe/ 2445, 
an epitaph from near Cyzicus, written in a conventional 
Doric, τᾷ κάλλος ἀφώρισε Κύπρις ἐν ἀστοῖς means ‘‘set 
apart ” as incomparable. 

This Pauline word is well established in the vernacular 
with meanings varying from ‘‘incitement” or ‘‘ prompting” 

(P Oxy 11. 237% 21, a.p, 186, ἐκ μη[τ]ρὸς ἀφορμῆς) to the 

» ’ 


more ordinary ‘‘occasion” or ‘opportunity.” Thus the 
edict of an Eparch of Egypt, P Oxy I. 34 #12 (a.p. 127) 
runs τοὺ[ς] διὰ ἀπειθίαν κ[αὶ] ds ἀφορμὴν ζητοῦντας apap- 
τημάτωϊ[ν] τειμωρήσομαι (sce under ἀπείθεια). So in Cara- 
calla’s edict (A.D. 215), P Giss 1. got ἵνα μ[ὴ] πίαρ᾽ 
αὐτοῖς ἢ δειλίας αἰτία ἢ παρὰ To[i]s κακοήθεσιν érnplelias 
ἀφορμὴ ὑπολειφθῇ. The last clause recalls Rom 7*, and 
other passages where ἀφορμή and ἁμαρτία are brought 
together. (Ζητεῖν ἀφορμήν is a Western reading in Lk 11°). 
See also BGU II. 6158 (ii/A.D.) ἀφορμὴν εὑρών (/. εὑροῦσα) 
—a daughter ‘‘ finds an opportunity” to write to her father, 
i). 6321! (ii/A.D.) Kal ᾽γὼ διὰ πᾶσαν ἀφορμὴν ο[ὐϊχ ὀκνῶ 
σοι γράψαι περὶ THs] σωτηρίας μου καὶ τῶν ἐμῶν, “ἀπε on 
every opportunity I do not delay to write you regarding the 
health of myself and of mine,” 20. IIT. 9235} (ΠῚ A.D.) 
καλῶς οὖν ποιήσεις, ἐὰν εὕρῃς ἀφορμὴϊν] διαγραψάμενος 
κτὰλ., P Strass I. 229 Ὁ (iii/A.D.) ἔχοντός τινος ἀφορμὴν κἂν 
βραχεῖαν δικαίαν κατοχῆς, ‘‘if any one has a just occasion 
of possession for however brief a period,” and from the 
inscriptions Prene 105! (c. B.C. 9) d]edos εὐτυχεστέρα[ς 
λάβοι] ἀφορμάς, and 15 ἵνα ἀφορμὴ γένοιτο τῆς εἰς τὸν 
Σεβαστὸν τειμῆΞ. The more literal sense of the word is 
seen in the iv/A.p. letter P Amh 11. 143} μὴ θελήσῃς 
οὖν, κύριε, pive (— μεῖναι) ἐκτὸς ἡμῶν αὔριον διὰ τὴν adop- 
μὴν τοῦ ὕδατος εἵνα δυνηθῶμεν ποτίσαι τίδ᾽ν μέγαν κλῆρον, 
‘so please, sir, do not stay away from us to-morrow, 
because of the flow of water, so that we may be able to 
irrigate the large holding” (Edd.). It is common in Vettius, 
esp. with πράξεως or πραγμάτων : thus p. 2385 περὶ τὰς 
πράξεις καὶ βιωτικὰς ἀφορμάς. An apparently new verb 
ἀφορμάζεται is found in the late P Lond IV. 13607 (A.D. 
710), in the sense of ‘‘make excuses” (Ed.). In MGr the 
noun means ‘‘ occasion, cause.” 


ap ods. 

The adj. ἀφριόεντι, as an epithet of the sea, occurs in a 
late hymn to Isis, Kaébe/ 102874, For the medical writers’ 
use of ἀφρός (Lk 9%) see Hobart’s plentiful evidence, 
Med. Language of St Luke, p. 17. The word is MGr. 


P Fay 124! (ii/A.D.) πάνυ yap μοι δοκεῖς ἄφρων τις 
εἴ[ν]αι, ‘indeed you appear to me to be quite mad” (Edd.) 
—a remonstrance addressed to a man who was defrauding 
his mother of some allowance. The adj. occurs in the 
literary P Grenf I. 119 (ii/b.c.) ἐὰν δ᾽ ἑνὶ προσκαθεῖ μόνον, 
ἄφρων ἔσει : see note. 


Plummer on Lk 833 says the use = ‘‘fall asleep” is 
‘medical and late”: unfortunately he gives no evidence of 
the former (nor does Hobart mention it), but the citation 
from Heliodorus is to be noted. Lobeck P77. p. 224 gives 
others. The transference of an ἀπό compound from the 
end of an action to the beginning of it is seen also in ἄφιξις 
(g.v.): in neither case is Luke likely to have started the 
change of meaning, but our evidence is still scantier here 
than there. 

P Flor I. 317 (a.p. 301) ἐὰν δὲ ἀφυστερήϊσ]ωσι καὶ μὴ 
παραστήσωμεϊν ἡ]μεῖς αὐτ[ο]ὶ τὸν [ὑπὲρ] αὐτῶν λόγον ὑπο- 

Part I 



μ[εν]οῦμεν, “but if they fail, or if we do not make the 
A similar 
phrase is found 20. 3411 (a.p. 342), P Lips I. 541} (c. a.D. 
376), 7. 56)® (A.D. 398), and PSI 86:4 (a.D. 367-75). 
P Lond 1166!8 (a.p. 42) (=III. p. 105) ἐὰν δὲ ἀφυστερῇ τὸ 
βαλανεῖον κα[ύ]μασι, of a bath insufficiently warmed, gives 
us the word from the NT epoch itself. 

arrangement, we hold ourselves responsible.” 


In Sy// 8024: (iii/B.c., from the Asclepieum of Epidauros) 
one of the cures effected is that of a mats ἄφωνος. 
application to a dumb idol in 1 Cor 125, cf. Aare! 4021, 
from Sebastopolis in Galatia, where the marble pillar is made 
to say Tata pe τίκεν (1. τίκτεν) ἄφωνο[ν] : now through the 
The word is MGr. 

For its 

inscription it speaks. 


In Sy 226159 (Olbia, on Euxine—iii/B.c.) the verb 
ἀχαριστεῖν occurs in the normal sense: see also BGU IV. 
1026 ¥xii. 18 (jy/y A.D. magical) τοὺς δὲ ἀπαλλαγέντος (/. -as) 
καὶ dxaptotyoavrals]. In P Grenf I, 52" (iii/A.D.) ἀχάρι- 
στον — “‘antidote’’ “id est szze gratza,’’ as a Latin writer 
in Grenfell’s note explains it, assigning a reason. A poem 
dated A.D. 94 (Kazbe/ 618, Rome) is inscribed on the tomb 
of its precocious author, a boy of eleven: it has the line 
σπείρων εἰς ἀχάριστα μάτην θ᾽ ὑπὸ κυφὸν ἄροτρον ταῦρον 
ὑποζεύξας. Vettius also may be cited for adj. and verb, and 
the abstract ἀχαριστία. 


This negative of a well-warranted word is said by Grimm 
to exist neither in profane authors nor in LXX, Its appear- 
ance, therefore, at once in Mark and in Paul is—za/eat 
quantum—support for the inference that a genuine Logion 
about a ‘‘ house not made with hands”’ underlies the per 
version of Mk 1458, and is quoted by Paul (and Heb 911,33) ; 
it would be probably a coinage for the occasion in the earliest 


With Lk 1719 may be compared the fragmentary P Par 
6854 ἀχρείους δούλους : see also P Magd 29° (B.C. 217) tom[ov] 
ὄντα καί pot ἀχρεῖον Kal στενὸν ἐπὶ μῆκος δέδωκεν. The 
one occurrence of the adj. in NT may quite possibly be 
a mistaken gloss: the Lewis Syriac presumes simply δοῦλοί 
ἐσμεν, a very plausible reading. 

Herwerden cites the abnormal feminine ἀχρεία from /G 
Sept 303% (iii/B.c.) φιάλην . . . ἀχρείαν. 

> / 

In OGIS 573'%, a Cilician inser of i/A.D., it is forbidden 
μήτε ἀπαλεῖψαι μήτε ἀχρεῶσαι μήτε μετᾶραι the inscriptions 
and votive offerings of an adjoining temple. The verb 
occurs in a quotation of Vettius, p. 290", where a king says 
ὃ τοιοῦτος. . . ἄτεκνος τῶν ἀναγκαίων στερηθήσεται Kal 
πάντα ἀχρειώσας τρόπον ἐπαίτου ζήσεται. 


P Tebt I. 743% 79, 755% 86 (both ii/B.c.) of “ unproductive” 
land. So in CPIlerm γι (ii/a.p.), but Azat contextus, 


ἄχρι, ἄχρις 

It describes a pig in P Flor 11. 12714 (a.p. 256) ἀλλὰ καλὸν 
πάλιν ἔστω, μὴ ὡς πρώην καὶ λεπτὸν καὶ ἄχρηστον. 7. 
1857 (A.D. 254) κατεαγμένα καὶ ἄχρηστα, of panniers, 
and P Oxy X. 1346 (ii/A.b. ?) ἄχρηστος [γ]έγωναι (/. γέγονε), 
of a garment. Cagna/ IV. 293!4 (Pergamon, B.C. 127-6) 
κατεφθαρμέϊνον... καὶ]... γεγονὸς ἄχρηστον, of a 
gymnasium. The moral sense of the word comes out in 



ἄχρι is only an ad/aut variant of μέχρι---566. Brugmann- 

Thumb, p. 631. 

P Oxy VII. 1070°° (iii/A.D.) μὴ ἀμελήσῃς μὴ ἄρα ποτὲ 

θέλῃς ple]Ta σ[ο]ῦ [Ἥρ]αείδι τὴν τήρησιν τῆς ὅλης οἰκίας 
παραδιδόναι ἀχρήστου οὔσης αὐτῆς, “do not neglect this, 
lest indeed you choose to hand over the keeping of the 
whole house to Herais, who is unworthy ’’ (Ed.). The 
resemblance to Philem 11 is obvious. Vettius (p. 627) speaks 

of ἄχρηστα βρέφη. 

ἄχρι, ἄχρις. 

No example of ἄχρις has yet been produced from the 
Ptolemaic papyri. In the Roman period both forms are 
found, their usage being apparently determined as a rule by 
the same considerations of euphonyas in the NT. For ἄχρι 
οὗ cf. P Oxy I. 10418 (a will, A.D. 96) ἄχρι οὗ ἐκπληρώσωσι 
ἀργυρίου δραχμαὶ τριακόσιαι, BGU 1. το δ (a.p. 135) 
ἄχρι οὗ γράψω τῷ κρατίστῳ ἡγεμόνι and P Oxy III. 5073° 
(A.D, 169) ἄχρι οὗ ἀποδῶ σοι τὸ κεφάλαιον, etc. Without 
οὗ, cf. P Oxy III. 4918 (A.D. 126) οὐ]δ᾽ ἄλλως καταχρη- 
ματίζειν ἄχρι ἑκάτερος αὐτῶν πληρώσῃ ἔτη εἴκοσι πέντε, 
τό. IX. 1215. (Π}Π1 A.D.) (please come to me) ἄχρι τὰ 
πράγματα κατασταλῇ (illit. letter). For.dxpis ἄν cf. BGU 
IIT. $3018 (i/A.D.) ἄχρις ἄν σοι ἔλθω, α΄. Αχρι of manner 
ts illustrated by Os¢tr 1129° (A.D. 207) ἄχρι τοῦ ὀψωνίου, 
P Tebt II. 301% (A.D. 190) ἔσχον τούτου [τὸ ἴπσσον ἄχρι 
ἐξετάσεως, ““1 have received a copy of this for investigation ” 
(Edd.). With the phrase ἄχρι τοῦ viv in Rom 822, Phil 15, 
cf. EGU 1. 2569 (time of Antoninus Pius) péxp[t] τ[οὔ] viv: 


A few citations suffice for this very common word, which 
survives in MGr. One shows that ‘‘ bricks without straw ”’ 
were as abnormal in the Ptolemaic period as in the days of 
the Exodus: P Petr II. 14 (2)13 (as amended III. p- 139) 
shows directions ἐς τὰ ἄχυρα πρὸς τὴν πλινθολκίαν. So in 
Syl 5877 (B.C. 329-8, Attica) ἀχύρων σάκοι εἰς τὴν οἰκο- 
δομίαν τοῦ τείχους : Ditt. cites another Attic inscr. which 
mentions πηλὸς ἠχυρωμένος. This use of chaff was accord- 
ingly not limited to Egypt. The practice exemplified typically 
in the Ptolemaic ostracon, Ost7 1168—)éd(yos) ἀχύρου, an 
account for fuel εἰς τὰς kapelvous, and in BGU III. 760° 
(1.4...) & τὰ καὶ χωροῦντα is ὑπόκαυσιν τοῦ με[γάλου 
γυμ(νασίου), P Fay Osty 21 (A.D. 306) ἀχύρου καυσίμου 
σάκ(κον) a—reminds us that (brickmaking apart) feeding 
the fire was the zormal use of the ‘‘chaff.’’ The stern 
theology of earlier days may have glossed the Baptist’s words 
with Proy 164! 


P Lond 121570. (magic, iii/A.D.) (=I. p. 102) ἐπὶ τῷ 
ἀχράντῳ φωτὶ ὀχούμενος ἀψευδής. The adverb is restored 
in BGU II. 432}. (A.D. 190) Aeyopevol. ἀψ]ευδῶς πρὸς κτλ: 
cf. also the late P Lond IV. 1343° (A.D. 709) ἀψευδῶς Kal 
ἀσυμπαθῶς. The passive adj. occurs in Pretsigke 1070 (a 
προσκύνημα from Abydos)... καὶ ἄψευστον kal δι᾽ ὅλης 
οἰκουμέν(ης) μαρτυρούμενον οὐράνιον θεὸν [Βησᾶν ἐ]δείσα- 


ἴμεν, and P Leid Wx". # ὁ ἔχον τὴν ἄψευστον ἀλήθειαν. 

P Lond 1219 ς (magic, 1/A.D.) (=I. p. 98) ἡσύχαζον 
ἀψύχοις τροφαῖς χρώμενος. It is MGr, = “‘lifeless.” 




Ty Βάαλ in Rom rr is paralleled in LXX four times 
outside Prophets and Apocrypha, where it is feminine with- 
out variant: correct thus the note in /vo/eg.4, p. 59, where 
see also a reference to the usual explanation (Dillmann’s). 


P Tand τ 51:5 (iv/A.p.) has Βαβ[υ]λ[ζῷν]α in a fragmentary 
context. See also P Flor 11. 278%-8 (ii/A.p.), a letter 
addressed στρατ]ηγῶι ᾿Αραβία(ς), where he is instructed 
καμήλους ods προσέταξεν ἄρρενας kal ῥωμαλέους, δυναμένους 
ταῖς πορείαις ὑπηρετεῖν, ἢ αὐτὸς ἄγαγε ἢ διά τινος τῶν σῶν 
πέμψον εἰς Βαβυλῶνα. 


For this common LXX verb reference may be made to 
P Par 51° (B.C. 160) (= Selections, p. 19) ᾧμ[ην] Bat(= 
S)itew pe [ἀπ]ὸ λειβὸς ἕως ἀϊπηλι]ώτου, “I dreamt that 1 
was going from West to East,” P Lips I. 104?® (c. B.c. 96-5) 
(= Witkowski*®, p. 118) εἰκῆ ἐφ᾽ ἁλλαχῆ βαδίζετε, P Oxy 
IV. 743%? (B.c. 2) τὸ βαδίσαι eis Taxéva, and PSI I. 95° 
(iii/A.b.) κἄν oe δῇ (4. δέῃ) βαδίσαι εἰς... The subst. 
is found P Grenf II. 14 (ὁ) (B.c. 264 or 227) ὄνους βαδιστὰς 
aévre. In P Flor III. 376% (iii/A.p.) ὑπὸ τοὺς βαδιστὰς 
[. . . has the note ‘‘sc. évovs”: that the noun is really 
understood, and not latent in the hiatus, is shown by the 
word βαδιστηλάτας above (1. 4%)—cf. P Tebt I. 262 (late 
ii/p.c.), PSI 11. 2057 (A.p. 295). A donkey was apparently 
regarded as ‘‘what will go,” which is not a unanimously 
accorded estimate: does βαδιστής as epithet of ὄνος suggest 
that the verb connoted a kind of gait seen typically in a 
donkey? See also the editor's note on P Ryl II. 2368 
(A.D. 256). 


The thought of a ‘‘ vantage ground, a ‘standing’ (RV) 
a little, as it were, above the common level,” which Hort 
(Christian Ecclesia, p. 202) suggests for this word in 1 Tim 
315, may be illustrated from the Mytilene inscription /G IT. 
24319 τοῖς Tas ἀξίας βασμοῖς ἀνελόγησε, ‘er wurde durch 
sein Verhalten dem Ehrenamte gerecht ” (Nageli, p. 26). See 
also R. M. Pope Zxp 7 xxi. p. 112 ff. The word is found 
in the mystery religions, e. g. Reitzenstein Pozmandres 13°, 
Pp. 343, ὃ βαθμὸς οὗτος, ὦ τέκνον. δικαιοσύνης ἐστὶν ἕδρασμα. 
Immisch in 2 ζλοίοσιις xvii. (N.F.) p. 33 η.} cites βαθμός as a 
technical expression in philosophy, denoting a step towards 
the goal, and compares Olympiodorus /’roleg. (Comm. in 
Aristotelem Graeca X11. 1), ed. Busse, p. 951, and 74. Scholia 
in Platonis Phaedonem, ed Finckh, p. 31°. 

The rule which the grammarians lay down that βαθμός is 
the Ionic form of the Attic Baopés:(so Lob. PAryi. p. 324) 

Parr II. 


is not borne out by the evidence of the inscriptions: see 

Thumb Hellen. p. 73. 


The literal meaning is illustrated by P Fay 1108 (A.D. 94) 
σκάψον ἐπὶ βάθος, “dig a deep trench”: cf. BGU II. 
6477) 25 (A.D. 130) ἐπὶ βάθους, 26. IV. 1122!8(B.c. 14)... .] 
ἔχον τὸ καθῆκον βάθος, of the setting of plants in trenches 
in a garden—cf. Mk 4°. 
with πλάτος is seen, 6. g., in measurements for excavations 
in the construction of a canal, P Giss I. 42 (A.D. 117) 
passin, as ὃ Bo(ppa) éxop(eva) σχοι(νία) δ᾽ ξύλ(α) ρκ[η], 
πλί(άτος) Ὑ, βάθίος) ε, v(avPia) ξδ. Herwerden Lex. s.v. 
cites 7 αῤΖεγς du Louvre (ed. Letronne) 64 (ii/B.C.) μή σ᾽ ἐπὶ 
βάθος .-- παντελῶς ?) τοῦτο πεποηκέναι. 

The ordinary use in connexion 

The astrological 
use of B. to denote the space below the horizon out of 
which the stars rise (e. g. Dieterich A/¢thrasiiturgie, p. 8°, 
ἐγώ εἰμι σύμπλανος ὑμῖν ἀστὴρ καὶ ἐκ τοῦ βάθους ἀνα- 
λάμπων) may throw some light on Rom 899 (see Lietzmann 
in HZNT ad loc). Yor the true ‘‘ Greek” character of the 
Pauline phraseology in Rom 1138 ὦ βάθος πλούτου κτλ., 
see Norden dAgnostos Theos, p. 243. 


For this verb = “go deep,” as in Lk 648, we can only 
point to Philo I. 248, 15 (cited in Sophocles Lex. s.v.) ; 
see Radermacher Gy. p. 19, for other solitary instances of 

transitive verbs used intransitively. 


For B. associated with time (class.), as in Lk 24}, cf. 
P Lips 1. 4o¥- 10 (iv/v A.p.) ὀψὲ πάνν βαθ[ε]ίας ἑσπέρ[ας. 
So in the fragment of an epithalamium (iv/a.D.), P Ryl I. 

ὁμοφροσύνην δ᾽ ὀπάσε[ιε 
ἤδη που θεὸς ἄμμι καὶ αὐτίκα τέκνα γενέϊσ7θαν 
καὶ πα[ίδων παῖδας καὶ ἐς βαθὺ γῆρας ἱκέσθ[αι. 

It is applied to colour in P Lond 899* (ii/A.p.) (= IIL. 
p. 208) τὸ οὖν βαθύτερον (sc. πορφύριον) πεποίηται εἰς TO 
σπανου (?) καὶ τὸ ὀξύτερον εἰς τί] ἄλλ[ο]. The com- 
parative βαθύτερον is also found P Petr III. 43 (2) γεεζοῖν. 18 
(B.C. 245) (p. 121). Note a new compound, recalling the 
combination in Lk 643, P Hal I. 1-8 (iii/B.c.), where a 
πολιτικὸς νόμος is headed φυτίεύσ]εως kal οἰκοδομ[ίας] kal 
β[αθ]νορυί γῆς. 


The simplex of this old verb, whose compounds are 
ubiquitous, has perhaps not quite disappeared from use, 
though not to be found in NT. Its present appears in 
Dt 28°, its perfect in Wisd (15) and 3 Macc: cf. BGU IV. 



110219 (i/B.c.), where τῶν [μ]ὲν β[αι]νόν[ των] τὴν ἀπα[ίτησιν 
is read by Schubart, who regards the supplement as “ un- 
vermeidlich.” Less noteworthy is its appearance in a long 
builder’s specification fora temple at Lebadea, Sy// 5401 
(B.C. 175-1) βεβηκότας (sc. τοὺς λίθους) ὅλους ἀσχάστους, 

ἀνε[γκλή]τους κτλ. 


This word, apparently of Egyptian origin, which is found 
in Bibl. Grk only in 1 Mace 13°, Jn 121%, occurs in the 
late P Flor I. 373 (v/vi a.p.) δικαίῳ Batw, of a palm branch 
used as a measuring rod. Bala is quoted in P Tebt IT. p. 69 
from a text edited by Wessely; and Batwy occurs in P Leid 
Vvii-17, but with Bats as nom. in preceding line. The form 
Batov is presumed by the compounds βαιοφορεῖν and 
βαιοφορία: see P Tebt II. 2941” (application for the pur- 
chase of a priestly office—a.p. 146), where the writer 
promises ‘‘ to carry the B.” and perform all the other needful 
offices, also 295" (A.D. 126-38) and 599 (ii/A.D.). For the 
form Bats see P Lond 131 recto®84 (a.b.78-9) ( =I. p. 181) 
Pacis, P Oxy IX.12118 (ii/a. D.) Bats χλωρᾶς tS (cf. P Leid 
(A.D. 215) Zev in the phrase ὑπὸ δένδρα καὶ Bais: Wilcken 
Chrest. I. p. 128 prints B[@ts]—ought it to be ace. pl. Bacts? 
In view of the above evidence the word makes yet another 
deduction from the fast vanishing list of ‘*bibl. and eccles.” 
words in Grimm. 


That the verb does not necessarily imply casting or thrusting 
with some degree of violence is clear already from the NT 
itself; and there are vernacular parallels to negative the 
assumption of “Jewish Greek.” Thus in BGU 11. 5974 
(A.D. 75) ἵνα βάληι τὸν μόσχον mpd τῶν προβάτων the verb 
does not suggest a violent ‘‘ Βιησίηρ ἡ of the helpless calf 
before the ferocious beasts afterwards named. Cf. P Oxy 
VII. 1069%° (iii/A.pD.) κ[α]λὰ μέτρα αὐτῷ βαλέτωσαν, ‘let 
them put good measure into it” with reference to the making 
of a tunic, and 2d. VI. 9349 (iii/A.D.) μὴ οὖν ἀμελήσῃς τοῦ 
βαλεῖν τὴν κόπρον, “do not fail therefore to throw the 
manure on the land” (Edd.): ef. P Fay 1187! (a.p. 110) 
βάλλωι ἕξ ἀρούρας εἰς τὴν Ψεννόφριν, “1 am manuring six 
arourae at Psennophris” (Edd.). For a similar absolute 
usage see Sy// 5227 (iii/p.c.) θύειν δὲ τὸμ μὲν βοῦν BeBAn- 
κότα, τὴν δὲ οἷν βεβληκ[υ]ῖαν, of animals that have “cast” 
their first teeth. A very curious absolute use occurs in Sy// 
389" (A.D. 129), where the Ephesians honour Hadrian as 
διδόντα τῇ θεῷ τῶν κληρονομιῶν καὶ βεβληκότων τὰ δίκαια: 
Dittenberger tentatively suggests that it may be a rendering 
of bona caduca, property without an heir. P Lond 1177} 
(A.D. 113) (=III. p. 182) at πλείω βληθεῖσαι [? sc. ὕδατος 
χορηγίαι] βαλανείου Σευηριανοῦ will illustrate Mt 9% and 
other places where β. is used of liquids. With the phrase of 
Mt 52° etc. cf. P Tebt 11. 567 (A.D. 53-4) εἰς δεσμευτήριον 
βληθήσεται. LP Flor 11. 1481} (a.p. 266-7) τὰ δὲ τεμνόμενα 
φυτὰ εὐθέως εἰς ὕδωρ βαλλέσθω ἵνα μὴ ξηρανθῇ, ‘be put in 
water that they may not wither,” is a further instance of the 
unemphatic use. The intransitive βάλλειν, in NT found only 
in Ac 2744, occurs in a much milder sense in Epict. ii. 20. 10 
βαλὼν κάθευδε καὶ τὰ τοῦ σκώληκος ποίει, “lie down and 
sleep and play the part of the worm,” 26. ἵν. 10. 29 τί οὖν οὐ 


9 ’ 
2 βαπτισμος 

ῥέγκω βαλών; and Enoch 18° ὄρη εἰς νότον βάλλοντα, 
(mis)quoted by Radermacher G7. p. 18. For the aor. indic. 
ἐβλήθη used of present time in Jn 15°cf. Proleg. pp. 134, 247, 
and Abbott Joh. Gr. p. 322. On βεβλῆσθαι, used of sick 
persons, as Mt 84, Lk 167°, see Field Wofes, pp. 7, 70. 

βάλλω is the only verb to form a gerundive in NT, and 
that only once (Lk 538 βλητέον) : the gerundive in -τέος is 
rare, though not unknown, in papyri, and is generally found 
in formulae, so that we should hardly credit it to popular 


As late as iv/A.D. the word is used in a magic papyrus, 
P Lond 46° (=I. p. 67) of a ‘‘submerged” boat—amrd 
vevavayynk(dtos) πλοίου ἀπὸ πάκτωνος βεβαπτισμίένον). 
Lucian 7 νιον 44 makes the Misanthrope threaten ὠθεῖν 
καὶ ἐπὶ κεφαλὴν βαπτίζοντα. So in a fragment of Epictetus 
(Stobaeus no. 47—Schenkl p. 474), quoted by D. 5. Sharp, 
Epictetus and the NT, p. 66, ὥσπερ οὐκ ἂν ἐβούλου ἐν νηΐ 
μεγάλῃ Kal γλαφυρᾷ Kal πολυχρύσῳ πλέων βαπτίζεσθαι. 
With its use to express ceremonial ablution—as Lk 118 and 
the new Gospel-fragment P Oxy V. 840! μ[ή]τε μὴν τῶν 
μαθητῶν σου τοὺς πίόδας Balmricbévtwy—we may compare 
another magic papyrus P Lond 1214" (iii/A.p.) (=I. p. 98) 
λουσάμενος kal βαπτισάμενος. Our earliest quotation is 
from P Par 4738 (c. B.C. 153) (= Se/ectéons, p. 22) κἂν ἰδῇς 
ὅτι μέλλομεν σωθῆναι, τότε βαπτιζώμεθα. The translation 
of the letter, which is very illiterate, is by no means clear, 
but βαπτιζόμεθα must mean ‘‘ flooded,” or overwhelmed 
with calamities. That the word was already in use in this 
metaphorical sense (cf. Diod. 1. 
educated people, strikingly illustrates our Lord’s speaking 
of His Passion as a ‘‘ baptism” (Mk 10%). 

73. 6), even among un- 


The word is restored by the editor in the new fragment 
of an uncanonical Gospel, P Oxy X.1224, Fr. 2 verso +4 
(iv/A.p.) τί β]ά[πτισμ]α καινὸν [κηρύσσειν (sc. φασὶν) 
‘*what is the new baptism that they say thou dost preach?” 
—where for B. κηρύσσειν he compares Mk 14, and for the 
likelihood of questions concerning a ‘‘ new baptism,” Jn 41". 
That the noun is “ peculiar to NT and eccl. writ.” (Grimm) 
is of coarse natural: the new use to which the verb was put 
as a ¢erm. techn, demanded a corresponding noun. The 
same may be said of βαπτισμός and βαπτιστής, which only 
occur certainly in Josephus’s account of John the Baptist : 
see further 5.7. βαπτισμός. 


Grimm’s statement that ‘‘among prof. writ. Josephus 
alone (An//, xviii. 5. 2) uses the word, and of John’s baptism” 
is traversed by the ordinary text of Plutarch’s A/oralia: see 
the De Superstitione 3, p..166 A, where he names among 
superstitions πηλώσεις καταβορβορώσεις βαπτισμούς, ῥίψεις 
ἐπὶ πρόσωπον, αἰσχρὰς προκαθίσεις, ἀλλοκότους προσκυ- 
νήσεις. But, unfortunately, the word is only Bentley’s emen- 
dation for σαββατισμούς, according to Bernadakis’ apparatus 
—was the change necessary ? 

As distinguished from βάπτισμα in which the result is 
included, βαπτισμός is the act of immersion (Blass G7. p. 62) ; 


and hence in Heb 63 Chase (Confirmation in the Apost. Age, 
Ῥ- 44 f.) understands διδαχὴ βαπτισμῶν as = ‘‘‘ the teaching 
about acts of washing,’ the exposition of the truths and 
spiritual principles embodied and expressed in the baptism 
of this disciple and of that.” 


In P Tebt II. 2373 (a.p. 161-9) the fullers and dyers of 
the Arsinoite nome appeal against a tax that had been im- 
posed upon their trades—oi μέν ello] γναφεῖς οἱ ἱ δὲ] βαφεῖς 
τὴν ἐργασίαν, δίδονται δὲ ὑπὲρ τέλους κτλ. For the τέλος 
βαφέων see also Ostr 700, 1068 (both ii/A.p.), and 1516 
(ii/B.c.). In P Par 5210, 535(B.c. 163-2) Barra = ‘“‘ coloured 
garments”: cf. P Oxy X. 1293%# (A.p. 117-38) εἰς βαφὴν 
ἐρ[(1δια, ‘‘ wool to be dyed.” A late instance of the verb in 
this sense may be cited from P Iand 177 (vi/vii A.D.) 

The verb is restored by the editors in the uncanonical 

Gospel fragment, P Oxy V. 840% ἐγὼ δὲ καὶ ot [μαθηταί 

μου] ods λέγεις μὴ βεβα[πτίσθαι βεβάἸμμεθα ἐν ὕδασι ζω[ῆς 
αἰωνίου : cf. Epict. ii. 9. 20 ὅταν δ᾽ ἀναλάβῃ τὸ πάθος τὸ τοῦ 
βεβαμμένου καὶ ἡρημένου. τότε καὶ ἔστι τῷ ὄντι καὶ καλεῖται 
᾿Ιουδαῖος, where βεβαμμένου seems to refer to baptism and 
ἡρημένου to circumcision (see Sharp Zfictetus and the NT, 

Ρ- 134 f.). 


For the contrast with "EAAnv see OG/S 765%° (iii/B.C.) 
αὐτὸς δὲ ἀντετά[ξ]ατο πρὸς τοὺς βαρβάρους ἀ[τ]ιμ[ἀζοντάς 
τε ἡμᾶς] .. - καὶ εἰς τοὺς “Ελληνας [παρανομοῦντας ;, cf. 
15, 19, 21, 32. 74, 7631 (letter of Eumenes II., ii/B.c.) ἀναδείξας 
ἐμαυτὸν εὐεργέτην τῶν Ἑλλήνων πολλοὺς μὲν καὶ μεγάλους 
ἀγῶνας ὑπέστην πρὸς τοὺ[5] BapBapovs—apparently the 
Galatae, see Dittenberger’s note, and for a similar reference 
Magn 46°. Berber is used in the same way by Egyptians 
to denote non-Egyptian peoples. In P Lond 4105 (¢. A.D. 

346) (= II. p. 298) a mother beseeches Abinnaeus to release | 

from service her son—amfAOev οὖν μετὰ τὸν βάρβαρον. 
P Par 10®(p.c. 145) tells of a Syrian slave ἐστιγμένος τὸν 
δεξιὸν καρπὸν γράμμασι βαρβαρικοῖς. presumably Syrian. 

The more ethical sense of the word (as Ezra 2131(36}) may be | 

illustrated from Aristeas 122 τὸ τραχὺ καὶ βάρβαρον τῆς 


The verb is only found in perf. pass. in LXX, and only 
twice (Exod 7%, 2 Macc 13%): see Thackeray Gr. i. 
p- 261. Similarly in NT we have only the passive, but the 
present and aorist are used. The record fits its early history, 
for βεβαρημένος is the oldest form after the Homeric BeBa- 
ρηώς ; and Hippocrates is the first to use βαρέεται. See 
Anz Subsidia, p. 266 ff. Instances of the active are late in 
appearing. Anz quotes Lucian’s censure on Bapeiv for 
βαρύνειν, and mentions C/G 585318 (A.p. 174) ἵνα μὴ τὴν 
πόλιν βαρῶμεν. MGr has Bape, “strike,” as well as 
βαρειοῦμαι, “be weary of? (Thumb Handbook, p. 321). 

The use of the verb in the papyri tallies with this record. 
Thus P Tebt II. 32725 (late ii/A.D.), γ]νυνὴ οὖσα ἀβο- 
ήθητος ποίλλο]ῖς ἔτεσι βεβαρημένη, ‘fa defenceless woman 
weighted with many years” (Edd.), P Oxy VI. 93978 
(iv/A.D.) ἡνίκα éBapetro τῇ νόσῳ. It becomes a formula in 




a group οἱ documents relating to taxation. P Giss I.4™ 
(A.D. 118) αὐτοί te βεβαρημένοι πολλῶι χρόνωι δημοσίοις 
[- - - 7. 2. 67 (A.D. 117) αὐτὸς δὲ βαροῦμαι τῷ ἐκφορίῳ : 
so 22. 6᾽.10. two documents in Archiv v. p. 245f., and 
another in P ΕΥΪ II. 968, all with the same phraseology, 
and dated about the same time. Similarly P Brem 735 (in 
Chrest. I. p. 277) (¢. A.D. 117) ὅπως μὴ βαρηθῶσιν ἢ παρα- 
πραχθῶσιν ot ἐνχώριοι ἢ συκοφαντηθῶσιν, Sy// 418% (A.D. 
238) ἐὰν βαρούμεθα (needlessly emended -ώμεθα), φευξόμεθα 
ἀπὸ τῶν οἰκείων (query olk(e)t@v 2) καὶ μεγίστην ζημίαν τὸ 
ταμεῖον περιβληθήσεται. 74. 4225 (iv/A.D.) ὃ νομίζων βαρῖσθαι 
δέει τοῦ δικαστοῦ. These illustrate the use in 1 Tim 515: 
cf. also C7G 585315 (= OG/S 59515) as above. Other 
examples of the verb from the inscriptions are Xazbe/ 
3354 θνήσκω] δ᾽ οὐχὶ ν[όσ]ῳ βεβαρημένος, 608° (ii/iii A.D.) 
κεῖτε δ[ὴ)] γήρᾳ βεβαρηϊμέϊνος. In Ath. Pal. vii. 290 we 
have πυμάτῳ βεβαρημένου ὕπνῳ: cf. Mt 26%, Lk g**. The 
curious list of prognostications to be drawn from involun- 
tary twitchings, P Ryl I. 28'4ff (iv/a.p.), has σφυρὸν 
εὐώνυμον ἐὰν ἅληται ἐν κρίσει βαρη[θ]εὶς ἔσται καὶ ἐκφεύξε- 
ται, ‘‘ifthe left ankle quiver he will be burdened with a trial, 
and will be acquitted” (Ed.). This metaphorical usage, as 
in 2 Cor 18, π΄, may be further illustrated from P Oxy III. 
525° (early ii/A.D.) where, with reference to a voyage he was 
undertaking, the writer complains—Kaé’ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν 
Bapotpar δι᾽ αὐτὸν καὶ λείαν TO πράγματι καταξύομαι, 
‘every day I am burdened on account of it and I am ex- 
tremely worn out with the matter” (Edd.). Further instances 
of the active are P Oxy VIII. 1159? (late iii/A.p.) ἵνα μὴ 
βαρήσωῳ αὐτῷ ὀψωνίου, ‘that I may not trouble him about pro- 
visions” (Ed.), and the late τό. I. 1268 (A.p. 572), where one 
Stephanous undertakes βαρέσαι τὸ ἐμὸν ὄνομα, “to burden 
herself,” with certain imposts hitherto paid by her father. 
See also 26. X. 1224 Fr. 2 rectoll-® (uncanonical Gospel— 
iv/A.D.) pe €Bapnoev, ‘‘overcame me,” where the editor 
suggests φόβος or λύπη as a possible subject, as well as ὕπνος 
(cf. the citation from the Azth. Pal. above). 


As against the popular etymology given in Ac 455, Deiss- 
mann has shown on the evidence of certain inscriptions that 
this proper name is Graecized from the Semitic 1222 -Ξ 
“Son of Nebo”: see BS pp. 187 ff., 307 ff., Ζ ΤῊΣ vii. 
(1906) p. 91 f. This derivation has been accepted by Dalman 
Words, p. 40 f., and G. B. Gray Zxp7 x. p. 233 f. 


BGU I. 159% ff (A.p.216) (= Chrest. I. p. 486) μετὰ δὲ 
ταῦτα ἀναδο[θέντο]ς μου εἰς Sy[poo]([a]y λειτουργίαν Ba- 
ρυτάτην οὖσαν ἀπέστ[η)]ν τῆς κώμης οὐ δυνόμενος ὑποστῆναι 
τὸ βάρος τῆς λειτουργίας is a good example of the ordinary 
use of this noun with the corresponding adjective: cf. P Oxy 
VII. 10624 (ii/a-p.) εἰ δὲ τοῦτό σοι βάρος φέρει, ‘‘if it is 
troublesome” (Ed.). A ‘* burden” of oppression is referred 
to in Sy// 418% (A.D. 238) ἐπεὶ οὖν οὐκέτι δυνάμεθα φέρειν 
τὰ βάρη, and one of taxation in P Giss I. 7° (A.D. 117) ἐπεὶ 
οὖν ὃ κύριος ἡμῶν ᾿Αδριανὸς. . . ἐκούφισεν τῶν ἐνχωρίων 
τὰ βάρη καθολικῶς διὰ προγράμματος, ἀξιῶ τοιούτου ὄντος 
τοῦ βάρους κτὰ. It denotes responsibility in 26. 1918 (ii/A.D.) 
ἀλλὰ ὡς [καὶ ὁ ἐϊνθάδε στρατηγὸς τοῖς ἄρχουσι ἐπιτίθησι 
τὸ βάρος, καὶ σὺ τὸ αὐϊτὸ ποίει. In reference to moral 


faults (cf. Gal 65), see the Acts of the martyrdom of Christina, 
PSI 277 (v/A.D.) (as amended _p. xi) βάρος πάσης ὀργῆς καὶ 
ἀτίμ[ο]υ σπέρματος. The word is found in the astrologer 
Vettius Valens, p. 2925 ἐν συνοχαῖς καὶ βάρεσι γίνονται ἢ 
τραυμάτων περιπλοκαῖς : in the Index βάρος is rendered 


The replacement of this classical verb by βαρέω was pro- 
gressive, as is seen in the fact that βαρύνω is common in 
LXX, but never occurs in the NT according to WH, except 
in its compound καταβαρύνω : the vernacular record of 
Bapéw (7.7.) makes this very clear. For the older word cf. 
P Tebt I. 238 (c. B.c. 119 or 114) καθ᾽ ὑπερβολὴν (cf. 
2 Cor 18) βεβαρυμμένοι, ‘‘excessively vexed” (Edd.), 
P Oxy II. 298% (i/A.p.) περὶ “Εἱρμοδώρου γράφε[ι]ς μοι λίαν 
αὐτὸν βαρύνομαι, ‘‘you write to me about Hermodorus that 
I am too severe with him” (Edd.), and OG7S 669° (i/a.D.) 
μὴ βαρυνομένην καιναῖς καὶ ἀδίκοις εἰσπράξεσι, 7.18 ἵνα δὲ 
μηδαμόθεν βαρύνηι τὰς πρὸς ἀλλήλους συναλλαγάς. 


See the first reference 5... βάρος and cf. P Tebt I. 52! 
(c. B.C. 114) δι (1 διὰ τό) με ἐν βαρυϊτέϊρᾳ ἀρρωστίᾳ Kio [Par 
“since I am seriously ill” (Edd.). In P Goodsp Cairo 
151° (A.D. 362) B. = “‘ pregnant ”’—rhv μὲν Tanow βαρέαν 
οὖσαν ἐκ τῶν πληγῶν αὐτῶν ἐξέτρωσεν (= -av) τὸ βρέφος, “to 
Taesis who was pregnant they occasioned by their violence 
the miscarriage of her child” (Ed.): see Archiz ili. p. 116 
on the passage. For the adverb see P Lond 42” (B.c. 168) 
(=I. p. 31) ἣ μήτηρ cov τυγχάνει βαρέως ἔχουσα. 


P Oxy VI. 9ο3 (iv/a.p.) βασανιζόμενοι οὖν εἶπαν, ‘they 
under torture said ’—of slaves. Cf. Audollent 14-°7 (Cnidus 
tablet) μεγάλας βασάνους βασανιζομένα, and the impreca- 
tory tablet 35° pera κυνῶν Bacavloarin Blissand Macalister, 
Excavations tn Palestine (1902), p. 176. The verb also 
occurs 267, in PSI I. 28, a magic tablet of iii/iv A.D. : another 
late instance is P Lips Inv 2445 (in Crest. II. p. 81) (A.D. 
462) καὶ παρε[κ]λήθην Kal ἐκλείσθην εἰς [τ]ὴν δη[μο]σ{ίαν] 
εἰ Ἱρκτί ἣὴ]ν τῶν χρεῶν ἕνεκα καὶ πολλαί. .Jov, ὅπερ ἀπηγο- 
ρ[ε]υμένον τοῖς νόμοις, ἐβασανίσθην. A compound may be 

quoted from BGU IV. 1141” (B.c. 14), where ἐγὼι οὖν | 

ἠρώτασα οὖν τὸν γέροντα is corrected above to ἐγβασανίσας 
οὖν ἠρώτων κατ᾽ ἰδίαν. The curious imprecation in Wiinsch 
AF no. 4 (iii/A.D.), where various infernal powers are 
invoked to prevent a rival’s winning a horserace, has (ν. 5) 
βασάνισον αὐτῶν τὴν διάνοιαν τὰς φρένας τὴν αἴσθησιν ἵνα 
μὴ νοῶσιν τί π[ο]ιῶσιν. 


The original sense of ‘‘ touchstone,” ‘* test,” appears in 
P Oxy I. 58” (a.p. 288), where provision is made that only 
such persons are appointed to certain offices as are in a 
position to stand the test—ot καὶ βασάνοις ὑποκείσονται. 
In P Leid Wv8-%6f (ii/iii A.p.) λέγε: KAOte μοι, 6 χρηστὸς 
ἐν βαζάνοις, βοήθησον ἐν ἀνάγκαις, ἐλεήμων ἐν ὥραις βιαίος 
(1.6. -αις), πολοὶ (2. ¢. -ὺ) δυνάμενος ἐν κόσμῳ, ὁ κτίσας τὴν 
ἀναγκὴ (καὶ) τιμωρίαν, καὶ τὴν βάσανον, Leemans renders 


the palace of the satrap Saitaphernes. 

For the derived sense, reference may be made | 


to the fragment of a legal code of iii/B.c., Ῥ Lille 1. οῖ- 55, 
where the judges are empowered to employ ‘‘torture” in 
the case of slaves giving evidence, should it be found neces- 
sary—tay δὲ δούλων τῶν μαρτυρησάντων, οἱ δικασταὶ τὴν 
βάσανον ἐκ τῶν σωμάτων ποείσθωσαν, παρόντων τῶν 
ἀντιδίκων, ἐὰμ. μὴ ἐκ τῶν τιθέντων δικαιωμάτων δύνωνται 
κρίνειν. So in a rescript. of Augustus, Sy// 35613 (B.c. 6) 
ἐξετάσαι προστάξας... διὰ βασάνων = guacrerc torments, 
of slaves after the murder of their master. See also the new 
uncanonical Gospel, P Oxy V. 840% κόλασιν ὑπομένουσιν 
kal πολ[λ]ὴν βάσανον, where the editors strangely remark 
that this use of β., as relating to punishment in the next 
world, is not found in NT; but cf. Lk 16% 38.  Vettius 
Valens, p. 182}", has the phrase ψυχικὰς βασάνους : cf. 
Ῥ. 201% ἐπὶ βασάνῳ καὶ ζημίᾳ Kal κινδύνῳ, and p. 21178 
ὀδυνηρὰν ἐπάγρυπνον βάσανον. 


As kingship or sovranty in the abstract is necessarily the 
root meaning of this word, it is easy to see how the passage 
into the concrete could either be on the lines of our domznzon 
(cf. “four Sovereign and his dominions”), or follow the 
outward and visible szex of royalty. All these three mean- 
ings are fully illustrated from the inscriptions by Dittenberger 
in the Index to OG/S, e.g. (1) 331% (ii/B.c.) ty ἔτει τῆς 
ἐκείνου βασιλείας, (2) 248!° (ii/B.c.) μέχρι τῶν ὁρίων τῆς 
ἰδίας βασιλείας, and (3) go (Rosetta Stone, B.c. 196) τὰς 
τοῦ βασιλέως χρυσᾶς βασιλείας δέκα. It is possible that 
some passages in the NT might gain in force if this last 
meaning ‘‘a sign of royalty ” were substituted for ‘‘ royalty” 
in the abstract—one might compare the line taken by the 
Reyisers with ἐξουσία in 1 Cor 111%. But it may be doubted 
whether the change can be made very plausible in auy case. 

For B. in its original sense we may cite from the papyri 
P Par 618 (B.C. 156) πάντας τοὺς ὑπὸ τὴν βασιλείαν δικαιο- 
δοτεῖσθαι, P Tor I. rit (Bc. 114) τῶν μεγίστων βασι- 
λέων ἀπολελυκότων τοὺς ὑπὸ τὴν βασιλείαν πάντας αἰτιῶν 
πασῶν. For the sense ‘“‘reign” see P Oxy X. 12577 
(iii/A.D.) ἐπὶ τοῦ (ἔτους) ἃ ἔτους τῆς εὐτυχαιστάτης ταύτης 
βασιλείας. Deissmann AS, p. 361f., compares with τὴν 
αἰώνιον βασιλείαν τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Kal σωτῆρος (2 Pet 111) 
the phrase ἐπὶ] τῆς τῶν κυρίων Ῥωμαίων αἰωνίου ἀρχῆς in 
the decree of Stratonicea (C/G II. no. 27152, δ). 


Syl/ 226% (iii/B.C.) πραθέντος τε τοῦ στόλου εἰς βασίλεια, 
Dittenberger quotes 
Boeckh as arguing from the absence of the article that β. 
was here almost a proper name, as in Herod. iv. 20: 1). 
however is not convinced that the reference is to the same 
place. P Petr II. 23 (2)* shows βασίλειος qualifying 
γραμματεύς, instead of the regular βασιλικός. In the magic 
papyrus P Lond 46% (iv/a.D.) (=I. p. 79) βασίλιον is 
used with a symbol which the editor understands as= 
“ sceptre” : cf. Wisd 51° τὸ βασίλειον τῆς εὐπρεπείας, “' the 
crown of royal dignity.” 


In a letter written not later than B.C. 334 the title of 
βασιλεύς is adopted by Alexander the Great (Priene 1), and 
it was a favourite designation of his successors in the Syrian 


and Egyptian monarchies. In this way it became familiar 
to the Jews of the Dispersion; and when found in the 
Septuagint as the translation of their vernacular title would 
be “instinct with present meaning and full of absorbing 
associations,” as Hicks (C2 i. p. 7) has’ pointed ‘out? In 
the NT it was transferred to the Roman Emperor (1 Tim 25, 
1 Pet 215 17) in accordance with common usage, as borne out 
by the inscriptions, e.g. 7G IIT. 12", 17°(time of Hadrian), 
C/G 11. 2721" (time of the Antonines), and the other 
examples cited by *Magie, p. 62. Similarly Deissmann 
(LAE, p. 367 f.) brings forward evidence to show that the 
full title βασιλεὺς βασιλέων (as Rev 1715, 197%) was again 
“ΕἼ very early Eastern history a decoration of actual great 
monarchs and also a divine title.” The former has of course 
as its most obvious example the title of the Persian Kings, 
as at Behistan— y;ayadiya xfayabiyanam: cf. the verbal 
phrase in the next article. For the latter, cf. the occult 
document Ρ Leid W+1¥- § (ii/iii A.p.) ἐπικαλοῦμαί σε, βασιλεῦ 
βασιλέων, τύραννε τυράννων, ἔνδοξο ἐνδοξοτάτων, δαίμων 
ϑαιμώνων, ἄλκιμε ἀλκιμωτάτων, ἅγιε ἁγίων. The similarity 
and at the same time contrast in the Christian usage would 
thus be full of significance to the Early Church, as in the 
case of the title κύριος (7.v.). On OG/S 351 (iii/B.c.) 
βασίλισσαν Φιλωτέραν βασιλέως ΤΤτολεμαίου (sc. 11, Phila- 
delphus), Dittenberger (p. 648) contests Strack’s attempt to 
claim βασιλεύς as well as βασίλισσα as a term applicable 
to non-regnant members of a royal family: he notes that 
there is all the difference between βασιλεύς and its feminine. 
Wilcken Archiv iii. p. 319 supports him, and notes inscrip- 
tions where βασιλεύς is promptly dropped when a mere 
H.R.H. is named after the king and his consort. He also 
commends Dittenberger’s remark that Augustus and Augusta 
had the same difference after Domitian’s time. 


A good example of the ingressive aorist is afforded by the 
new Agraphon as restored by the editors—P Oxy IV. 654° 
θαμ]βηθεὶς βασιλεύσει καῇ βασιλεύσας ἀναπα]ήσεται, ““ as- 
tonished he shall reach the Kingdom, and having reached 
the Kingdom he shall rest”: see /0/eg. p. 130. The verb 
is used to render the Persian title (see under βασιλεύς) in 
P Sa‘id Khan 1 (a)! (B.c. 88) βασιλεύοντος βασιλέων 
Ἀρσάκου : 1 (4)! and 2! (B.c. 22-1) have the same formula. 
CPHerm 1254.% (a.p. 260-8) διατρίβοντός colv] ἐπὶ τῆς 
βασιλευούσης Ῥώμης supplies an illustration for Rev 187, 
For the relation of the Pauline conception of ‘‘ the saint as 
king” (Rom 517, 2 Tim 215) to the Greek philosophic ideal, 
see Ramsay 7eaching, p. 157 ff. 


is exceedingly common, but we may note P Petr III. 315 
(B.C. 240) πορευομένου ἐπὶ τῆς βασιλικῆς ὁδοῦ as coeval with 
the almost identical phrase of the LXX in Num 20!7. This 
phrase at a later time was used to render wa γέρας, a 
Roman road built by the Emperor: see Ramsay CRE, 
p- 32ff-, where a Latin inser. from Pisidia brings the 
original back to the time of Augustus. The adj. is applied 
to the revenue in P Petr III. 261° ὁ πράκτωρ ὃ ἐπὶ τῶν 
βασιλικιῶὴν προσόδων τεταγμένος, ‘the officer appointed 
to collect the royal revenues”; Chrves¢. I. 198}* (B.c. 240) 
τῶι ἐμ Βουβάστωι βασιλικῶι θησαυρῶι. In a papyrus of 



the latter half of ii/A.p., edited by Comparetti in AZ¢/. Nicole, 
Ρ- 57 ff, we find * 2 βασιλικῷ ᾿Οξυρυγχείτου. The editor 
remarks (p. 67) that in the absence of the Strategus his func- 
tions were fulfilled by his deputy, the βασιλικὸς γραμματεύς. 
So P Oxy IX.) 12198 (iii/a.p.) “Am[(ova τὸν τοῦ 
TIpocwrre(rov βασιλικόν, ** A. the basilicogrammateus of the 
Prosopite nome ” (Ed.): the addressee, another Apion, held 
the same office in the Letopolite nome—cf. 1.2° βασιλικ(ῷ) 
yp(apparet). If we might apply the Egyptian analogy, we 
might assume that γραμματεύς should similarly be supplied 
in Jn 48; but the tts raises a difficulty. Tor the full title 
cf. Chrest. I. 224 (ini/B.c.), where a man registers his house 
πρὸς Καλλικράτην τὸν οἰκονόμον καὶ ᾿Ιμούθην τὸν βασιλικὸν 
γραμματέα, εἴς. In Chres?. I. 308, an ostracon of ii/B.c., 
a certain Psenchousis, apparently a clerk in the office of 
the royal οἰκονόμος, pays 2000 dr. into the bank ἀπὸ τιμῆς 
ὀθονίων βασιλικῶν tod Aa (ἔτους) : linen was ἃ royal 
monopoly. There was in the imperial period a B. τραπεζίτης, 
as at Heptacomia in P Giss I. 50}: 15 (A.p. 118-9). We 
need not illustrate such a word more fully, but we might 
quote Sy// 8465: (B.c. 197-6) ἐπὶ τοῖσδε ἀπέδοτο Aapéas 
6 παρὰ τοῦ βασιλέως ᾿Αττάλου ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν ἔργων τῶν 
βασιλικῶν ᾿Αρτεμιδώραν τὰν βασιλικὰν παιδίσκαν τῶι 
᾿Απόλλωνι τῶι ΤΠυθίωι for freedom. On νόμος βασιλικός 
in Jas 25 Deissmann refers to a heading probably added in 
the time of Trajan'to an inscription at Pergamum containing 
the law of astynomy—rdv βασιλικὸν νόμον ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων 
ἀνέθηκεν, “he set up the royal law out of his own means.” 
This designation of the law as ‘‘royal,”” because made by 
one of the kings of Pergamum, points, he thinks, to a 
similar reference in the first place to the ovzgz of the law 
in the James passage (see ZAZ, p. 367, n.$). Grimm notes 
that the phrase is applied to τὸ ὀρθόν in Plato. 


This characteristic Kow7 form was borrowed by Attic from 
B.C. 307 down: see Meisterhans Gy. p. 1or, and cf. Thumb 
Dial. p. 380. The suffix was probably of Macedonian 
origin, and therefore not Greek at all (Brugmann-Thumb 
Gr. p. 214, where references are given to literature on the 
subject : add Glaser, De rutione, p. 18). It was the regular 
term for the wife of the ruling sovereign: see, 6. g- P Petr 
I. 1983 (B.C. 225) βασιλέα Πτολεμαῖον. . . καὶ βασίλισσαν 
Βερενίκην, P Eleph 2310(B.c. 223) ὀμνύῳ βασιλέα ΤἸΤτολεμαῖον 
... καὶ βασίλισσαν Βερενίκην. P Par 38! (B.C. 160) βασιλεῖ 
Πτολεμαίῳ καὶ βασιλίσσῃ [Κλεοπάτρᾳ τῇ ἀδελφῇ. and 
P Grenf II. 152 (B.c. 139). In .Sy/Z we find it in 183° 
(end of iv/B.c.) of the wife of Demetrius Poliorcetes, and 
in five inscrr. of iii/B-c. In OG/S 351 (8.0. 285-47) 
βασίλισσαν Pidwrépay, the title is given to the unmarried 
sister of King Ptolemy II, a proof, according to Wilcken 
(Archiv ii. p. 541), that amongst the Ptolemies the title was 
from the beginning purely titular. A similar inscription from 
Schedia (east of Alexandria), belonging to the reign of 
Ptolemy III., has the further interest that it contains the 
earliest known reference to a Jewish proseucha in Upper 
Egypt—t]mép βασιλέως Πτολεμαίου καὶ βασιλίσσης Bepe- 
νίκης ἀδελφῆς καὶ γυναικὸς καὶ τῶν τέκνων τὴν προσευχὴν 
οἱ Ιουδαῖοι : see Archiv ii. p. 541 with Wilcken’s note. It 
should be noted, however, that προσευχήν here may simply 
= ‘‘ prayer,” answering to the heathen τὸ προσκύνημα 



The word is common in the inscriptions for the ‘base ἢ 
of a statue, e.g. OG/S 7058 (ii/A.p.) τὸν ἀνδριάντα σὺν 
τῆι βάσει ἀνέθηκε, A/agn 02}. 17 τὸ] δὲ ψήφισμα τόδε 
ἀναγραφῆναι εἰς τὴμ βάσιν τῆς εἰκόνος THs’ Α[πο]λλοφάνου, 
See also P Lond 755 verso® (iv/a.p.) (= III. p- 222) β]άσις 
kal κεφαλίδες, ““base mouldings and capitals” of pillars, P 
Grenf I. 141° (B.C. 150. or 139) βάσιν λυχνί(ου), Sy// 540193 
(B.C, 175-1) ἐργᾶται (sc. a builder contracting for a temple) 
τῶν λίθων πάντων τὰς βάσεις ὀρθάς, ἀστραβεῖς, ἀρραγεῖς 
κτλ, 7/18! τῶν λίθων πάντων τοὺς ἁρμοὺς καί τ[ὰς βά]σεις, 
588787 (c. B.C. 180) λαμπὰς χαλκῆ ἐπὶ βάσεως, etc. The 
medical use of B. = ‘‘ foot” in Ac 37 is illustrated by Hobart, 
Medical Language of St Luke, p. 34f. It may have this 
meaning in the great magical papyrus, P Lond 121518 
(ili/A.D.) (=I. p. 101) παρέστω cor τοῖς δυσὶ βάσεσιν 
σκιαθι. Its geometrical meaning, as the ‘‘base” of a 
triangle, appears with fragmentary context in P Brit Mus 
372° (ii/A.p.), printed in P Tebt IT. Ῥ- 339ff., a land 



The popular belief in the power of the evil eye (cf. 
Deut 28°, Sir 14% 8), underlying the Pauline metaphor 
in Gal 33, is well illustrated by the common formulas in 
closing greetings, e.g. P Oxy II. 29212 (c. a.p. 25) 
(= Selections, p. 38) mpd δὲ πάντων ὑγιάνειν (= -alverv) 
σε εὔχ[ο]μαι ἀβασκάντως τὰ ἄριστα πράττων, ‘but above 
all I pray that you may be in health unharmed by the evil 

Cf. the opening salutation in BGU ΠῚ. 
811% (between a.p. 98 and 103) πρὼ (7. ε. πρὸ) μὲν πάντων 
ἀναγκαῖον δι᾽ ἐπιστολῆς] σε ἀσπάσεσθαι καὶ τὰ ἀβάσκαντα 
[δ]οῦ[ν]αι. For the subst. βασκανία (as Wisd 412) cf. the 
new compound προβασκανία in the vi/A.p. Christian amulet 
edited by Wilcken Archiv 1. p- 431 ff. (= Selections, 
Ρ- 132ff)—7™ ὅπως διώξῃς ἀπ᾽ ἐμοῦ τοῦ δούλου cov τὸν 
δαίμονα προβασκανίας, “that thou mayst drive from me 
thy servant the demon of witchcraft.” The adj. βάσκανος 
is found in Vettius Valens, pp. 22, 358°, and in Jos PE i. 2231 
(Minns, p. 644) ὑπὸ τοῦ βασκάνου δαίμονος ἀφῃρέθη. The 
relation of the word to the certainly identical Lat. Sascinum 
is accounted for by the consideration that a word of magic 
was likely to be borrowed by Greek from Thracian or 
Illyrian, where original 64 (Lat. /) passed into ὁ : see Walde 
Lat. etym. Worterbuch, s.v. 


The meaning //¢ occurs in P Ryl 11. 815 (c. a.p. 104), 
where the θύραι of sluices (apparently) ἐφ᾽] ὅσον οἱ 
κατασπορεῖς ἤθελον ἐβαστάχθησαν, ‘as much as the in- 
spectors of sowing wished” (Edd.). Carry, in the figurative 
sense = endure, appears in a formula about taxation, as 
P Brem ® (a.p. 117) (= Chres¢. 1. p- 415) ἐπεὶ οὖν αὗται οὐ 
βαστάζουσι τοσοῦτο τέλεσμα : so in P Ryl II. 968 and the 
other contemporary papers named in the introduction there. 
Note here Epict. i. 3. 2 οὐδείς σου τὴν ὀφρὺν βαστάσει, 
“ΜΠ endure your cheek” (!) (Hort says this is *‘ the only 



known passage at all approaching” Rev 2%.) Nearer the 
literal sense, and illustrating distantly Ac 9", is P Oxy X. 
1242117, an interesting document of early iii/A.p., where 
Trajan is said to have granted an audience to rival Greek 
and Jewish emissaries from Alexandria, ἕκαστοι βαστάζοντες 
τοὺς ἰδίους θεούς. To the same heading may be referred 
its use in Gal 617, for which Deissmann (AS, p. 352 ff.) 
refers to a bilingual (Memotic and Greek) papyrus of 
iii/A.D. now in the Leiden Museum. The papyrus con- 
tains a spell in which the words occur βαστάζω τὴν 
ταφὴν τοῦ ᾿Οσίρεως . . . ἐάν μοι ὁ δεῖνα κόπους παράσχῃ, 
προσ(τ)ρέψω αὐτὴν αὐτῷ, “1 carry the corpse of Osiris. . . 
should so-and-so trouble me, I shall use it against him.” 
Just, that is, as the βαστάζειν of a particular amulet 
associated with the god acts as a charm against the 
κόπους παρέχειν of an adversary, so the Apostle finds 
himself protected against similar attacks by ‘‘ bearing ” the 
στίγματα Ἰησοῦ. From carvy is developed carry away, 
which is the commonest meaning. Thus Cagnat IV. 446, an 
inscr. of Roman age, where the Pergamene demos honour 
C. Julius Maximus σημείων ἀβαστάκτωι, “ornatus insigni 
“quod tolli non poterat,’ fortasse purpura perpetua” (Ed.). 
So very often in papyri. P Fay 1225 (c. a.p. 100) ἐά[σ]ας 
αὐτὸν βαστάξαι ἀρτάβας εἴκοσι ὀκτώ, ‘allowing him to 
carry off 28 artabae.” Ρ Ryl II. 168! (a.p. 120) βαστάξεις 
ἐκ τῆς κοινῆς ἅλωι πάντα, ‘you shall carry it all from the 
common threshing-floor” (Edd.): cf. P Thead 5% (,.p. 
338). Similarly P Oxy IIT. 507° (a.p. 169) ὅνπερ χόρτον 
οὐκ ἐξέσται μοι βαστάξαι οὐδὲ πωλεῖν οὐδὲ ὑποτίθεσθαι, ‘it 
shall not be lawful for me to remove or sell or pledge this 
hay ” (Edd.), 74. 5224 (ii/A.p.) φορέτρο(υ) (πυροῦ) (ἀρταβῶν) 
poa βασταχθίεισῶν), ‘carriage of 171 artabae of wheat 
transported” (Edd.). With personal object, P Amh II. 
77° (A.D. 139) ἀμφότεροι βίᾳ βασίτ]άξαντές pe εἰσήνεγκαν 
els τὸ λογ[ιἸστήριον τοῦ ἐπιτρόπου τῶν οὐσιῶν, “taking me 
up by force they together carried me to the counting-house 
of the superintendent of the domains” (Edd.). This is of 
course capable of meaning, in contrast to the use named 
later, a perfectly legitimate action: cf. P Iand 91° (ii/a.p.) 
σ]ὺ οὖν βάσταξε (sc.-at) λυπὸν ὃ ἂν ervo[y ἢ] τῆς κρίσεως, 
“δῖα autem tolle porro, quaecumque causa est iudicii” (Ed.). 
The firmly established vernacular use determines the meaning 
of Mt 311 as ‘* whose sandals I am not worthy to éake of”: 
the phrase is an excellent example of Mt’s skilful abbrevia- 
tion, for one word fully expresses all that Mk 17 tells us in 
four. Citations multiply for the meaning ‘